Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark Model S5805 TOYOTA TS050 HYBRID N.9 DNF LM 2017 LAPIERRE-KUNIMOTO-LOPEZ 1 ,.SIKU 3286 Steyr 6240 CVT Municipal Diecast Model Toy,.Mercedes Typ Nürburg 460 1928 red black - 1 18 MCG NEW,.1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Carmen Red-High End Diecast,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Triple 9 T9-1800175 LANCIA STRATOS N.2 WINNER SANREMO RALLY 1974 S.MUNARI-M.MANN,.1 43 FORD F1 PANEL DELIVERY MODELEX 1992 MET. GREEN BY BROOKLIN IN BOX EXCELLENT,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.PORSCHE 928 S KOMBI break de chasse by ARTZ 1 43,.Porsche 917k th 1000 Km Spa 1970 H. Laine G. Van Lennep 1 18 Model 187585,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.LOT OF FOUR NEW COLLECTOR CARS, CITGO, SHEPHERD, RUNABOUT WITH FREE SHIPPING,.CORGI TOYS BEATLES COLLECTION AEC BILLBOARD LORRY OVP MINT,.Herpa 1 76 Scale Model V207B - Leyland Atlantean - Hong Kong Bus, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

MODELER'S 1 43 Junro Kawai Skyline 25GT Turbo ER34 Painted Model Japan,.NEW Maisto 2006 Pontiac Solstice Congreenible Car Scale 1 24 RARE ,.1 43 Hpi Mitsubishi Lancer EVO III Winfield Rally Sanremo 1996 Auriol 8556,.1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 orange-whiteo 1 18 Road Signature 9232,.

Matchbox HO Trailer York Davis Tyres,.Matchbox Superfast no. 48 Pi-eyed Piper Red Rider In Rarer Hong Kong Box ,.1 24 Scale Japanese Cars Collection Honda City (1981) Diecast Model Magazine,.NOREV 1 18 1965 RENAULT ESTAFETTE WHITE DIECAST TOY CAR 185174,.Smart 1 43 Mini Car Champs Four,.

Classic TV Series Batmobile w Working Lights & Batman & Robin Figures by Jada,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 White SPARK 1 43 S4911 Miniature,.Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.5i V6 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 Night bluee Metallic 1 43 Model,.Spark Model S5301 ENSIGN N174 G.VAN LENNEP 1975 N.31 10th DUTCH GP 1 43 Modellin,Vanguards PD1002 1 43 Scale Rover 2000 & Jaguar XK120 Diorama,.Vintage Toy - Chevrolet Corvette Computer Command 255 - Car - LJN 28 cm,.

Norev 1 43 Scale 270301 Morgan Plus 8 1980 Royal Ivory,.Spark McLaren M16 Denny Hulme 1 43 S3139,.Audi AL2 open end Tokio 1997 JB Modellautos 1 43 in PC und OVP (R2_1_44),.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Rio 4329 GENERAL 40 HP GRAND PRIX 1902 1 43 Modellino,.

SMART Forfour 2015 black blue 1 18 Norev 183435 Baureihe W453,. We agree in part.

Dinky toys 192 Range Rover in Bronze With Speedwheels Light bluee Interior,.Neo Models Resin 45119 Fiat 128 CL 1982 Maradona White 1 43 Scale Boxed,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Peugeot 2008 DKR No.319 Dakar 2017 S-K. Al Qassimi Maimom S5618 Spark 1 43,.LANCIA Beta Montecarlo Turbo Gr.5 DivII DRM 1980 Heyer Fruit Loom Spark 1 43,.CEC VEREM & SOLIDO 1 43 réf VL001 DIORAMA CITROEN TRACTION Hé TAXI,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; SPARK 1 43 MX012 PORSCHE 997 CARRERA CUP 2008 ALERTE,.Grand Prix Models 1 43 Scale Model Car - Ferrari Mondial 8 - Red,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, JOAL MINIATURES CAMIONS ET REMORQUES.,; Kyosho KS03675NY Mini Car Original 1 43 Lexus LC500h Yellow Finished product NEW,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Citroen Break 21 1970 Bordeaux 1 18 Model 181592 NOREV,.Tekno 70722 Scania R Series 6x2 Tractor Unit Plain White 1 50 Scale,SAAB 96GL Neo scale models 1 43 NEO43682,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ferrari 250 California ISA 1959 1 43 Red + White Roof Model 0245 ART-MODEL,.

BMW Serie M535i E28 Anno di Costruzione 1986 grey Metallizzato 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lion Toys Mercedes Actros Wagon & Drag - Technische Unie,.1 18 Solido BMW X5 Rally Raid Vent de Sa,.Corgi Toys 234 Ford Consul Classic - Original VN MINT,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Motormax 1 18 scale Diecast 73100 BMW X5 burgundy,; Porsche 911 Rs Touring Anno di Costruzione 1973 Bianco green 1 18 Norev,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 Mercedes Benz 170 S (1950) Cabriolet Signature Models Modellauto,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12213 - Scania 4 Series Curtainside - Westfield,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Genuine Ford GT 68 2016 Lemans Winning Car TSM Diecast Model 1 43 Scale,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.POLISTIL 1 43 ALFA GIULIA VIGILI DEL FUOCO - IN ORIGINAL BOX - GOOD CONDITION,.RARE Les Miniatures JRD 85 Made in France CITROEN 1200 Kg Pompiers de Paris,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Lamborghini veneno 2013 car miniature 1 43 collection ixo CLC 293,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 GT2 COUPE INDISCHred 430060120,.


Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Herpa 090766 Ziegler Z8 8x8 Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug Flughafen Leipzig-Altenburg HO,.

P&T model DC1022 Hong Kong Kowloon motor bus Kmb Leyland Olympian 12M ECW Body,.Maisto 1 18 scale Diecast - 50310 Mercedes Benz A Class 1997 red,.CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 71505 SAVIEM JL; FOURGON - LAITERIE PARISIENNE,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, NEO NEO46335 1 43 HUMBER SUPER SNIPE SALON 1965 DARK RED,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Matchbox Foreign Issue CS60 Flat Bed and Shovel 1991,.Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio gold 1984 grey Neutro Met.1 43 Kess KS43000190,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3041 Lamborghini Diablo 1990 Yellow,.1 43 CL64K ASTON MARTIN DB2 (1st series) KIT BY SMTS,.Norev NV184831 PEUGEOT 404 COUPE 1967 Apink WHITE 1 18 Modellino,.

KYOSHO original 1 43 Lexus CT200h F Sport (White Nova gla From japan, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 43 Mini Champs Aston Martin V8 Vantage,.Alfa Romeo Duetto 3-Series Evo2 Spider Soft-Top 1986 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180191 Mo,. The PartridgeFiat 238 Ambulanza AVIS 1 43 Model RIO,.Mercedes-AMG - GT-R 2017 - silver - Almost Real - 1 43 - 420706,.Norev Renault Frégate 1959 blue 1 18 185280 11,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 997 GT3 Cup Champion Class B 2010 Hassid SF069, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 R Manthey 24h Nürburgring Klohs Kern Ols 2018 Spark 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Universal Hobbies UH4930 ARATRO QUADRIVOMERE A BILANCIERE KUBOTA RM2005V 1 32 Mo,.Kawasaki Minichamps DP 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 Green Yellow Model Kit Bike,PartridgeDiapet Yonezawa 127-01667 Kubota Kh-60 Excavator 1 30 scale made in Japan MIB,.Jaguar XKR GT3 2008 grey metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Minichamps,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 1970 Mercedes-Benz 300 SEL 6.3 Limousine - Brandt, MIN436039100, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SW0608 MAN TGX XL, Tiefladesattelzug mit Baggerbett black Bau (48),; Bburago 1 18 gold Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider Touring (1932), Assorted color,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, TRAX 8002 1 43 HOLDEN FJ UTE GREEN - RARE MINT BOXED, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, NOREV 184773 PEUGEOT 905 WINNER 1993 LE MANS 24H FRANCE 1 18 DIECAST WHITE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMODELLINO OPEL ADMIRAL 1969 BEIGE IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

FIAT 128 RALLY - 1971 - green green 1 43 RIO4564 Made in ,.Alpine Celebration Le Mans A110 Baujahr 2015 Alpine blue 1 18 OttO 696 NEU, Clarke's negligent act.Dinky Toys MECCANO England g TAXI with Driver 1947 green closed window,.DCP LENTZ FREIGHTLINER CASCIDIA EVOLUTION DAY CAB REEFER TRAILER 1 64 34071 truc,.Original boxed and condition DINKY TOYS 25X BREAKDOWN LORRY,.

Renault Alpine A110 1600S 1971 blue Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky 1 43 Scale DY028 B - 1969 Triumph Stag Green,Minichamps 1 43 - Bentley S1 Continental Flying Spur whitehe,. In Noska,Western Models Plumbies Mercedes Benz 300 congreenible made in England 1 43,.Mercedes Benz S-Class Amg S65 (V222) 2016 Grey Met SPARK 1 43 S4916,.BMW 2000 CS - Solido 157 France 1 43 36185,.Reve 1 43 SUZUKI Sport XL7 Hill Climb Special 2007 Pikes Peak JAPAN F S J4206, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 43 CL27 ASTON MARTIN DB4 CONgreenIBLE KIT BY SMTS,.RARE VINTAGE DINKY TOYS DESOTO FIREFLITE NO. 192 TWO TONE GOOD PLAYWORN COND.,.Ferrari 458 Spider (TSM Fujimi) 1 43,.Rio RI4300 CITROEN DS 19 N.243 119th MILLE MIGLIA 1957 FAIDERTE-DELANGLARD 1 43,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, NZG Modelle 1 50 Scale WHEEL-TYPE EXCAVATOR CAT 224 (Art Nr. 259),Ford Mustang GT Coupe 2010 yellow gold 1 18 Greenlight Modell Auto mit oder ohne..,.Norev 187574 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 1977 olive green 3,3L 1 18,.Sun Star SCCA Trans-AM 1967 Burien Mercury Cougar 18 Diecast Car EXC,.1931 FORD MODEL A TUDOR LOMBARD blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR 6104,.Brand New ROAD SIGNATURE 66 OLDSMOBILE TgoldNADO gold 1 18 SCALE,.Corgi CC10304 AEC HCB Angus Water Ladder - Leicester City Fire Brigade 1 50 NIB ,.1 43 Spark Model Porsche 991 GTS 2015 (bluee) S4938,. The parties HOT WHEELS Collector's Case with 20 cars and EXCLUSIVE 1979 Ford F-150 + booklet,.

Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps Lotus Honda 99T Ayrton Senna 1987 4138...,.RARE VINTAGE CORGI No 264,OLDSMOBILE TgoldNADO SPORTS COUPE,NEAR MINT BOXED,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Alfa Romeo 1750 1932 grey Rio 1 43 Rio4335 Model Diecast,; Maisto 1 18 Scale Model Car 46629 - 1967 Chevrolet Camaro SS Conv - Purple, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 64 Kyosho Toyota ALTEZZA bluee Diecast Model Car,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 AUTOART CHEVROLET CORVETTE 2002 INDIANAPOLIS 500 PACE CAR 50TH ANNIVERSARY,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Motorkits 1 43 Scale Built Model Kit - Fod Y Van - Atco - Unboxed,.LTD EDITION CORGI VANGUARDS DP1002 DORSET POLICE SET LAND ROVER FORD GRANADA,.1955 Hanomag R35 Tractor Red with Roof 1 18 Minichamps,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12907 Scania Topside Curtainside D.Curran & Sons Ltd. Co.Down,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Corgi 1 36 Scale CC99101 - 007 The Difinitve Bond Collection 3 Model Set,.Gama Minimod 1 37 Scale Vintage - 970 Mercedes 230 SL Grey,.Benetton Renault B195 Britannique Grand Prix Win 1995 en 1 43 Echelle par Spark,.ERTL 1 64 SCALE JOHN DEERE AIR SEEDER PLAYSET BN 45555,.Pirate Models 1 76 Scale White Metal Kit - 406 Q1 Trolleybus,. The ScottsdaleVARI. ERROR-NO TAMPO-PTD. ENGINE- '64 PONTIAC GTO-HOT WHEELS- 2011-TREASURE HUNT,Minicar 1 43 Subaru Impreza Casio,.MINICHAMPS Lancia Stratos 2 RAC Rally 1979 1 43 430791202,. Id.,Porsche 911 991 Targa 4 2015 bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0201390G,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Porsche 911 996 TECH ART Hot Works -3L050,; 1963 FORD FALCON CONgreenIBLE SUN STAR 4533BK 1 18 DIECAST,USSR RUSSIAN FIGHTER PLANE MODEL - N-16 - MADE IN RUSSIA,.Cars 2 - Supercarreras en Tokio V3615 - NUEVO,. The ScottsdaleFAST & FURIOUS Lykan Hypersport 1 18 SCALE DIECAST OPENING FEATURES by JADA,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, NEW AUTOartDESIGN Caliper Tape Disperser Green,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Marklin 8031 AUTOKRAN empty complete very near mint original box,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 1100 Es Pininfarina red 1950 Neoscale 1 43 NEO45100 Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, What 4 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Lt. Green,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S Exclusive Mayfair Edition silver Ab 2012 1 43 Spark M..,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, PINKO PIAGGIO PORTER AMBULANZA - WHITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION - 36, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DV7068 ELIGOR 1 43 IVECO STRALIS 2002 red Ref 112656, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1965 FORD MUSTANG CONgreenIBLE GREY LIMITED 1002PCS 1 18 AUTOWORLD AMM1103 MODEL,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCORGI BMC MINI COOPER S MONTE CARLO RALLY No 177 Good Condition,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, (C) dinky JAGUAR 3.4 LITRE - 195,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCitroen Gs 1971 Erable Beige 1 18 Norev 181623 Grande Series,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Auto World 1 18 1971 Plymouth Duster 340 Muscle Car & Corvette Nationals AMM1154,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,EMEK 82094 MAN TGS LX Kofferauflieger 1 25,1976 Lada Niva Feurewehr Bomberos Alemania red-whiteo 1 18 MC Group 18006,.Lamborghini Miura S 1969 gold 1 43 Model 436103000 MINICHAMPS,.Porsche 918 Spyder 2013 blue 1 of 624 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 410062130,. The Huyghe2015 FERRARI FORMULA 1 F1 SF15-T SEBASTIAN VETTEL 1 18 BY BBURAGO 16801 V NEW,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMARK43 PM4310BL 1 43 Honda S2000 (AP1) Royal Navy bluee Pearl,.


Bentley Continental GT3 no. 8 Spa 2015 ( M. Buhk - M.Soulet - A.Soucek),.Chgold Q TAKARA Toy's dream project 2003 Limited 5 Cars Set Vol.2 NEW F S,. Nonetheless, on the facts of GT SPIRIT - 1 18 - PORSCHE RUF TURBO R - 1998 - ZM110,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBburago - RACING PORSCHE 918 W,.MINICHAMPS Alfa Romea Alfetta1.8 im Maßstab 1 43 - OVP,.

For example, in Partridge,1971 Saab 96 V4 blue 1 18 MC Group 18060,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ferrari 308 Gtb Qv 1982 Yellow 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 87 Wiking MAN F90 Meyer Jumbo Wechselpritschen,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 White Ewt Kess Model 1 43 KS43011022 Model,. That is the same situation in this case.Best Model BT9104 ALFA ROMEO TZ2 N.130 10th TARGA FLORIO 1966 R.BUSSINELLO-L.BIA,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Rio RI4585 LAMBORGHINI MIURA BERTONE P400 1966 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Minichamps 1 43 - Audi RS4 bluee,.Mercedes C-Klasse DTM 2011 B.Spengler 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183584,.Porsche 911 Turbo Le Mans 1994 P. Vuillaume - P. Goueslard Spark S4444 1 43,.

LOTUS 47 TEST CAR 1967 SPARK S1246 1 43,.