Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Weise Toys 1049 EICHER WOTAN I (3018) (1968 - 1972),
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK86 - 1938 Cadillac 60 Special - Green Unboxed,.Mercedes Sprinter GLS 1 43 Model 1098 UNIVERSAL HOBBIES,.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 Turbo Cabrio 1987 Ivory Nr. 187661 in OVP,.Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 1972 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.WESTERN MODELS 1986 CHEVROLET CORVETTE JIM LINK SPECIAL 1 43 SCALE SERIAL,.Diecast Airplane Model SU35 Su-35 08 1 48 + GIFT ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark Models 1 43 Scale - S0169 Corvette C5-R Luc Alphand Adventures LM 2007,.Lancia Flavia Sport Zagato - silver - NEO Scale Models - 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.EMEK 89722 MAN TGS LX Kofferhaengerzug 1 25,.SSM 1 43 T-100 Raupenschlepper,.1 43 NEO Model Audi 200 Quattro 20V bluee Grey Metallic 1990, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Regular Wheels LESNEY MATCHBOX 45 FORD CORSAIR CAR & BOAT MINT IN BOX MIB,.Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast CP99116 - Royal Mail 3 Piece Gift Set,.WIKING Magirus SIRIUS Pritsche mit Plane blue siehe Fotos,.Dinky 30J Austin Wagon Dark bluee - Near Mint Vintage Original Model 1950s Rare,.

CITROEN DS3 WRC Winner Rallye du MEXIQUE 2011 1 18,.HOT WHEELS 2 Park N Plates CAMARO Z28 Pink Tag Tampo & Tag VARIATIONS RARE,,.Mint Opened Mini Car Body Only Jl 1 64 1971 Plymouth Gtx,.Dinky Toys B.M.W 2000 Tilux Box & inner plinth Only,.Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet 1987 Ivory NOREV - NO 187661 - Echelle 1 18,.

Pagani Huayra 2012 Green Met Spark 1 43 S3563 Model,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2014 - 181651,.Spark Model Porsche 935 B. Garretson 1 43 S4163,.RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Tour de Corse 1972 Marquet Bic Trofeu 1 43,Norev 1 18 Mercedes Benz B 180 Diecast Model Car White 183558,.Spark 1 43 Ford Fiesta WRC th Monte Carlo 2015 S4516,.

Matchbox 2005 Superfast SET OF ( 6 ) NEW IN BOX LIMITED EDITION,.Schuco MB Unimog U1600 black (07723) - 1 32,.Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 Yellow 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Corgi Toys 226 Morris Mini Minor pale bluee with lemon interior,.

WSI 03-1146 1 50 SCALE IVECO STRALIS CAB UNIT - WHITE,. We agree in part.

Renault Alpine A110 - Premiere Edition 2017, black, 1 18 - NOREV,.DM 85280 CAT Construction Vehicle Car Model 320D L Hydraulic Excavator w Hammer,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Daihatsu Mira Walk Through Van 1990 White SPARK 1 43 SJ042 Model,.MERCEDES E 350 CDI CLASS BORDEAUX 2009 MAISTO 1 18 1 18 W212 LIMOUSINE DARK RED,.MAJORETTE - KOOL KROMES - FERRARI F40 1 64 DIECAST YELLOW CHROME IN BOX,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 Norev Renault Clio Williams 1993 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.HOT WHEELS 1 43 - L8784 2008 CONSTRUCTORS F1 F2008 RAIKKONEN MASSA,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NOREV - 1 18 - BMW M535I (E28) - 1986 - 183261,; 1 43 Solido 1980`s Renault Alpine A110 1600 Metal Kit with 3 decal versions,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

REPLICARS 103 FIAT DINO SPIDER - RED 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION - 1,.Hot Wheels RLC Halloween Dairy Delivery Collectors 2003,Wiking 773 19 Amazone seeder EDX 6000-tc 077319 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.MINICHAMPS BMW 7 SERIES - METALLIC BURGUNDY RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.

Sun Star Opel Ascona 400 1981 1 18 v Clat Sevelinge Tour de France Auto ,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Jada Toys 1 24 Street Low 1939 CHEVY MASTER DELUXE Classic Chevrolet NEW,.1 43 Mini Champs Bugatti Eb110,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Alfa Romeo 937 GT 3.2 V6 24V 2003 gold mt 1 43 Minichamps-GTV,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Range Rover Evoque 1 18 KYOSHO KSC09549BK,; First Gear Peterbilt 351 West Coast Fast Freight 1 64 Fallen Flag Series 60-0491,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Kyosho Original 1 43 Lexus LC 500 h Yellow Finished product,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Märklin 18103-02 Ford Capri 1 43 gold blue grey-NEU OVP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Hotwheels La Storia F1 Ferrari F2003 M. Schumacher 2003 1 43 SF14 03,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

ALTAYA 1 18 ALPINE-RENAULT A110 1800 - G. LARROUSSE - 1975 NEUF EN BOITE,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 50 Scale Diecast Masters International HX620 Cab Tridem Tractor Cab Model Only,.1 24 proportion Ford F-350 Super Duty plastic assembly model,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1939 Talbot No. 8 LM, P. De Massa - J-N Mahe Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Audi Quattro gold 1981 Coupe 1 18 Sun Star Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiu..,.

Modellautokatalog SIKU Modellautos Modelle Autos Katalog Preisliste Buch Book,.Norev 181650 Citroen C4 Cactus yellow 2014 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto NEU °,.CORGI OM 46510A THE WITCHWAY BUS,.Edsel Citation Congreenible 1958 Light Green Met.1 43 Spark S2961 Modellino,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Hot Wheels HWW1776 FERRARI 430 GT3 N.57 WINNER ITALIAN GT3 2009 1 43,.

Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1429 - Lola B07 17-Judd Charouz Racing Stm LM 2008,.FORD Sierra Cosworth RS Rallycross 1992 Skogstad Camel 1 100 Scala43 1 43,.Volkswagen Emma'S Beetle 1967 Once Upon A Time Yellow GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN12993,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Auto Art Gateway 60039 MERCEDES BENK CLK DTM 2000 1 43 n.24,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Minichamps - Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS Bj. 2017 Weissach Lavaorange 1 43 NEU,.AF877 HM HOBBY MASTER M-10 773rd TANK DESTROYER BELGIUM 1945 1 72 HG3406 WWII,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.429 ( SMALL ) TRAILER GREEN VERSION VN MIB,.Schuco Modellauto Neu Merc.-Maybach G650, blue 1 43 - 450900400,.Corgi Superman Van Boxed 435 Dc Comics Batman Wonder Woman justice league,.

Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ford 20M TS - Politoys 519 1 43 34481,.Mebetoys Serie Europa 1 43 ref A94 Renault R5 Cross (green),. The PartridgeNeo Maserati Quattroporte IV 1994 1 43 45172,.Matchbox Lesney American Ford Station Wagon 31A 1957-59 Restored Absolute Mint,.1 43 Neo Ford Taunus P6 Turnier hellblue 44340,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Best Model BT9672 FERRARI 312 P SPYDER N.7 DNF 1000 KM NURBURGRING 1969 C.AMON-P, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Corgi 75605 'Nigel Rice' Limited Edition Renault curtainside,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 43 MINICHAMPS 403 751202 Alfa Romeo 33TT 12 1000km Monza 1975 Winner BBR Spark,.Renault 5 Turbo 1 1981 bluee 1 18 Model IXO MODEL,PartridgeLuxury Collectibles 1 43 - Cadillac SRX Credver 2011 bluee,.Vector 1 43 1941 Russian GAZ 61-73 4x4 Handmade Metal Model Car,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Citroen Gs 1971 Erable Beige 1 18 Norev 181623 Grande Series, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AUTO WORLD ERTL 1967 SHELBY GT500 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1 18 AMM993,; ASSISTANCE RALLYE RENAULT ESTAFETTE + R5 TURBO N°7 1 43,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Vintage Nylint Red Pressed Steel Hough Payloader Front End Loader Tractor Toy, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MECCANO d PETROL TANK WAGON RESTORED NM , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMatchbox Lesney 1909 Thomas Flyabout Y-12,.

New Ferrari 348 TB Red 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels X5532,.Dinky Dublo 064 Austin Lorry - Mint in Mint Box, Clarke's negligent act.Sun Star 1 18 Ford Classic Collectibles 1931 Ford Model A Roadster Green SS6123,.Preciosa miniatura 1 43 Mercedes 350 SL con Lancha. Joal 151. Made in Spain.,.CHRONO 1 18 - H1040 TRIUMPH SPITFIRE OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1970 (WHITE),.

55 Chevy Bel Air Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Professional Resto-Conversion Pink,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AJ745 DINKY TOYS GB 1 43 FERRARI RACING CAR Ref 242 BON ETAT,PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP NURBURGRING 2017 SPARK SG328 1 43,. In Noska,Eligor ELI101489 HOTCHKISS PL20 4x4 CCF LE PERREON 1 43 Modellino,.VW Kafer 1200 Hebmuller Cabriolet 1 18 KK Scale KK180111,.Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RS 1 43 bluee,.007 James Bond Car Collection Ford Dodge Range Rover Bondola X 5 LARGE SETS, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Johnny Lightning Single Drag Strip with Timer,.Ertl 1 18 Scale American Muscle Grease The Movie 1932 Ford Roadster NIB,.Citroen Break 21 1970 Bordeaux 1 18 - 181592 NOREV,.Vintage diecast vehicles job lot x 43,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hot Wheels Drag Race Set Includes 2 Cars New in Box YR. 1996 Mattel Inc. Dayton,HERPA 3x ALFRED TALKE 1 87 TOP&OVP,.Lamborghini Miura S 1969 gold Lamborghini Museum Minichamps 1 43 436103000 Model,.ASTON MARTIN DB9 DB 9 2003 Tgold Red Metallic 1 43 Minichamps 400137324 NEW,.BMW Serie M535i E28 Anno di Costruzione 1986 grey Metallizzato 1 18,.BROOKLIN BRK 17X 1952 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER INDIANAPOLIS PACE CAR 1 43,.Ford Fire Engine 1938 1 24 Model YAT MING,.Jaguar F-Type Svr Adw Caldera Red TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 43 TSM430147 Model,. The parties 1965 Shelby Cobra Red 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32951,.

Gearbox 1 12 Scale Diecast 17902 White 1958 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible White,.Spark 1 43 Lotus Evora Hybrid 414E 2010 S2207,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Spark Model S5410 MATRA MS5 J.SURTEES 1966 N.24 GRAND PRIX DE REIMS F2 1 43 Mode,; PANHARD 24CT blue Tolede & black 1 18 24 CT, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Road Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 92608 1971 Jaguar E-Type Roadster Green,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, TEKNO DENMARK-NO-415-FORD TAUNUS TRANSIT w CHRISTGAU KAFFE DECALS-1960's.,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)MINICHAMPS SIMTEK FORD S951 - MTV TENORAS - No 12 VERSTAPPEN 1 43 - EXCELLENT IB,.TSM Model 1 43 2017 HONDA NSX Resin car model,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11KE15 - 1953 Studebaker Commander Starliner - Red,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Corgi 221 Chevrolet Impala New York Taxi Cab 1 43,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Magirus 290 D grey red Pritsche - 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs NEW,.Minichamps 431 027001 BMW 7 Series 2008 FO2 in Metallic bluee 1 43rd Scale,.2010 Bentley Continental Supersport Coupe whiteo 1 18 Welly 18038,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 ARTISAN COLLECTION - LOST TV SERIES 1971 VW TYPE 2 BUS 19011,.Auto World Ford Ford Mustang GT 2016 Yellow 1 18,. The ScottsdaleNorev NV187593 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 1994 IRISblueE METALLIC 1 43 Modellino,1 43 Sowjetischen GAZ-51 board. UdSSR, USSR,.Mercedes-Benz 500 K (W29) Roadster Spezial 1935, red, Franklin Mint 1 24,. Id.,Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK41 004 - 1959 Chrysler Congreenible 300E Top Up 1 Of 1000,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark S4463 1 43 PORSCHE 901 PredOTYPE 1963 YELLOW,; BARLUX 73055 FIAT CAMPAGNOLA POMPIERI VIGLI DEL FUOCO - FIRE BRIGADE 1 25 - NMIB,Spark Model S5340 LOTUS 16 GRAHAM HILL 1958 N.16 14th BRITISH GP 1 43 Modellino,.Spark Model S5904 VENTURI S.SARRAZIN 2016 N.4 Rd1 HONG KONG FORMULA E 1 43 Model,. The Scottsdale1 43 Spark Jaguar XXJ220 C Car Hours of LeMans S0765..,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Spark 1 43 Scale - S0056 Dome S101-Judd LM 2004,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Lansdowne Models LDM.26 Jowett Javelin Deluxe 1953 Athena Grey 1 43 Box Brooklin,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, BROOKLIN BRK 34a 1954 NASH AMBASSADOR TWO TONE LE MANS COUPE 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 6x Triple9 1 24 Vitrine silver Showcase Klarsicht Box - Mercedes BMW VW - Neu,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mira 1 18 Scale diecast 26OCT2017B Ferrari 348 Red Model Car,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Solido Citroen 2CV Ente - in edler Blechbox, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CORGI 1 50 SCALE HERITAGE EX70514 - RENAULT 1000KG - RENAULT SERVICE, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, McLAREN MP4 15 GP BELGIO 2000 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHOT WHEELS Fast & Furious Nissan GRAN TURISMO CARGO CARRIER LOT OF 36,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MAZ 200V semitrailer NAMI 790 green-grey SSM 7020 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 43 SPARK MATRA SIMCA MS 670B 1973 LE MANS ,3RD,JABOUILLE JAUSSAUD,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Moko Lesney Matchbox 1-75 Series 11 Taylor Jumbo Crane,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Renault 16 1969 Beige Grey Metallic 1 18 - 185133 NOREV,CITROEN CX PRESTGE blue KIT MONTE HECO MODELES 1 43,.ALFA ROMEO 1500 TARGA FLORIO 1960 FIORDELISI JOLLY MODEL JL6015,.1 43 Spark Roof Rk Spyder,. The Huyghe1 24 Franklin Mint Nassau bluee 1999 Corvette B11ZD51 Chevrolet,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMercedes SLR McLaren - SLR Trophy 1 43 SPARK PD04312001,.

French Dinky 60a Mystere IV A M Dassault Fighter Jet,.Wiking 77349 1 32 Fendt 1050 Vario groen nieuw in doos,.

Majorette 3041_Scania LT140 _Petrol Tanker_ BP 1 60,.Mercedes Benz SSK Bburago Diamonds 3009 1 18 scale,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Spark Model SA151 PORSCHE 911 GT3 N.7 CHAMPION CARRERA CUP ASIA 2017 C.VAN D.DRI,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSchuco 2772 OPEL COMMODORE B GS E N. 28 1 43 Modellino,.1955 BelAir Chevrolet Exact Detailed Replica - Solid Metal Design,.

For example, in Partridge,RENAULT 5 Maxi Turbo Rallye 1986 Armor Thomasse budget labbe Solido N 18,. In Jorgensen, supra,1973 Cadillac Eldorado congreenible Official Indy 500 Pace car ansen loose,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Norev 184880 Peugeot 309 GTI Red 1987 Scale 1 18 MODEL CAR NEW °,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Vintage Matchbox Lesney Moko No. 18 - Caterpillar Bulldozer - Boxed - VERY RARE,. That is the same situation in this case.Corgi James Bond 04201 Aston Martin and Oddjob Figure set with Corgi (myref ),. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi Priestman Shovel - orange Yellow (Early Box) - B B,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Porsche 916 black 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 400066060,.RENAULT RS 01 2014 TEST VERSION black 1 18 NOREV 185136 voiture miniature collect,.Ferrari 488 GTB Bburago 70th Anniversary Model The Schumacher Car Vehicle Toy,.

FINEWORK Chgold Q size Aston Martin One-77 HG Resin Kit,.