Trofeu Trofeu Trofeu Renault Alpine A110 Monte Carlo Historique 2007 E. Comas 1 43 COF16 602998

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Trofeu Trofeu Trofeu Renault Alpine A110 Monte Carlo Historique 2007 E. Comas 1 43 COF16 602998
Spark 1 43 Scale S3012 - F1 HRT F1-10 Brazil GP 2010,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3005 BUGATTI TYPE 59 (1934) - blueE,.Renault 300 Kg 1953 'PARFUMS REVILLON' 1 18 Model NOREV,.Minichamps 1 43 scale 436 139424 Bentley R-type Continental 1955 green,.Hot Wheels LDC92138GR FORD FAIRLANE CROWN VICTORIA 1955 METALLIC GREEN 1 18 Mode,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.SOLIDO 1 18 8014 VOLKSWAGEN COCCINELLE OPEN BROWN,.Majorette 1 70 Nr. 216 Plymouth Fury Police Polizei hellbluemetallic Nr. 3,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark 1 43 Scale S3035 - F1 Lotus E20 Monaco GP 2012,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31638 Lamborghini Murcielago yellow,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps 410161006 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS F1 W07 HYBRID ROSBERG SINDELFING,.OLD RARE ORIGINAL NOREV RENAULT FREGATE ADMIRAL 1956 REF 11-2A GREEN 1 43,.MATCHBOX LESNEY YESTERYEAR Y1 1936 JAGUAR SS-100, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Norev MB 300 1955 grey 183578,.INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER 856XL MODEL TRACTOR REP101,.1 43 Spark Porsche 911 GT3 R 24h 2011 HARIBO NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Porsche 911 991-2 Carrera 4 Gts 2017 SPARK 1 43 S7621 Model,.

Spark Porsche 356B Super Hardtop Coupe 1 43 S4922,.Danbury Mint 1 24 1969 Chevrolet Corvette ZL-1 Coupe Daytona Yellow,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK41 004 - 1959 Chrysler Congreenible 300E Top Up 1 Of 1000,.Norev 183441 Sauber-Mercedes C9 - Winner 400 km Suzuka 1989 - Baldi Schle,.Altes SIKU V Serie V 204 OPEL-KADETT Siku Modellauto,.

1969 REDLINE HOT WHEELS RED BARON NEAR MINT ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Graphyland Kit Assembled 1 43 - VW Iltis Paris Dakar 1980,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Kapitän 1951 Sedan 2.5L I6 L Grey 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Gt3 Street orange 2012 Minichamps 1 43 437121399 Model,Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM15 - 1965 Rover P5 Mk II - Green,.CORGI TOYS PORSCHE 911 TARGA POLIZEI 1 43 CODE 3 UNIKAT,.

1 50 Scale Diecast Masters International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Cab Only,.Mercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP,.MARK43 1 43 MUGEN Civic Type R (FN2) Milano Red Resin Model PM4347MR,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Snap On Tools COLLECTABLE 1970 Dodge Charger R T 1 64 Scale Die cast VERY RARE,.

Rio 4356 FIAT 1100 YV TAXI DI BERNA 1955 1 43,. We agree in part.

VW-Käfer 1962 Limitierte Sonderserie - Faller 4369,.Spark 1 43 Alpine A210 n.52 10th Le Mans 1968 S4373,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.AUTOWORLD AMM1164 1 18 1958 CHEVROLET IMPALA SIERRA gold W WHITE TOP ,.CORGI 1 50 CC15201 MAN TGX CURTAINSIDE DYCE CARRIERS LTD ABERDEEN (D29),.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale - DGR001 Dennis Dragon 11m Bus - Hong Kong R970,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; DCP 34071 Lentz Freightliner Cascadia Evolution Day Cab Tractor & 53 Reefer 1 64,.1 18 Road Signature 92327 1962 VOLKSWAGEN MICROBUS Sliding Sunroof green RARITÄT,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144342 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,; Ferrari 312 P Coupe' Prova 1969 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 18 Solido Citroen DS19,.ERT7465 by ERTL MERCEDES BENZ 190 SL COUPE 1 18,PORSCHE GT3 997 CUP WINNER CLASS PAUL RICARD 2016 LIM. SPARK SF112 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Herpa, Mercedes-Benz Actros Bigspace Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Henglein ,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.DINKY TOYS FRANCE No.559 FORD TAUNUS 17M COLOUR BROWN METALLIC SCALE 1 43,.Burago 1 18th Red Ferrari 488 70 anniversary edition sports Car Vehicle Model,.RENAULT ALPINE GT4 2+2 PARADCAR 072BB 1 43 résine ancien boitage,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Signature Models 1 43 Scale PM43700 - Mercedes Benz 770 Tourenwagen - bluee,; Matchbox - Moko 69 Commer 'Nestles' Van Boxed,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 Spark Morgan Aero 8 Supersport GT3 2010 S0373,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Club Bialbero 003EDL F. MEXICO gold 1 43 ALFA CLUB,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Minichamps 1 43 - Bentley S1 Continental Flying Spur whitehe,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Spark Model S5261 BRABHAM BT11 B.ANDERSON 1967 N.17 DNF FRENCH GP 1 43 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - C10 BMW M3 E30 DTM Warsteiner Hayne,.BMW M2 Coupe 2016 Alpine White 1 43 Minichamps 410026104 New,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.NV187593 by NOREV PORSCHE 911 1994 1 18,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Metallmodell -18025- Versuchswagen V3 Predotyp limitiert,.

Wiking , Brekina 1 87 LKW 25x LKW Transporter Hänger überwieg.Wiking (68304),.Hot Wheels Lotus Lot of 20 cars. Project, mystery, Evora, & Esprit. Toys R Us ,.R&L Diecast Corgi bluees Bredhers bluees Mobile & Figures CC06001 Dodge Monaco,.Porsche 911 2.7 Carrera Rs Touring 1973 yellow black Tipo Carattere 1 18 Norev,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark Model S5502 PORSCHE 908 80 N.14 ACCIDENT LM 1981 D.WHITTINGTON-R.JOEST-K.N,.

NEO MODELS Ford Taunus 17M P3 Coupe 1962 1 43 46200,.Ferrari California T Open 2014 White Signature 1 18 Model BBURAGO,.HOT WHEELS 2010 SUPER TREASURE HUNT OLD NUMBER 5.5 FACTORY SEALED W+,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, RARE CORGI LIMITED EDITION Hanson Premix Mercedes Mixer CP83801 NEW,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1967 CITROEN ID 19 BREAK MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY NOREV 181591,.Porsche 991 GT3 RS olympic blue 1 43 Spark WAX02020046,.RARE Vintage TOGI Alfa TURBO SPECIAL Italian car model,.Rio 4266 FIAT 501 TORPEDO 1919-26 green 1 43,.Audi 200 Quattro №18 Jagermeister Rally Baden-Wurttemberg 1987 1 43 NEO 45251,.

BOGWARD HANSA 2400 Neo scale models 1 43 NEO43450, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.F1 LOTUS Ford Cosworth V8 72 Fittipaldi JPS World Champion Minichamps 1 43,.1 18 Scale Toyota Land Cruiser Prado Green Diecast Car Model,. The PartridgeVintage - JAVELIN A. Motors - 1 43 Auto-Pilen M-323,.Matrix Citroen CX Limousine DDR with Flags 1 43 MX40304-062,. EBBRO 1 43 Toyota Prius White 45151 ,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - 25OCT2017O Ferrari Superamerica Red Model Car, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.RARE VW CRAFTER TDI 2E VAN 2011 FACELIFT SPANISH RED 1 87 RIETZE (DEALER MODEL),Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1971 FORD MUSTANG SPORTSROOF BROWN SUN STAR 3619 1 18,.Porsche 911 GT3 RS 4.0 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto Model Car Original NEU & OVP,Partridge1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR n.45 12H SEBRING 2008 MINICHAMPS,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BMW 2000CS champagne métallisé 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford Sierra Rs Cosworth 1986 Grey Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,; 1 43 Trofeu Audi Sport Quattro Winner Welsh Rally 1986 Mikkola RRUK01,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 Car BOGWARD HANSA RS 1500 Avus 1958 Neo scale models NEW OVP, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, CORGI 1 43 SCALE COLLECTION HERITAGE EX07402 LAND ROVER POMPIERS DE MARSEILLE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.


2016 FORD MUSTANG GT 5.0 YELLOW LIMITED 1002pc 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOWORLD AW229,.Spark Model SG414 SCG003c N.705 WINNER SP-X CLASS 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 MUTSCH-M, Clarke's negligent act.Mint Bmw Mini Bikes Two 1 18,.Takara Chgold Q Miyajima Round Minicar,.Hot Wheel Liberty 68 Chevy Camaro Rs SS,.

PORSCHE 956L whitehet locatop no. 19 LeMans 1986 (BOUTSEN - Theys - Ferte ),.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1960's Structo Pressed Metal Vista Dome Horse Trailer Van,UT MODELS 1 18 PORSCHE 911 TURBO TYPE 993 red METALISE,. In Noska,Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin sx11 Mercedes Benz 190 Evo2 Rosberg DTM '92,.Minichamps 400 103304 Lamborghini 400 GT 2+2 1964 1 43,.VINTAGE MOKO MATCHBOX ESSO PETROL TANKER RED GPW & ORIGINAL BOX,.CORGI TOYS MAJOR SNORKEL,FIRE ENGINE,BOX,INSTRUCTION, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 L Weiss 1973, 1 18 DIECAST Model UH 3201, NEU & OVP,.Lansdowne LDM89 1957 Aston Martin DB2 4 MkII Coupe Dark Green 1 43,.What 4 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Lt. Green,.True Scale 1 43 McLaren 675LT Silica White 154367,. Id., p 923.

Peugeot 504 Coupe • 1969 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hot Wheels Drag Race Set Includes 2 Cars New in Box YR. 1996 Mattel Inc. Dayton,Norev NV184826 PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET 1970 CAPUCINE YELLOW 1 18 Modellino,.Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ334 - Nissan 240RS Monte Carlo 1984,.Datsun 260 Z 2+2 (bluee Metallic) 1975,.COFFRET RENAULT LAGUNA CONCEPT CAR blue CIEL NOREV 1 43,.Corgi 1 50 scale CC13413 - McCULLA (IRELAND) LTD - MAN TGA XXL Fridge Trailer,.Spark Porsche 935 K3 n°41 Winner LM 1979 white 1 43 White mint in box OVP,.Brand New Speed Racer Mach 5 Racer X Special Edition 1 18 scale Die Cast Metal,. The parties Set of 30 model cars IST 1 43 Triumph Morris Mercedes Opel Skoda Fiat Diecast,.

Bburago Lamb.Countach 76 Le Mans Burago 1 18 2pcs,.1968 Jerry Titus Shelby GT-350 by ACME Greenlight GL-12988 - Limited 702 pcs ,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Old Cars 1 43 LKW Auflieger Iveco Campari TOP ,; CITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971 1 43 Neuf en boite L3, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Pegaso Z 206 barajas 1 43 Ixo Altaya,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dale Earnhardt Jr 1 6 Remote Control Car - RARE no Budweiser sponsorship,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Herpa 1 87 5 LKW Texaco Pilkington BMW Team Kühne&Nagel Auto-Transporter (64871),.Starter Kit à Monter 1 43 - Porsche 962 C Elkron Le Mans 1986,.Original McLaren M6A Hot Wheels Redline USA Metal Collectors Button,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,CORGI VINTAGE GLORY MODEL No.22402 GARRETT + BEDFORD TK LOW LOADER MIB,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Highway 61 1 43 Scale 1968 Dodge Dart High Gloss Red Resin model car,.Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.5I V6 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 1 43 Kess Model Ks43000150 Model,.Fast and furious cars X11,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4950 - Peugeot 2008 DKR16 th Dakar Rally 2016,.SIMM Spielwaren Darda 50106 Racing Formula Red With Red Racing Cars 375 cm lo...,. The ScottsdaleDinky Toys vintage rare Dino Ferrari,Lion Car 1 50 Scale Nr.338 Mercedes Artic & Trailer - Greenline Carriers - Boxed,.VW Volkswagen Käfer Beetle Coupe Beige Cream 1 18 Greenlight Modell Auto mit o..,. Id.,Rio 4266 FIAT 501 TORPEDO 1919-26 GREEN 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 43 BENTLEY AZURE 1996 blueE 436139931,; Volkswagen VW T2B Open Airbus Grey 1 43 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,HOT WHEELS Convention VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE + Mail In 1of3000,.Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale 34510 - Riley Kestrel - Arianca Beige Sandy Beige,. The ScottsdaleModel Car Delorean. Return to the Future III N gauge building Kit mounting.,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, THE blueES BredHERS 5 X MODEL CAR blueESMOBILE GIFT SET 1 64 SCALE GREENLIGHT K8,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Neo Mercedes W123 Leichenwagen - black matt-black - 1978 - 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FERRARI 308 GTB MONTECARLO 1982 ARENA MODELLI FB 1 43 n AMR BBR MR BOSICA ABC,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, BREKINA - Linienbus Mercedes Benz O 307 Karlsberg Bier - NX418X,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Model Porsche 993 Turbo 1996 1 43 S4476, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Norev Citroën GS X3 1979 - Mimosa yellow 1 18 - 181624, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Schuco Renault R5 Turbo (white) 1 43 450885500 1 43 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCitroen 2CV 1976 - Basket - NOREV - 1 18,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, ALMOST REAL BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT3 JORDAN WITT RACING 2016 GT CUP SERIES CHAMPI,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAUTOWORLD AW230 2016 16 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR GARNET RED,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Modell 1 18 Volkswagen VW T3 Bus Red Star 1992 red Norev 188542,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,American Muscle 1101 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28,Mint Mini Champs 1 43 Lamborghini Murcierrago Lp 640 2006,.Dinky Toys 604 Land Rover Bomb Disposal Unit Complete With Surveillance Robot,.RARE MINICHAMPS 1 43 McLAREN MERCEDES MP4-21 Interim Test Car Kimi Räikkönen,. The HuygheSPARK MERCEDES BENZ CLS 6.3 AMG - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 39,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVintage Siku Jade Green Ford 15M V273 Made In Germany RARE,.

McLAREN MP4-6 GP D'ALLEMAGNE 1991 A. SENNA MINICHAMPS 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Audi A4 Quattro STW 1997 Vidali,.

Dinky Toys 218 Lotus Europa made in England 1 43 scale MIB,.1960’s Bentley S2 Cabriolet HJ Mulliner 1 18 Diecast Car Classic Concours Show,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dodge Monaco green-Met. 1978 Neo 1 43 Neo43510 Miniature,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAUDI 80 GTE Audi Motorsport ETCC Bergmeister Nowak Gr.2 1980 NEO Resin 1 43,.VINTAGE RUSSIAN ZAZ 968A ZAPgoldZHETS USSR CCCP EARLY SOVIET 1 43,.

For example, in Partridge,Citroen T45 France 1934 IXO FOR Hachette 1 43 New Boxed GA2 µ,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark Model S5411 MATRA MS5 G.HILL 1966 N.28 GRAND PRIX DE REIMS F2 1 43 Modelli,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Dale Ernhart Jr. Monte Carlo Limited Edition....Sweet Rare ,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 718 CAYMAN GTS 2018 - S7618,. That is the same situation in this case.SUNSTAR 1939 HORCH 855 ROADSTER GREEN 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR 2404,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 7484 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 302 1970 -YELLOW 1 18 - NMIB,. Detroit Edison, supra.

MAISTO 1 18 31158 2010 FORD MUSTANG GT CONV - gold,.ERTL DIE-CAST 1 64 INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR OLD MILWAUKEE LIGHT BEER TRAILER,.Diecast Car Model Old Ford Fiesta 1 18 (Red Dark Purple) + GIFT ,.

Willeme LD 610 T Fordier Norev 879996 Includes Logs,.