Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MODELLINO BMW 320i M. HENNERICI WINNER WTCC INDIPENDENTS TROPHY 2005 IN METALLO,.1 18 Norev Citroen 2CV A 1950 grey 181497,.SPARK BMW E30 M3 Winner 24h SPA 1987 Ils vont des Poêle,Martin,Theys SB067,.Norev 182718 1986 Ford Capri 280 1 18 Model Car Brooklands Green Metallic,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.MOMC 2012 RLC Club Exclusive Holiday car root beer Blown Delivery ONLY 5000 MADE,.FERRARI 360 SPIDER Hotwheels Ferrari Red 1 18 Mint BOXED,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.NOREV 188351 Audi A5 Cabriolet weiss 2009 HQ 1 18,.PORSCHE 917 PA Spyder Laguna Seca 1969 Jo Siffert Audi Resin Muse Spark 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Mikansue Grand Tourisme n° 35 Morris Minor Traveller Kit monté 1 43,.1 43 Trofeu Audi Quattro Belga Winner Rally Boucles de Spa 1983 Marc Duez,.BMW M2 Coupe 2016 Alpine White 1 43 Minichamps 410026104 New, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Vintage - LEYLAND CUB FIRE ENGINE FK-7 1936 - Matchbox YS-9 Mint box,.Danbury Mint 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk 1 24 Diecast Car,.SOLIDO 134 PORSCHE GT 8 CYLINDER LE MANS GREY 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.HYUNDAI i20 R5 - KIT MONTAGGIO + DECAL ANDOLFI - Rally Portogallo 2017,.
CORGI TOYS No 237 OLDSMOBILE SHERIFF'S CAR.1962-66. EXCELLENT BOXED,.New LOT of 20 Matchbox Rare VHTF Flatbed Vista Cruiser Audi Avant Stepside Chevy,.Fujimi model 1 24 inch up series No.14 Wagon R RX '93 Model Car ID14,.AMG CLS63 Shooting Brake S-Model in weiss metallic GLM 1 43 OVP NEU,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 ARTISAN COLLECTION - 1971 VOLKSWAGEN TYPE 2 BUS 19012,.
Wiking H0 Alter Tankwagen Magirus 3500 (AB124),. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CHEVROLET CORVETTE C1 Fuel Injection CABRIOLET black 1 18,.What 4 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Purple,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 68 CHEVROLET VAN - COLLECTORS CLUB - RARE - VERY GOOD IN BOX,MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ SLS AMG GT3 2011 black OPACO IN PLASTICA MINICHAMPS,.American Muscle ERTL 33455 Corvette 1953 Champions New York Yankees 1 18,.
Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567,.Tamiya JGTC Weds Sports Celica 2003 1 64 scale collectors club From Japan 5Q,.Bentley - Five Corgi 1927 Model 9001 Toys,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
FUJIMI 1 24 PORSCHE 911 turbo 85 enthusiast model - Rare,.
VW Beetle Model Display Tin Car Vintage 1970s,. We agree in part.
Herpa 303873 Scania R HL Rungen LKW Gittermastteilen Felbermayr Scale 1 87 NEU,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11JR67 Mercedes Benz 500K Special Roadster,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 051000 - 2002 VW Phaeton - Met bluee,.PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9L blue miami 1992 1 18,.Dinky atlas break simca 1500,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; SCHUCO 05209 Set 75 Jahre Nürburgring 4 Modelle und Poster limitiert 1 90 - OVP,.Modellino Auto Porsche Speedster Nostalgia Modello di Latta,Metallo 31 cm,Nuovo,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Hot Wheels 2019 Coche Cultura Equipo Transporte C Funda Juego de 3 Datsun,; EBRRO 1 43 Honda City with alloy wheel RED finished product,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
BRUDER SCANIA CONCRETE MIXER U03554,.Schuco 1 43 BMW M8 Coupe red 450902600,577 Politoys 1 43 Alfa Romeo Giulia 1600 Sport Pininfarina ohne Box 507923,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.CHARGER HEMI 500 DODGE 1969 MOPAR DIE CAST 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE ERTL OPEN BOX,.
NEO MODELS Mitsubishi Lancer Turbo 2000 1 43 45256,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.NOREV CITROEN C4 WRC WINNER RALLY RED BULL LOEB ELENA 1 18 NEW 181550,.PORSCHE 911 991 GT2 RS 2018 1 43 1 43 RED SPARK,.New WELLY 1 24 Land Rover Range Rover EVOQUE from Japan,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. 5 B LONDON BUS 1957 58mm greyePR,; Alfa Ricotti 40 60 Open 1915 Dark Red 1 43 Model RIO,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, DINKY TOYS 958 GUY WARRIOR SNOW PLOUGH-UNBOXED.,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Eligor 112450 DAF XF95 Space Cab Tautliner Grampian Maclennans 1 43 Search Impex,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Norev 183559 2011 Mercedes Benz B180 1 18 Model Car Red,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
VANGUARDS ( CORGI ) VAUXHALL VICTOR gold OVP 1 43 Limited Edition.,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Franklin Mint 1953 Cadillac Eldorado 1 24,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 18 Minichamps Mercedes Gallardo LP600 GT3 Reiter NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1 43 Brooklin BRK 17 1952 Studebaker Starlight,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Duesenberg J Derham Tourster Cabrio in red brown, Franklin Mint, 1 24, o.OVP,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1968 DARK GREEN REDLINE HOT WHEELS LOLA GT70 VERY NICE ,.
Hot Wheels MASTERS OF THE UNIVERSE 200X COMPLETE COLLECTION,.Dinky Toys Airplane Lot 735 734, 736, 733, Gloster Javelin Shooting Star,.HOT WHEELS DMT90 ELITE STAR WARS THE FORCE AWAKENS TIE FIGHTER STARSHIP,.KK-Scale Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 - red - 1 18,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Porsche 997 GT3 RS WRC 2017 SF115,.
KK-Scale KKDC180111 VW Beetle Cabrio Hebmueller, 1949, red creme,.MODELLINO AUDI R8 TEAM CHAMPION LEHTO 12H SEBRING 2003 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Sun Star The Platinum Collection 1956 Yellow Lincoln Premiere 1 18 Diecast Car,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Opel Manta B Mattig Filmfahrzeug Manta Manta 1975-1988 1 18 Model Car Group Mo..,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Subaru Brz Tokyo Motor Show 2011 Matt White 1 43 Model 44903 EBBRO,.PORSCHE DESIGN 2011 911 SPEEDSTER 1 43 MODEL IN blueE W EXTRAS ,.Maisto 1 18 Scale - 1971 Datsun 240Z Tokyo Modified Cherry Red Diecast Model Car,.1 43 Spark - Pagani Huayra 2012,.Matchbox Regular Wheels No. 62 c Mercury Cougar in Metallic Lime Green,.
Bburago Burago 1 18 Ferrari F40 racer excecutive edition excellent, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Tin Wizard Borgward Isabella Carbiolet 1955 in WHite on 1 43 in Box,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT3 2018 - S7625,. The PartridgeSIKU 5603 Stable, Car and Vehicle Models,.WSI 03-1142 1 50 SCALE DAF CF SC MX-13 6X2 CAB UNIT - WHITE,.Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor White 1 50 Trailer Head 71001,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, ASSISTANCE RALLYE RENAULT ESTAFETTE + R5 TURBO N°16 1 43, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 105 - Mercedes Benz 300SL - Red,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Batman Batpod The Dark Knight Trilogy Elite Edition 1 43 Model X5496 HOT WHEELS,.Mint in Box MATCHBOX Reg Wheels 2C 2-C MUIR-HILL DUMPER RED CAB GREEN DUMP LAING,Partridge1 43 Sowjetischen GAZ-51 board. UdSSR, USSR,.Bentley Continental R 1996 Red metallic 436139920 1 43 Minichamps,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DINKY TOYS MODEL No.429 ( SMALL ) TRAILER GREEN VERSION VN MIB, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi CC12825; Scania T-Cab Fridge Trailer; P&C Hamilton; Excellent Boxed,; Brumm BM0287CH FERRARI 126 C 2 P.TAMBAY 1982 N.27 2nd ITALY GP 1 43 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Corgi CC13225 DAF XF Super Space Cab Curtainside Chamberlain Transport Ltd, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSchuco Piccolo Versandhaus Quelle Limited Edition Set 2001 FREE US SHIPPING,.
1974 Rover 3500 V8 Beige 1 18 MC Group 18046,.Original Land Rover Modellauto Classic Range Rover Tuscan bluee 1 43 51LEDC181BLY, Clarke's negligent act.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP MACAU 2007 D. WATTS MINICHAMPS,.Norev NV182752 AC COBRA 289 1963 WHITE 1 18 Modellino,.MATCHBOX YYM35058 CHEVY K 5 BLAZER 1969 - orange 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.
1 64 Peterbilt 351 w 40' Trailer, Ringsby System, in Fallen Flag Series,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, HERPA 155441 Wandt 70 Jahre Set 1 87 TOP&OVP,MINICHAMPS BMW M3 E30 - SECA MATCH - ILIEN MENAGE PIRMAY - 1 43 - GOOD IN BOX,. In Noska,Siku Plastik V182 V169 Hanomag Baustellenschlepper mit Fassanhänger V Serie,.Volkswagen Beetle 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 -188523 NOREV,.Lincoln Continental MkIII Congreenible 1958 Copper Metallic 1 43 NEO 46111,.Ebbro 44687 EBBRO x HPI Mclaren F1 GTR 1996 JGTC 43, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Matchbox Regular Wheel 38a Karrier Refuse Collector GPW mit OVP,.RAR Yonezawa Toys Diapet Maserati Bora red ca. 1 40 Sehr gut,.Herpa Scania Ristimaa Schwedenzug Zorro,.1997 Porsche 911 (993) Coupe Mint Green 27801 Ut Models 1 18,. Id., p 923.
Lote 2 Camiones Pegaso 1231 T 310 Campsa + Mofletes Forestal Mazo 1 43,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, EMEK 82095 MAN TGS LX Kofferauflieger 1 25,Alfa Romeo Alfasud Año Fabricación 1974 red 1 18 Kk-Scale,.Rio RI4300 CITROEN DS 19 N.243 119th MILLE MIGLIA 1957 FAIDERTE-DELANGLARD 1 43,.HOTWHEELS ELITE MILLENNIUM FALCON STARSHIP STAR WARS EPISODE VI CMC93,.Auto World 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro SS Hot Rod Test Car Red AMM1163 Muscle New,.FERRARI 126 C2 GP SAISON 1982 GILLES VILLENEUVE HI-FI 1 43 MONTAGE PH. CALLA,.MATCHBOX SUPER KING No.K-32 FARM UNIMOG & SHEEP TRAILER VN MIB,.Conti Models 1 43 Scale - Lancia Stratos Alitalia Green White,. The parties AC ACE SPIDER LHD 1955 RED Neoscale 1 43 NEO45006 Model,.
1 18 Norev VW Beetle 1303 1973 lightgreen-metallic,.ERTL 1969 Chevy Camaro SS 427 Baldwin Motion orange 1 18 Scale Diecast '69 Car,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Alfa Romeo Ricotti 1914 Rio 1 43 Rio4284 Miniature,; Cadillac Fleetwood Series 60 Sedan 1941 Bordeaux Met ModelCarGroup 1 18 MCG18071, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Cabriolet Hebmueller 1949 KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180112,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vw T1 Greater Platform Porsche 1 43 Premium Classixxs PREM18505,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)HOT WHEELS TREASURE HUNT (1) NEW FOR 2018 - '16 CADILLAC ATS-V R (MOMC),.195 H Vintage DINKY 33C SIMCA CARGO MIROITIER ST GOBAIN 1 55,.Porsche 968 Turbo S Yellow 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ebbro 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Lm Nismo 2015 Launch Version New F S,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.B9956 Handmade Iron Decoration Collectibles Simulation Fighter Model,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.38b SUNBEAM TALBOT SPORTS COUPE ( PARTLY RESTORED ),.AUDI R8 V10 PLUS RED EXCLUSIVE EDITION 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY MAISTO 38135,.Polistil 1 18 Scale Diecast - 058373 Lamborghini Diablo Yellow,.Spark 1 43 - Renault Dacia Logan Concept Steppe,. The ScottsdaleNOREV 1 18 PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9 1992 MIAMI blueE ART.184856,Porsche 911 (991II) Gt2 Rs Año Fabricación 2018 Indischred 1 43 Spark,.NOREV 1 18 1955 PEUGEOT D4A POMPIERS WITH LADDERS DIECAST CAR 184707RD,. Id.,1 87 Wiking MAN F90 Siemens Mobil Funk Wechselpritschen HZ,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 50 Diecast International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor-Cab Only Collect 71003,; Corgi 72905 Simca Cargo Plateau Michelin , Metallmodell in 1 50, N E U & O V P,Hasegawa HG20274 MAZDA COSMO SPORT (N.19 4th-N.18 DNF) MARATHON DE LA ROUTE 1968,.DINKY TOYS VOLKSWAGEN KÄFER 1 43 BRITISH RAIL BLOOD & CUSTARD,. The ScottsdaleWOW EXTREMELY RARE Citroen CX Prestige 2.4L 1982 Green m 1 43 Minichamps-SM,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels Speed Racer Mach 6,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; PEUGEOT 504 BREAK-1970 - ´GENDAMERIE´ police 400112590 Minichamps 1 43 New Rare,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Model S5073 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 N.1 ACCIDENT LM 1970 J.BOURDON-J.C.AUBRI,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wow 50 Random Matchbox Car Lot,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 962C IMSA Riverside 1985 1 18 Norev 187401,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Véhicule de commandement SKODA TYPE 952 - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 103, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, HOT WHEELS NIGHTMARE BEFORE CHRISTMAS OOGIE BOOGIE SUPER VAN WRONG WAY ERROR NEW, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, CASINO ROYALE CODE 3 BENTLEY IAN FLEMING BOOKS VERSION WITH CODE 3 DISPLAY BOX,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSpark 1 43 Scale S3055 - F1 Mercedes W04 Australian GP 2013,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Wartburg 353 Feuerwehr 196 - 1 18 - IST Models,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1999 Ford California State Highway Patrol 1 24 Classic Metal Works 20101,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SSM 1 43 Artillerieschlepper ATS-59G,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 18 Minichamps Williams Renault FW19 Villeneuve Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,EFE Leyland Titan Predotype bus London Transport rte 024 Victora ref 28825 BNIB,.1969 PONTIAC GTO THE JUDGE CAROUSEL RED ERTL DIECAST SCALE 1 18 NEW,.1 87 Wiking MB SK Porta Fenster Wechselkoffer HZ,. The Huyghe1 43 NEO BMW 2002 PNEUHEGE DRM 1970,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCORGI SCANIA TOPLINE FRIDGE TRAILER L E JONES LTD RUTHIN MIB CC12908 1 50,.
1 18 SAIC Volkswagen 2017 Skoda Octavia Combi White Dealer Edition,.1 43 MCLAREN M7B VIC ELFORD DUTCH GRAND PRIX F1 1969 SPARK MODELS,.
DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 335F L HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR BN 85925,.ASTON MARTIN ONE-77 2010 PEARL WHITE S2161 Spark 1 43 New ,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Modelcar Group Peugeot 504 Break weiss white Nr. 18035 OVP,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBMW 2000 1966 BEIGE MCG 1 18,.BMW 2002 1600 ti Alpina Brno 1969 Huber Treser RARE 1 100 Scala43 1 43,.
For example, in Partridge,Spark 1 43 Corvette C6 ZR1 Le Mans 2012,. In Jorgensen, supra,Corgi 1 50 scale CC13413 - McCULLA (IRELAND) LTD - MAN TGA XXL Fridge Trailer,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1976 Chevrolet Monza No.14 Campeón Imsa Al Holbertr en 1 43 Escala de Spark,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VINTAGE 1978 MATCHBOX SUPER KINGS K-16 PETROL articulated Shell Tanker BOXED,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark 1 43 2017 Porsche 911R S4956,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Benetton B193B Monaco GP 1993 Riccardo Patrese Spark S4773 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Fiat 600 Viotti Coupe 1959 Grey Red Ed.Lim.Pcs 299 1 43 Matrix MX30602-081,.Diapet Yonezawa G-10 Mazda Cosmo 2-door Hardtop made in Japan 1 40 scale MIB,.Original Corgi Toys 211 - Studebaker golden Hawk - bluee,.
Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 Cup UPS,.