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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Porsche 911 Gt3 Rsr Promo Minichamps 1 43 400096909 Modellino Diecast,.True Scale 1 43 McLaren 675LT Silica White 154367,.SPARK - 1 43 - BENTLEY CONTINENTAL CONgreenIBLE - 1984 - S3824,.Brekina 55190 MB Kofferhängerzug Voorburg Basel Verwer´s Express OVP (R8044),.

The essential facts are not in dispute.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44605 ABARTH 1000 GT 1963 MONOMILLE RED 1 43,.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1951 Jaguar C-Type,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.DINKY Meccano UK original 1955 scarce 2 tone green cream HILLMAN MINX Saloon 154,.Quartzo 1 43 Scale - 3064 FORD GAPRI TURBO 'JAGERMIESTER' K.LUDWIG,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Modèle résine ASTON MARTIN DB2 drophead 1952 cabriolet 1 43 Heco modeles FP',.RIO RI4521 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA TETTO ALTO 1970 1 43,.FORD MUSTANG MACH 1 1971, SUNSTAR 1 18, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

AVP-2M 8T311 Car air-foam Fire fighting(based on ZIL-131) 1 43 USSR LOMO-AVM -5,.Spark 1 43 Oreca 03R - Judd - Race Performance LM 2016 S5117,.DS E-Tense Salon De Geneve 2016 Metallic Green 1 43 Model PM0103 NOREV,.5 x Modellauto GAMA BMW 3x 325i, BMW 525i und BMW M1 Maßstab 1 43 1x OVP,.

Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio gold 1984 grey Neutro 1 43 Kess KS43000190 Mode,.MERCEDES SLR McLAREN 722Edition TAMIYA 1 24 PLASTIC KIT,.Rio RI4571 FIAT 1500 6C GASOGENO 1935 1 43 Modellino,.Norev 1965 Renault 16 Radio Monte Carlo in White on 1 43 in Box,.DINKY TOYS 204 FERRARI 312 P ORIGINAL OVP,.

1 43 , Marcus Eriksson , Sauber C34 , Australian GP 2015 , Spark models,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 CL59K ASTON MARTIN DB2-4 mk1 congreenible KIT BY SMTS,.KK-Scale 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 250T W123 Kombi 1978-82 rood metallic nieuw in doos,.1976 Ford Mustang II Mach 1 blue 1 18 Greenlight 12868,Starter N7 Provence Resin 1 43 - Simca Ocean 1957 bluee by CEC,.Vintage Nylint Red Pressed Steel Hough Payloader Front End Loader Tractor Toy,.

RARE, DYDY-16 Ford Mustang 4th Annual Show Club of Amerik, Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.Hot Wheels 69 Ford Mustang Boss 302 Super Treasure Hunt,.RIO RI4506 CITROEN DS 21 PALLAS TAXI MILANO 1970 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Coffret WAP 020 SET 28 - Minichamps Porsche 1 43°,.

Vintage Matchbox Car Lesney England 1970's Leyland Petrol Tanker BP In Box,. We agree in part.

Vitesse 1 43 Scale RA233 - Austin Morris Mini Cooper RAC Rally Conversion,.V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL019 FERRARI 599 GTB 599GTB FIORANO RED MIB RARE,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Spark 1 43 Mercedes AMG C 63S 2016 S4913,.1 24 Burago RANGE ROVER 0104 MILITAIRE COMPLEET VERY NEAR MINT RARE SELTEN ,.2012 Izod Indy 500 Mike Conway ABC Supply Racing 1 18 Diecast Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Deltawing DWC-13 , 24H Daytona 2014 , Spark models,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford GT43 GT40 550hp 2004 White bluee Stripes 1 43 Minichamps,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982,; Minichamps AMG Mercedes 190E DTM 1992 1 43 Bernd Schneider 1992 (JS),; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

SIKU 1064 MERCEDES 300TE S124 VERKEHRSgreen SELTEN B4 MINT,.1 18 Sun Star Citroen Xsara WRC C. Mcrae D.Ringer Rarity §,Porsche 356 C Cabriolet Hardtop (Red White) 1963,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Spark Model Audi R8 Champion Racing Le Mans 24 Hrs 2005 Biela Pirro McNish,.

Corgi toys 382 Porsche Targa 911S Green perfect mint in very near mint box,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Norev Citroën DS3 WRC 2012 1 18 Loeb Elena Rally d'Alsace,.Mitsubishi Eclipse Baujahr 1995 black 1 18 Greenlight,.Redline Hotwheels Aqua 1971 Six Shooter oc17272,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Bentley SIII Continental Park Ward Pewter FHC 1963 44160 Neo 1 43 New in a box ,; Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S1535 - 2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6RS Roadster - Yellow,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, BUGATTI EB110 COLLECTION M. SCHUMACHER yellow MINICHAMPS 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4944 1 32 LANDINI 4.105,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

IXO 1 43 Lada Niva mit Dachzelt 1981 - green,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Alfa Romeo Spider 4, 1990 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

UT Models CHEVROLET CAPRICE GLENDALE POLICE CAR MIB Box Grade C7,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Fiat 519S Limousine Ministeriale 1930 bluee Rio 1 43 RIOCAR014 Model,.Porsche 935 Le Mans 1977 n° 38 Loos Gelo 1 18 Norev 187431,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.2010 F.Massa F10 Bahrain GP Ferrari Team F1 1 18 scale,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Turntable Ladder Vehicle LP329 DL30 Metz Hamburg Heico HC2022 Nip Μ,.

HOT WHEELS EXCLUSIVE HUMMER H3 RED 1 18 SCALE DIE CAST,.Neo Scale Models Chevrolet C10 in orange White on 1 43 in Box,.Misc. Vintage Hot Wheels, Mattel, Corgi Die Cast Cars w '75 case Used,.Used no brand Spinning reel 3000 beautiful goods Japan sale Free shipping,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.VW Karmann Ghia + Porsche 911 Turbo im Set, Modellauto 1 43 Minichamps,.

PORSCHE 911 Carrera 3.0 RSR JLP 1977 John Paul jr. Davis Leasing Spark 1 43,.BROOKLIN MODELS 1953 PONTIAC SEDAN DELIVERY J M TOYS FUNDRAISER 1 43 BRK 31X,.Matchbox Superfast No 56 Hi-Tailer bluee Driver REVERSED WHEELS VNMIB RARE,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 50 WSI BIG DAF XF 105 DEALER EDITION OHNE OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 R DE LORENZI RACING 24H SPA 2011 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.1 18 BBURAGO Diecast Lamborghini Reventon DIY Vehicle Car Model Toy,.1970 DODGE CHARGER PLUM CRAZY DIORAMA MOPAR HEMI NOS,.Mercedes-Benz Modellauto 1 50 NFZ Unimog U5023 Pritsche und Plane B66004136,.1949 Olds 88 4 door Station Wagon 1 25 Scale,.

Johnny Lightning JLMC012 Muscle Car 1966 Ford Fairlane GT Ver B WHITE CHASE, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 43 FRANKLIN MINT Chevrolet Corvette 1968 MIB,.Spark Model Benetton B194 J. J. 1 43 S4482,. The PartridgeDelage D8 120 Letourneur 1938 bluee 1 43 Spark S2707 Model,.PORSCHE 919 Hybrid Le Mans 2015 Dumas Lieb Jani Resin Spark lim 1 43,.CHEVROLET NOVA cabriolet 1963 ble 1 18 SUNSTAR 3972 voiture miniature collection,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes L1000 MARKLIN METALLSPIELWAREN 1 43 Model SCHUCO, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Norev 183559 2011 Mercedes Benz B180 1 18 Model Car Red,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CIJ - 1 43 - FORD COFFRET POISSY - STUDEBAKER - C80900,.BMW Alpina B6 Gt3 no. 40 ADAC Masters 2011,PartridgeBilico Man con escavatore JBC 4 XC,.Mini champs BMW M3 Z3 M 1 87 Collectors Model Toy Red Dealer,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 65 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Deep Dish, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes Benz 500 SL Modellauto Norev VfB Edition red in OVP 1 of 500,; Diecast Car Model Changan CS15 SUV 1 18 (orange) + GIFT ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Kit Lancia Flaminia Zagato Sport Rally Monte Carlo 1961 - Tron kit 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, NEO Opel Ascona B Gr.2 Simon 1 43 45242, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Norev Citroen Dyane 6 1975 Tuileries Green green Nr. 181621 OVP,.

Matchbox Moko No19 is the model of the M G TD Sports car VNMB,.Mint Minicar Kyosho Original 1 64 Lamborghini Silhouette White, Clarke's negligent act.Brand New JOHNNY LIGHTNING DUKES of HAZZARD Die Cast GENERAL LEE 1 25 Scale RARE,.Red Line Hot Wheels Lot 12 cars all vintage 1968 thru 1990,.Porsche 997 GT3 Cup, Cup PCCA 2014 , Spark models,.

Matchbox SF Nr. 25D Toyota Celica yellow Hot-Rod USA-Box,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky Toys 24L Vespa 400 2CV orginal box only made in France EXC,NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 282 Mercedes Benz 500 SEC Dark Grey,. In Noska,Batman Batpod The Dark Knight Trilogy Elite Edition 1 43 Model X5496 HOT WHEELS,.Ebro 1 43 JAPAN GP Series NISSAN R380 II 1967 No9 finished product,.Mercedes Benz SLS Amg Gt3 HTP MOTORSPORT 2013 1 18 Model MINICHAMPNEW OVP,.AUDI Studie Predotyp Quattro Spyder 1991 orange Resin BOS Sonderpreis 1 18, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 1972 red Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.BBURAGO 0164 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA - JOLLY CLUB SAN REMO 1 24 - VERY GOOD,.BEST MODEL BT9314 FERRARI 308 GTB 1978 GREY 1 43,.MODELLINO 43 JAGUAR XKR GT3 2008 orange IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Id., p 923.

1 43 Provence Moulage (France) D.B super rally LM 1961 Handmade Resin Model Car,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Rio 4317 FIAT 501S SAETTA DEL RE 1915 18 1 43,VW Karmann Ghia TC 145 1970 red Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.AUTOWORLD AMM1024 1969 69 DODGE CgoldNET R T 50th ANNIVERSARY 1 18 LIGHT BRONZE,.OCCASION FORD ESCORT RS COSWORTH black 1 43,.Aston Martin DB3 S , 24H LeMans 1958 , Sparkmodels,.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronze 1 18 Model NOREV,.TAMIYA 1 20 LOTUS FORD 102D E TIRREL YAMAHA 023,.1 64 DIECAST FIRST GEAR KENWORTH AERODINE LONG WHEEL BASE,. The parties OM99186 CORGI 50TH ANNIVERSARY BUS SET,.

NEO MODELS Ford Taunus P7 Pollmann 1 43 45265 1 43 1 43,.NV181700 - CITROEN DS E-TENSE SALON DE GENEVE 2016 METALLIC DARK GREEN 1 18 MODE,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, NEO45644 - MASERATI SEBRING SERIES II 1963 DARK MET.GREEN 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO,; CORGI 1 50 SCALE 70401 PINDER JEAN RICHARD BERLIET GLR8 - DEPANNEUSE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Infiniti Red Bull Racing RB11 Test Car 2015 D.Kvyat 1 43 S4621,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 150 130501 Jaguar XK Coupe 2006 Green RHD,.Diecast vehicles 1 18 rolls royce,.MARK43 1 43 Mazda RX-7 (FD3S) Mazda Speed ​​A Spec GT Wing Yellow PM4367CY,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra, 43 BRABHAM ALFA ROMEO BT46 NELSON PIQUET CANADIAN 1978 P400780066,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hot Wheels 1979 Army Funny Car on Card Don Prudhomme Combine Shipping,.Nex models 1 18 Scale - 19848 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody diecast Model car,.4282- Vintage Battery Operated VW VOLKSWAGEN Bug Police Car by Alps Japan,.Diecast Car Model 1 18 Hongqi H5 (White) + GIFT ,.NEW HONDA Paper craft Monkey 1 5 scale from JAPAN F S,. The ScottsdaleMatchbox 1969 Charger R T 1 43,Spark 1 43 Scale S1009 - F1 Mercedes AMG W03 Brazilian GP 2012,.Mercedes 220S 1956 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34338,. Id.,GreenLight 1 18 The Great Gatsby 2013 - Duesenberg II SJ Diecast Model Car 12927,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, New Ferrari FXX Evoluzione bluee 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels T6922,; OCCASION RENAULT F1 BENETTON n°5 B198 Giancarlo FISICHELLA 1 18,Ferrari 458 Spider (TSM Fujimi) 1 43,.Mercedes L319 1957 Lindt&Sprüngli blue 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183418,. The ScottsdaleSUN6150 - Voiture STUDEBAKER golden Hawk de 1957 - 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Mini-Champs Mercedes-Benz C-Class Dtm 14 43 Scale Car,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Norev GT by Citroen Salon de Paris 2008 white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ebbro 1 43 Nissan Gt-R Lm Nismo 2015 Launch Version New F S,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MAN TGX XXL ITALERI 1 24 PLASTIC KIT,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 18 Dodge Charger R T 1969 red Ertl American Muscle NEU LIMITED EDITION RARITÄT,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Vintage hallmark steelcraft murry mini kiddie car w box, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Smart Forfour W 454 Limousine 2004-06 red metallic flame red 1 18 Kyosho, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Rio RI4461 VW BEETLE SWISS POST 1963 1 43 Modellino,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeVolkswagen Beetle Ambulance Africa Korps 1941 Yellow Rio 1 43 RIO4525 Model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Lot of 4 Rivarossi Cars 2692, 2693, 2694, 2695 NEW IN BOXES,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheZAZ 968A ZAPgoldZHETS METAL CAR 70' 1ST EDITION CCCP 1 43 RARE SEE MORE USSR CCCP,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.FERRARI 512 S SURTEES 1970 NURBURGRING ELITE HOT WHEELS T6259 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Citroen Ds E-Tense Salon De Geneve 2016 Metallic Dark Green 1 18 Model NOREV,CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale CM-DA102B - Dennis Dragon Bus - Hong Kong R269C,.Club Bialbero 40 TZ1 ALFA ROMEO TZ1 GREEN METALLIC 1 43 Modellino,.Camion jouet en bois vintage,. The HuygheM2 Auto Japan 1 64 Complete Set Of 6 Walmart Exclusive Datsun & Fairlady,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRENAULT 12 R12 GORDINI blue de France 1 18,.


Corgi AU2002 Austin Centenary 2 car Diecast Set Ltd Edition No. 0001 of 2510,.Tamiya rc,wedico,carson,robbe, Elektromotor für LKW im Maβstab 1 14,5 1 16,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 43 Toyota Gt One Street 1999 Mini Car Fair 2005,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePolitoys M 16, Matra Simca Sport 660, Mint in Box ab716,.Batman 1966 TV Series Batmobile - Hot Wheels Elite 1 43 scale model car,.

For example, in Partridge,Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC080 - Gordini T15S - Le Mans 1950,. In Jorgensen, supra,MINICHAMPS 1 43 1993 PENSKE MARLBgold CHEVROLET TEST CAR AYRTON SENNA 540934308,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Best Model BT9675 PORSCHE 908-03 N.2 DNF 1000 KM NURBURGRING 1971 J.SIFFERT-D.BE,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Infinity FX50 Version 2 2010 Pearl 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. That is the same situation in this case.Renault 4L Jogging 1981 white 1 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Replica Dinky 1 43 - Peugeot 402 Grey,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 400 800050 - F1 Williams RAM Racing,.1970 Chevrolet Chevy Jeg Camaro Quarter Mile Dragster Funny Car 1 18 Auto World,.Spark Citroen C3 WRC Citroën Total Abu Dhabi 1 43 S5960,.

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