Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals HOT WHEELS ELITE MILLENNIUM FALCON STARSHIP STAR WARS EPISODE VI RETURN OF JEDI,.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronce brown Metálico, Coche Modelo 1 18 Norev,.NEO NEO46525 1 43 CHEVROLET CORVAIR WINDOW VAN 1963 RED WHITE,.Bruder Scania R-Serie UPS Logistik- LKW mit Mitnahmestapler - 03581,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.NEO MODELS 45815 CHRYSLER 300B 1956 - OFF-WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Bentley Corniche 1971 green Neo 1 43 44145,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA - Polizia 1961 - Museo di Roma 1 43 RIO4572 Made in ,.VW Volkswagen 1303 Beetle Cabriolet 1972-80 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34147,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Gemini macs 1 400 C-17A India air force CB-8003 Japan Import,.1 18 Norev Chenard & Walker 1500kg Type CHV 1946 green,.ERTL 1949 MERCURY RAT ROD POLICE 1 18 1 OF 700 MADE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Corgi CC15807 Mercedes-Benz Actros(MP4) Curtainside, Caledonian,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3004 - F1 HRT F1-10 Monaco GP 2010,.Revell The Fast and the Furious 1970 Dodge Charger 1 25 w Dominic figure,.Matchbox MoY C2 ATM-09 Ford T Tankwagen kanadisches seltenes Modell OVP K12,.
Corgi toys 382 Porsche Targa 911S bluee very near mint in very near mint box,.Msb Voiturette Rda Jeep avec Accessoires en Tôle Amendements Rare Rare Vintage,.Porsche 356A Coupe 1957 Light bluee SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1329 Model,.AWM MB Tourismo M 3 Weihnachtsbus 2017 Winteredition 2.0 1 87 PC+OVP (R1_1_17),.Vintage hot wheels lot 5 cars 1960’s 1970’s,.
Premium ClassiXXs Mercedes LP 608 PP Circus Roncalli - red - 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps 400808410 1 43 FORD ESCORT II RS1800 VATANEN RICHARDS WINNER ACROPOLI,.Minichamps Sauber-Mercedes C9 1 43 Scale Car,.Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 bluee Sera Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43014013,Nacoral Scania 141 + Trailer Interstar redterdam in bluee Brown,.Vanguards 1 43 - Coffret 2 Ford Classic 109 E Brands Hatch Diorama,.
Record Kit Assembled 1 43 - Ferrari Dino 246 GT Red,.PORSCHE 911 993 Speedster red red Roadster Cabrio Resin Pro R Schuco 1 43,.1 18 RENAULT CLIO WILLIAMS 1993 PHASE 1 FASE 1 NOREV 185230,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 087877 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR 24H Le Mans 2008,.
Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale - FBM4 Dodge G Fire & Rescue Service engine,. We agree in part.
Volkswagen Zoo Di Arnhem 1965 + Lion Rio 1 43 RIO4412P,.MODELLINO AUDI V8 QUATTRO TEAM AZR F. JELINSKI DTM 1992 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Porsche 356 Cabrio 1950 bluee 1 18 Model SIGNATURE,.Dinky Toys F 24F Peugeot 403 Familiale rarement joué,.1 24 Domestic Specialties Collection (31) 11 14 2017Mazda R360 coupe (1960),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; First Gear- LA CROSSE 1959 Int RF-200 Tractor Lowboy Tlr 1 34 NIB,.1 18 Scale Model - 1952 Citroen 2CV,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Kode 9 GULF Ken Okuyama Cars Design 1 43 SPARK SJ034,; EBRRO Johnson Skyline R33 1995 (1 43 die-cast 43,933) finished product,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Ford Falcon XW GT HO 351 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Car Brambles Red,.Schuco 8738050 CAVALLO E FANTINO SALDO AD OSTACOLI,1 18 Hot Wheels Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 in yellow Yellow, RAR RARE ,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4704 1011 AC COBRA 1965 - blueE - C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,.
NZG 1 43 Mercedes-Benz Actros 3235 4-Achs Beton mixer,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MCG - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ TYPE NURBURG 460K - 1928 - 18034BR,.Vintage Corgi Toys 267 Batman Batmobile Car - Made In Gt Britain,.Ebbro EB44124 NISSAN GT-R N.12 CALSONIC IMPUL SUPER GT 2008 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE HERBIE GOES TO MONTE CARLO ELITE 1 43 HOTWHEELS BLY28,; 1970's Winross B&W Express Semi with Original Box, Nice,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Alfa Romeo Alfasud Año Fabricación 1974 red 1 18 Kk-Scale,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Vintage Hot Wheels 24 Car Collector's Case,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
SPARK Cadillac Type 61 Coupe 1950 SPA-S2920,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
FIAT 500 L 1968 blue NOREV 1 18 bluemet. 187770,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.34b ROYAL MAIL VAN,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK14 - 1940 Cadillac V16 Congreenible Coupe,.1966 BMW 2000 TI Typ 120 Policia 1 18 MC Group 18042,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.VINTAGE HAIRY MONKEY APE with MARACAS WINDUP - H22.0cm RARE - NICE CONDITION,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Volkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 1 18 Model YAT MING,.
1967 Corvette Marina bluee 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32272,.1 43 Neo BMW Z4 M Coupe red 44466,.1957 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible 1 18 Die-Cast Model by Burago,.Mercedes 1969 Dodge War Horse 1 18 Simulation Modified Alloy Muscle Car Model,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.REBELLION R-ONE TOYOTA LE MANS 2014 SPARK S4207 1 43,.
Fiat Dino Spider - Replicars 103 England 1 43 36514,.Wonderful modelcar ALFA ROMEO 75 V6 2.5 SPORTSWAGON 1986 - grey - 1 43 - lim.ed.,.Hot wheels 50th anniversary redline set 5,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, BoS 43605 1 43 FORD BRONCO 4X4 1970 BROWN WHITE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 43 NEO DODGE 600 Congreenible, 1984,.Red Line 1 43 Scale Resin - RL024 Ferrari F360 Modena JMB Le Mans 2004,.1 18 Jaguar XKR n°33 FIA GT 2008 1 18 • Minichamps 150081333,.KYOSHO KS03634KR14 1 43 Toyota 86 KYOSHO From japan,.FIAT SEDICI 2006 1 43,.
AUDI TT CABRIOLET green 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 13901 VW T1b flatbed Zündapp with Bella Roller,.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 pre-painted model series SP Toyota AE86 Trueno 1983 w,. The PartridgeEAGLE RACE 1 18 3815 1940 FORD COUPE HIGHWAY PATROL CAR GREY,.KK-Scale Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 - red - 1972 - 1 18,.Tin's Manufactured 78002 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CROCE ROSSA 1957 Modellino,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vintage Corgi No 469 London Routemaster Bus; 1974; VGC, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1970 DODGE CHARGER SUPERNATURAL GREENLIGHT 19046 1 18,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CORVETTE C6RS ROADSTER YELLOW 2009 SPARK S1535 1 43,.KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT B3 VR6 VARIANT 1988 blue SCURO METALLIZZATO MODEL,PartridgeStarsky and hutch Antique car Ford Gran Torino,.Predar PR0181 LANCIA STRATOS HF PredOTYPE 1971 WHITE 1 43 Modellino,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 KYOSHO 1972 NISSAN SKYLINE 2000 GT-R (KPGC110) OPENING BONNET, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Monte Carlo 1977 Nahon Dinin Edition Trofeu 1 43,; CORGI OOC ARRIVA LONDON TOP HAT NEW ROUTEMASTER WRIGHT BUS MODEL OM46607 1 76,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, ERTL 1 18 Scale American Muscle 1969 MAG WHEEL YENKO 427 CAMARO ISSUE (GREEN), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, RENAULT DAUPHINE BARDHAL SERIE LIMITEE 1000 EX CIJ PAR NOREV NEUF EN BOITE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale CM-DGS002 -Dennis Dragon Bus HK R12 Club Model,.
NO NY SALES Nacoral Inter-Cars 1 25 Seat Fiat 850 sport near mint w box Spain,.Sunstar 1 18 Diecast - 4055 - 1966 Lotus Elan SE Roadster - Royal bluee, Clarke's negligent act.Pilen 1 43 Scale diecast 371 Mercedes Benz 250 ARTEC Rally red,.DINKY TOYS JAGUAR 3.4 Mk11 IN CREAM 1961-71 EXCELLENT BOXED - Lot,.Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 1973 Candy Green yellow Japan NEW,.
ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 FRECCIA D'gold 1947 RED Minichamps 403120484,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Trofeu TF2502 FORD ESCORT N.3 RETIRED SANREMO 1975 MAKINEN-LIDDON 1 43 Modellino,Brand Domestic Famous Car Mitsubishi Pajero 1 43 Scale,. In Noska,Corgi CC15809 Mercedes-Benz Actros (MP4) Tractor Unit In Transit 1 50 Scale New,.2016 Porsche 911 R in Gulf bluee by Minichamps Diecast Model,.CORGI TOY 57301 MERCEDES BENZ AMBULANCE PARAMEDIC M BOXED RARE ,.FERRARI 612 SCAGLIETTI 2004 RED MET RL020 Red Line 1 43 New in the box , necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ford GT 2017 Modellauto in 1 18 von Maisto,.Mint Bmw Mini Bikes Two 1 18,.Corgi Chevrolet-Superior 61 Ambulance, New In Box,.Citroen Cx Break Loadrunner 1989 Ed.Lim.Pcs 492 1 43 Matrix MX30304-011 Model,. Id., p 923.
PEUGEOT 403 CABRIOLET DE 1964 SOLIDO N° 8165 1 18 CREME ROADSTER DIE CAST WAGEN,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model,Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS green Ab 2013 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder ohne ..,.Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 Capanelle Red 1 18 Norev 184779,.Ferrari Limited Edition 9601 Diorama Rally Montecarlo 1966 Nr.444 3000 M 1 43,.Porsche 918 Spyder 2014 Metallic Green 1 43 Spark S4243 Model,.Renault Vivaquatre KZ9 7 Places de 1932 bluee & black Rétro 87 - SAI 7288 - 1 87,.Chevrolet Impala 1967 2 Door Coupe Marina blue bluee TSM Modellauto 1 43,.Kraz 255V NVA 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs 47039,. The parties Porsche 911 (997 II) GT3 RS 2010 - white black - Norev - 1 18 - 187561,.
Minichamps Double Set Red Bull Racing 1 43 412100506,.GREEN13510 - VW BEETLE 1967 RIGHT HAND DRIVE LOTUS WHITE 1 18 MODELLINO MODELLO,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Ligier JS P2 - Nissan no. 40 LMP2 LeMans 2016 ( T. Krohn - N.Jönsson - J.Barbosa,; SPARK S3968 Collectible Miniature Car, bluee White, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Precision 100 Collection 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Congreenible Diecast 1 18 Scale,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 2017 Ford GT [Maisto 38134] blue, 1 18 Die Cast,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Jeep Wrangler Sahara (Champaigne) Burago 18-12014,.Art Model AM0268 FERRARI 500 TRC N.16 WINNER VIRGINIA 1957 W.HELBURN 1 43 Modell,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 B3243 BMW 645CI GREY gold,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Volkswagen UP Lite - 1 43 - LookSmart,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Alfa Romeo Giulia 1973 Europa-Testfahrt Sizilien-Hammerfest - 1 43 - Minichamps,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.67 24H SPA 2014 GDL Motorsport SB083,.Conrad Vögele Super 700-3.i Raupenfertiger Bauma 2016,.1975 Hot Wheels Paramedic (White) (Redline) (Hong Kong),.Ikarus 556 white-red Hungary USSR Soviet Bus 1 43,. The ScottsdaleBurago 1 18 - Porsche 356 B Cabriolet 1961 Green,VINYL-LINE VINYL LINE PONTIAC CONgreenIBLE EXTREMELY RARE NO WINDSHIELD,.Corgi Diecast Metal Models CC87502 The A Team Van with BA Painted Figure,. Id.,Dinky Toys 190 Monteverdi 375L made in England rare 5 spoke wheels NM+ Condition,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Team Lotus 16 No. 14 Graham Hill Dutch GP 1959 S1835 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,; Porsche 911 Carrera GTS Cabriolet 2017 Dark bluee 1 43 SPARK S7622,NEW GRIP TECHNICA LOTUS EUROPE DIECAST 1 28 SCALE DIECAST CAR,.Lotus J.Herbert 1992 S.Africa 1 43 Spark Sp1675 Model,. The ScottsdaleNOREV 188521 1973 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE 1303 CABRIOLET 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR orange,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, DINKY TOYS 968 BBC TV ROVING EYE VEHICLE 1960 MECCANO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 10 C Sugar Container Tate & Lyle BPW Lesney 1,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Very Rare Creaks of Camberley Peel Collection PC1 Police Motor Cycle & Sidecar,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1960'S FORD ECONOLINE VAN CLEAN-RITE LAUNDRY DRY CLEANER 1 25 FIRST GEAR 49-0399,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 56 - Cooper Bristol Mk1 1952,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, FIAT 1100 MOTTO MILLE MIGLIA 1948 JOLLY MODEL JL769, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CORGI CAR TRANSPORTER 1101 V N MINT, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, CORGI TOYS 233 Heinkel Economy Car excellent in complete original box,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeNorev Jet-car n° 812 - RENAULT Alpine A 310 bluee - 1 43 P Series,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Cadillac Fleetwood Sixty Special Sedan 1959 White 1 43 Spark S2914 Model,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 43 NEO INFINITI FX50 S, 2010,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Jada 1 24 Scale 98399 - Transformers Metal Car 2016 Chevy Camaro - Bumblebee,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Matchbox No.73C Ford Model A Van spare wheel filled in casting mint boxed,SPARK MODEL SJ043 DAIHATSU MIRA WALK THROUGH VAN 1992 blueE 1 43,.Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 1977 olive green 1 18 Norev,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.15 7th ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014 SG134,. The HuygheDinky Toys 417 Ford Transit Motorway Services Van made in England NMIB,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVolkswagen VW Beetle 1967 Right Hand Drive Lotus White 1 18 Model 13510,.
Kyosho KY05561D - 1 43 BENTLEY FLYING SPUR W12 DAMSON,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 24 GREEN TEAM RACER LABEL,.
Opel Manta B Mattig yellow blue Film Movie 1991 1 18 MCG diecast,.Burago 1 18 Ferrari F50 (1995) red - 3362 - Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Club Bialbero 011EDL F.TR gold CLUB BIALBERO EDIZION,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMac Due MCG18095 OPEL MANTA B MATTING YELLOW blueE 1 18 Modellino,.Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 White Ewt Kess Model 1 43 KS43011022 Model,.
For example, in Partridge,1 18 RMZ Model BMW F07 5er 535 GT 5 Series Gran Turismo White,. In Jorgensen, supra,SUZUKI Vitara 1.6 JLX 4x4 Congreenible Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44980,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Spark 1 43 McLaren M7C n.27 US GP 1970 Jo Bonnier S3135,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,MÄRKLIN Digital - 3665 Diesellokomotive BR 260 Modelleisenbahn Spur H0 (MF11),. That is the same situation in this case.Turntable Ladder Vehicle Lp329 Dl30 Metz Lauenburg Heico Hc2028 Nip Μ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Joal Miniaturas Renault R10 made in Spain 1 43 scale Near Mint rare version,. Detroit Edison, supra.
ERTL 1 32 SCALE CASE IH MAGNUM 175TH ANNIVERSARY MODEL BN 44135A,.VW T1 Zündapp Kundendienst 1 43 SCHUCO RARE ,.Corgi Toys 283, OSI Daf-City Car, Mint in Box ab690,.
DeAGOSTINI 250 California 1957 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.57 F S,.