Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Mercedes-AMG GT S • NEU • Norev 183497 • 1 18,.Art Model 239 FERRARI 750 MONZA SCCA 1957 n.12 1 43 Modellino,.Volkswagen T2A 1967 Carro Funebre + Bara Hearse Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 PREM18405,.Starter Kit to assemble 1 43 - Ferrari 312 P No.18 Le Mans 1969,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Classic Caddy of 12 Treasure Hunt 1995 Hot Wheels F10,.Norev 187636 Porsche 911 RS 1973 white greene Deko 1 18 NEU OVP,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Danbury Mint-1955 Oldsmobile Super 88 Congreenible Red and White-Title & Brochure,.Minichamps 430791202 1 43 LANCIA STRATOS LANCIA ENGLAND ALEN KIVIMAKI RAC RALLY,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.MERCEDES Benz W123 E klasse 280 AMG Tuning 1980 brown brown met NEO Resin 1 43,.CORGI 464 COMMER COUNTY POLICE VAN,.True Scale 1 43 McLaren 2013 MP4-12C GT3 Goodwood Festival 134325, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13610 - DAF CF Felbinder Tanker - A.K.Longson,.Mercedes Benz T1 208D Transporter 1988 weiss - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,.LESNEY - HARLEY DAVIDSON NO= 66 MOTORCYCLE WITH SIDECAR - VERY GOOD CONDITION.,.DINKY TOYS N°25a Vintage (Post War) WAGON (type 2) - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.
Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3385 - 1997 Porsche 911 Carrera - Red,.Nypd code 3 police car with patch ford crown victoria,.HOTWHEELS 2018 50th Anniversary Favorites 10 Car LOT New Case FLF35-956A,.SPARK 1 43 S1492 SALEEN S7-R LARBRE COMPETITION LM 2008,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK56 001 - 1964 Ford Mustang Indy Pace Car 1964 1 Of 2000,.
Mercedes-Benz 350SL R107 blue grey Cabrio Offen 1971-1989 1 18 Sun Star Modell..,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Sw1993, Wiking MB LPS 1620 Containers. TRANS-EUROPA 1 87 523 7E , 60er Jahre,.Maserati Sebring II 1965 black Neo Scale Models 45642 Neu in OVP 1 43,.RARE 1981 AUDI QUATTRO WHITE DIECAST SCALE 1 18 NEW,KK-Scale 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 250T W123 Kombi 1978-82 bluew metallic nieuw in doos,.HO 1 87 Herpa Liebherr 954 Excavator w redating Sorting Grab Attachment,.
LOTUS 72 JOCHEN RINDT 1970 SPANISH GP 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY QUARTZO 18273,.VINTAGE DIECAST--DODGE DAYTONA 426 HEMI--1 18 SCALE--12 1 2 LONG-ERTL-VERY NICE,.Ebbro EB44422 ARTA GARAIYA N.43 2nd SUZUKA SUPER GT300 2010 M.NITTA-S.TAKAGI 1 4,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Dinky Toys 1413 Citroen Dyane very very near mint in box all original condition,.
IXO VOLKSWAGEN POLO R WRC MIKKELSEN-JAEGER T.DE CORSE 2016 1 18,. We agree in part.
Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car VA05209 - Ford Granada Ghia - Miami bluee,.Minichamps WAP0201430H Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 1973 orange ltd.Edition 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.SPARK Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 VLN 2010 B. Schneider - T. Jäger SG006 1 43,.VW Volkswagen Beetle Käfer HERBIE 1962 TV Kino Movie Hot Wheels Elite N 1 43,.JadaToys 1 24scale FAST & FURIOUS 4 BRAIAN'S NISSAN SKYLINE GT - R R34 JADA,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; CASINO ROYALE CODE 3 BENTLEY IAN FLEMING BOOKS VERSION WITH CODE 3 DISPLAY BOX,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 80 42 0 305 676 - BMW X5 Steward Car MotoGP,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, KIT F1 BRABHAM BMW BT52 1983 MONACO GP + GRADE UP SET 1 20 AOSHIMA BEEMAX 20003,; PORSCHE RS SPIDER NOREV 1 18 DHL GLOBAL MAIL,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Puma Gtv 033 1985 With Alfa Romeo Engine White Limited 175 pcs 1 43 Model,.Neo Ford Escort MkII RS Gr.2 D&W - Niedzwiedz Denzel - 1979 - 1 43,AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 67' CHEVY CAMERO SS HOT ROD DIE-CAST RED AMM1163,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.RENAULT JUVAQUATTRE vitré ivoire 1 18,.
SOMERVILLE STANDARD FLYING 12 - BEIGE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 4+5,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.70s Hot Wheels Redline Porsche 917 CHROME P917 NICE WHEELS TUFFIE PLZ READ ,.JEEP WRANGLER SAHARA WHITE MAISTO 1 18 SPECIAL EDITION 4X4 DIE CAST METAL,.Porsche 911 GT3 Cup G.Vento 1977 Minichamps 1 43 NEU OVP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Humber Sceptre Mki 1964 Red White NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46126 Model,; 1 18 Die Cast Collectors Edition American Muscle Ford Legends Series Shelby,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1963 Pontiac Lemans GREEN 1 18 Highway 61 50145,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Norev 187574 Porsche 911Turbo 3,3L silver 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
MINICHAMPS OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE FEUERWEHR COESFELD 400045890,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Hot Wheels Redline Porsche 911 Chrome selten Zustand TOP++,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Mebetoys A-12 Porsche 912 metallic green made in 1 43 scale VGC rare,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.REVELL 1 32nd SCALE JAGUAR XKE 1963 TYPE LEMANS SLOT CAR RE 08358,.Norev 183539 1957 Mercedes Benz 190 SL 1 18 Model Car Beige,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bourbon France Peugeot J7 CJN Rodez motorisé RARE 11 cm,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Wiking 610 13 Ford 3500 Spritzenwagen Feuerwehr o.VP(EC735),.
LESNEY MATCHBOX 25 FORD CORTINA MINT IN BOX UK REGULAR WHEELS CAR MIB,.Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue de France NOREV - NO185210 - Echelle 1 18,.BMW M 535i 1980 - 1 18 - Norev,.1922 Opel 4 PS Laubfrosch green 1 18 MC Group 18050,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Hot Wheels BCJ76 1 18 BATMOBILE TUMBLER DARK KNIGHT RISES BAMOUFLAGE 2008 MILITA,.
BMW M3 GT2 2009 WEISS 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400092900 NEU,.Mattel 1 18 2008 Ferrari F2008 Raikkonen,.Johnny Lightning White Lightning Cool Collectibles 66 Ford Mustang base,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 SMTS - ALFA ROMEO Montreal 1973,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Herpa, Scania CR HD Silo-Sattelzug Edgar Graß ,.Schuco 1 43 Resine 08871 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Roadster (A197), red,.Citroen SM 1971 gold metallic 1 18 Norev 181730,.SCHUCO PICCOLO 3er SET ESPRESSOTASSEN SET 1 09868,.MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR 1991 Y43 1905 BUSCH SELF PROPELLED FIRE ENGINE MB,.
CAMION MERCEDES BENZ LP 608 KASTEN BMW MOTORSPORT SCHUCO 3601 1 43 POIDS LOURDS, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Norev Peugeot 309 GTi16 1991 Miami blue 1 18,.PONTIAC GTO blue 2004 1 18,. The PartridgePORSCHE 911 Carrera RS 3.0 G Modell red red ready to race UMBAU based PMA 1 43,.FORD FIESTA REF 3518 NACORAL 1 24 Con Caja The Last,.[KYOSHO ORIGINAL 1 43] Lamborghini Veneno Grey White Line KS05571GRW,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, LEADER MODEL 1 43 - 1964 PANHARD F65 - LA POSTE, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Dinky altas renault 12 gordini avec fiche et certificat,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 43 Spark - S5960 Citroën C3 WRC Rally Monte Carlo 2018 K. Meeke,.Innocenti 950S Spider 1962 Yellow Matrix 1 43 MX30902-012,PartridgeFerrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 Yellow 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.ALPINE A310 1 18° IXO ALTAYA,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Norev 181730 Citroen SM 1971 golden leaf 1 18 Neu OVP, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mclaren F1 1995 Papaya orange High Mirrors True Scale 1 43 TSM134326 Model,; 2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari red-red 1 18 Bburago 16001,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, DIAPET YONEZAWA 11-0231 NISHI NIPPON BUS JAPAN MINT IN BOX DIECAST MIB, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 400 850005 - F1 Williams Honda FW10, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMarx 14 1 2 Pressed Metal - Friction - Fire Engine - Yr. 50's,.
DINKY TOYS DY CODE 3 MODEL PROMO - AUSTIN MINI COOPER S - LEANDRA's TREAVALON,.Corgi 60th Anniversary OM46613 New Routemaster NBFL London United LT71 Rt 9, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Minichamps Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG 2010 Brown brown Nr. 100039028 in OVP,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 2000 CHEVY MONTE CARLO SS NAVY SUN STAR 1986 1 18,.Rolls Royce silver Wraith Emperatriz By Hooper black red Oscuro 1 18 Modelo,.
Conrad Liebherr A 912 Litronic Hydraulic Excavator in yellow on 1 50 in Box,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Citroen 2CV Fourgonette 1956 „Assistance Berliet“ 1 18 Norev,Maisto Elite Transport Cadillac Escalade EXT w 1987 Chevrolet Caprice,. In Noska,Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RSR Présentation 2009 1 43 400096909,.Corgi Classics No 12905 Scania Topline and flatbed trailer Yuill and Dodds New,.HONDA RC211V SUMMER TESTBIKE 2001 ROSSI MINICHAMPS 1 12,.The initial box Ebro 1 43 Nissan Datsun Fairlady SR311, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 43 LUSO TOYS 8 PORSCHE - MARTINI 935,.Rietze 73635 Mercedes-Benz Citaro G 15 DVG Dresden 1 87 H0,.Models of Yesteryear Y-3 London E Class Tram-car 1907, in Originalbox Typ A,.NO NY SALES Nacoral Inter-Cars 1 25 Seat Fiat 850 sport near mint w box Spain,. Id., p 923.
NOREV - 1 18 - PORSCHE 911 2,7 RS - 1973 - 187638,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 43 PORSCHE 914 6 3RD PLACE MARATHON DE LA ROUTE 1970 400706503,MINICHAMPS 1 12 HONDA NSR 500 NASTRO AZZURRO ROSSI 46 2001 PRE SEASON TESTBIKE,.LIFE-LIKE KIT 1 32 PLYMOUTH ROADSTER 1932 MONTADO,.Ford Focus Winner Monza Rally 2007 Valentino Rossi C. Cassina 1 43 Model,.Honda NSX (1990) 1 24 Die-cast Scale Model Hachette Japanese Cars Vol.16 ACURA,.1 43 Premium Classixxs VW T2 Bus Brasilien Last Edition 18380,.Vintage Dinky 429 - Trailer - Green,.TSM MODEL 1 43 HONDA CIVIC TYPE R AEGEAN blueE METALLIC RHD MODELLINO,. The parties Minichamps 1 43 Scale 436 039400 Maybach Zeppelin Maroon diecast model car,.
Schuco Mercedes-Benz 170 V Kastenwagen 1 43 MBS Fleer Toys for big Boys (JS),.Spark - 1 43 - Porsche 911 GT3 Cup PCCA Champion 2014,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, PEUGEOT 908 HYBRID 2008 CHROME SPARK 1 43 SP1282,; Best Model BT9267 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.44 20th LE MANS 1965 KOOB-FINKELSTEIN 1 43 M, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
GREENLIGHT 1 18 1981 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z28 DIECAST CAR gold METALLIC 12907,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Sun Star Pontiac GTO 1964 Pinehurst Green green Nr. 1827 in OVP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Mercedes AMG C63S 2016 Red Metallic S4914 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.Brand New JOHNNY LIGHTNING DUKES of HAZZARD Die Cast GENERAL LEE 1 25 Scale RARE,.Spark Model SB160 MERCEDES GT3 N.88 NC 24H SPA 2017 SERRALLES-JUNCADELLA-VAUTIER,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Original Audi SQ7 4M S Q7 Modellauto 1 43 Daytonagrey Daytona grey 5011617613,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.ROUTEMASTER LONDON MODEL BUS 1 50 SCALE CORGI CC25910 RED ROUTE 11 LIVERPOOL K8,.MATCHBOX LESNEY YESTERYEAR Y6-3 CADILLAC ISSUE 16 SCARCE NMIB,.Fiat 500 L con espositore da negozio prodotta dalla POLITOYS vedi foto,.MODELLINO OPEL KADETT E 1989 NERA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Dinky Supertoys No 977 Commercial Servicing Platform Vehicle - Meccano - England,. The ScottsdalePONTIAC TRANS-AM FIREBIRD whiteHE WELLY 1 18,CITROEN C3 blue, C3 PLURIEL orange & C2 black NOREV 1 43,.Diecast Car Model BMW X6M 1 18 (Red) +GIFT ,. Id.,PORSCHE CAYMAN S NURBURGRING 2016 SPARK SG260 1 43,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Auto Art Gateway 60673 PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 CUP orange 1 43 Modellino,; Porsche 911 Carrera Targa Rijkspolitie Police 1 43 Neo,1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Racing Green-High End Diecast,.Midget Ii Van 1996 Spark 1 43 SJ031 Miniature,. The ScottsdaleWILLIAMS FORD FW08 ROSBERG CHAMPION 1982 MINICHAMPS 1 43 NOT BOX LOOK PICTURE,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels FAO black Cruisin' the '50s Special Edition 8 Car Set New 1997,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1930's Wyandotte Press Steel Congreenible orange Toy Air flow Car 4 1 4”,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DeAgostini Simca Versailles bluee - DINKY TOYS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, OPEL MANTA 1970 Lemon Green metallic - 1 18 NOREV,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Ebbro EB44787 TOYOTA SPORTS 800 FUNABASHI CCC N.17 1965 1 43 Modellino,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1974 Hot Wheels Sir Rodney Roadster (Redline) (Yellow) (Hong Kong), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 12 SCALE HONDA NSR 500 VALENTINO ROSSI (DIRTY VERSION) 122 016186, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SCUDERIA FERRARI SF16-H 1 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 AUTOART CHEVROLET CORVETTE 2002 INDIANAPOLIS 500 PACE CAR 50TH ANNIVERSARY,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Audi Tdi R18 Presentation December 2010 1 43 Spark S2515 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 92389 02 PONTIAC FIREBIRD T AM RUST,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE 1970 DODGE CHARGER 500 SE MODEL BN 13530,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,NEO 44150 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL CONgreenIBLE 1985, RED,Schuco 1072 BMW Formula 2,.BEST MODEL BT9242 FERRARI 308 GTS 1978 GREY 1 43,.Mebetoys A64 - Porsche 912 sky - Scala 1 43 Die cast,. The HuygheVINTAGE 1958 DINKY TOY HUMBER POLICE CAR NEAR-MINT,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheArt Model AM0254 FERRARI 225s N.8 DNF 12H SEBRING 1953 HILL-SPEAR 1 43 Modellino,.
VW Käfer 1200 Hebmüller Cabrio 1949 dunkelred black Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.SUN STAR Mercedes Benz 350 SL R107 Softtop Yellow 1 18 4568,.
MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. 12 B LAND ROVER SERIES II 1959 58mm + 1 Spielzeug,.BMW 5er E28 528i 24h Spa 1982 Gitane s ETCC Jarier Tassin NEO Resin SP 1 43,. Nonetheless, on the facts of SPARK RENAULT 4CV 1063 rd Le Mans 1951 F. Landon - A. Briat S5210 1 43,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVW TRANSPORTER T3 B32 PORSCHE blue 1 43,.NOREV181634 - Voiture de rallye CITROEN C3 WRC N°7 Winner Spain de 2017 équipage,.
For example, in Partridge,Mitsubishi Pajero Lang 3,5 V6 1998 red 1 18 Sun Star neu & OVP,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 KYOSHO AUDI R8 blueE,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.RIO RI4527 MERCEDES SIMPLEX 1902 RED 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 64th DCP Kenworth W900 Day Cab w Brenner Food Grade Tanker Trailer,. That is the same situation in this case.MINICHAMPS James Bond 007 model cars Lotus Esprit DB5 2000GT Mustang Vanquish,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. A 5 A HOME STORES 1961 73mm ACESSORIES,. Detroit Edison, supra.
ERTL 1 18 32009 1969 CAMARO SS396 orange,.Tiny Mini Cooper Hong Kong Police Members Only Novelty,.1 18 Solido Renault 8 Gordini 1967 Rally Monte Carlo NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
MAISTO 1 18 - 31841 MERCEDES BENZ A CLASS - blueE,.