FN LINDBERG 6050 6050 6050 KIT 1 32 COBRA COUPE TRANS AM 7e3e78

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
FN LINDBERG 6050 6050 6050 KIT 1 32 COBRA COUPE TRANS AM 7e3e78
Revell The Fast and the Furious 1970 Dodge Charger 1 25 w Dominic figure,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Matchbox MoY C2 ATM-09 Ford T Tankwagen kanadisches seltenes Modell OVP K12,.Corgi toys 382 Porsche Targa 911S bluee very near mint in very near mint box,.Msb Voiturette Rda Jeep avec Accessoires en Tôle Amendements Rare Rare Vintage,.Porsche 356A Coupe 1957 Light bluee SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1329 Model,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.AWM MB Tourismo M 3 Weihnachtsbus 2017 Winteredition 2.0 1 87 PC+OVP (R1_1_17),.Vintage hot wheels lot 5 cars 1960’s 1970’s,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Premium ClassiXXs Mercedes LP 608 PP Circus Roncalli - red - 1 43,.Minichamps 400808410 1 43 FORD ESCORT II RS1800 VATANEN RICHARDS WINNER ACROPOLI,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps Sauber-Mercedes C9 1 43 Scale Car,.Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 bluee Sera Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43014013,.Nacoral Scania 141 + Trailer Interstar redterdam in bluee Brown, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Vanguards 1 43 - Coffret 2 Ford Classic 109 E Brands Hatch Diorama,.Record Kit Assembled 1 43 - Ferrari Dino 246 GT Red,.PORSCHE 911 993 Speedster red red Roadster Cabrio Resin Pro R Schuco 1 43,.1 18 RENAULT CLIO WILLIAMS 1993 PHASE 1 FASE 1 NOREV 185230,.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 087877 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR 24H Le Mans 2008,.Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale - FBM4 Dodge G Fire & Rescue Service engine,.Volkswagen Zoo Di Arnhem 1965 + Lion Rio 1 43 RIO4412P,.MODELLINO AUDI V8 QUATTRO TEAM AZR F. JELINSKI DTM 1992 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Porsche 356 Cabrio 1950 bluee 1 18 Model SIGNATURE,.

Dinky Toys F 24F Peugeot 403 Familiale rarement joué,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 24 Domestic Specialties Collection (31) 11 14 2017Mazda R360 coupe (1960),.First Gear- LA CROSSE 1959 Int RF-200 Tractor Lowboy Tlr 1 34 NIB,.1 18 Scale Model - 1952 Citroen 2CV,EBRRO Johnson Skyline R33 1995 (1 43 die-cast 43,933) finished product,.Ford Falcon XW GT HO 351 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Car Brambles Red,.

Schuco 8738050 CAVALLO E FANTINO SALDO AD OSTACOLI,.1 18 Hot Wheels Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 in yellow Yellow, RAR RARE ,.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4704 1011 AC COBRA 1965 - blueE - C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

NZG 1 43 Mercedes-Benz Actros 3235 4-Achs Beton mixer,.

MCG - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ TYPE NURBURG 460K - 1928 - 18034BR,. We agree in part.

Vintage Corgi Toys 267 Batman Batmobile Car - Made In Gt Britain,.Ebbro EB44124 NISSAN GT-R N.12 CALSONIC IMPUL SUPER GT 2008 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE HERBIE GOES TO MONTE CARLO ELITE 1 43 HOTWHEELS BLY28,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud Año Fabricación 1974 red 1 18 Kk-Scale,.Vintage Hot Wheels 24 Car Collector's Case,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; SPARK Cadillac Type 61 Coupe 1950 SPA-S2920,.FIAT 500 L 1968 blue NOREV 1 18 bluemet. 187770,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, HOT WHEELS ELITE MILLENNIUM FALCON STARSHIP STAR WARS EPISODE VI RETURN OF JEDI,; VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.34b ROYAL MAIL VAN,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK14 - 1940 Cadillac V16 Congreenible Coupe,.1966 BMW 2000 TI Typ 120 Policia 1 18 MC Group 18042,VINTAGE HAIRY MONKEY APE with MARACAS WINDUP - H22.0cm RARE - NICE CONDITION,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Volkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 1 18 Model YAT MING,.

1967 Corvette Marina bluee 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32272,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 43 Neo BMW Z4 M Coupe red 44466,.1957 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible 1 18 Die-Cast Model by Burago,.Mercedes 1969 Dodge War Horse 1 18 Simulation Modified Alloy Muscle Car Model,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, REBELLION R-ONE TOYOTA LE MANS 2014 SPARK S4207 1 43,; Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronce brown Metálico, Coche Modelo 1 18 Norev,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Fiat Dino Spider - Replicars 103 England 1 43 36514,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

FN LINDBERG 6050 6050 6050 KIT 1 32 COBRA COUPE TRANS AM 7e3e78FN LINDBERG 6050 6050 6050 KIT 1 32 COBRA COUPE TRANS AM 7e3e78FN LINDBERG 6050 6050 6050 KIT 1 32 COBRA COUPE TRANS AM 7e3e78

Wonderful modelcar ALFA ROMEO 75 V6 2.5 SPORTSWAGON 1986 - grey - 1 43 - lim.ed.,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Hot wheels 50th anniversary redline set 5,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

1 43 NEO DODGE 600 Congreenible, 1984,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Red Line 1 43 Scale Resin - RL024 Ferrari F360 Modena JMB Le Mans 2004,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 18 Jaguar XKR n°33 FIA GT 2008 1 18 • Minichamps 150081333,.KYOSHO KS03634KR14 1 43 Toyota 86 KYOSHO From japan,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.FIAT SEDICI 2006 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.AUDI TT CABRIOLET green 1 18,.

Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 13901 VW T1b flatbed Zündapp with Bella Roller,.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 pre-painted model series SP Toyota AE86 Trueno 1983 w,.EAGLE RACE 1 18 3815 1940 FORD COUPE HIGHWAY PATROL CAR GREY,.KK-Scale Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 - red - 1972 - 1 18,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Tin's Manufactured 78002 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CROCE ROSSA 1957 Modellino,.

Vintage Corgi No 469 London Routemaster Bus; 1974; VGC,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1970 DODGE CHARGER SUPERNATURAL GREENLIGHT 19046 1 18,.CORVETTE C6RS ROADSTER YELLOW 2009 SPARK S1535 1 43,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, NEO NEO46525 1 43 CHEVROLET CORVAIR WINDOW VAN 1963 RED WHITE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT B3 VR6 VARIANT 1988 blue SCURO METALLIZZATO MODEL,.Starsky and hutch Antique car Ford Gran Torino,.Predar PR0181 LANCIA STRATOS HF PredOTYPE 1971 WHITE 1 43 Modellino,.RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Monte Carlo 1977 Nahon Dinin Edition Trofeu 1 43,.ERTL 1 18 Scale American Muscle 1969 MAG WHEEL YENKO 427 CAMARO ISSUE (GREEN),.

RENAULT DAUPHINE BARDHAL SERIE LIMITEE 1000 EX CIJ PAR NOREV NEUF EN BOITE, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale CM-DGS002 -Dennis Dragon Bus HK R12 Club Model,.NO NY SALES Nacoral Inter-Cars 1 25 Seat Fiat 850 sport near mint w box Spain,. The PartridgeSunstar 1 18 Diecast - 4055 - 1966 Lotus Elan SE Roadster - Royal bluee,.Pilen 1 43 Scale diecast 371 Mercedes Benz 250 ARTEC Rally red,.DINKY TOYS JAGUAR 3.4 Mk11 IN CREAM 1961-71 EXCELLENT BOXED - Lot,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 1973 Candy Green yellow Japan NEW, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 FRECCIA D'gold 1947 RED Minichamps 403120484,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Brand Domestic Famous Car Mitsubishi Pajero 1 43 Scale,.Corgi CC15809 Mercedes-Benz Actros (MP4) Tractor Unit In Transit 1 50 Scale New,Partridge2016 Porsche 911 R in Gulf bluee by Minichamps Diecast Model,.CORGI TOY 57301 MERCEDES BENZ AMBULANCE PARAMEDIC M BOXED RARE ,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Bruder Scania R-Serie UPS Logistik- LKW mit Mitnahmestapler - 03581, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, FERRARI 612 SCAGLIETTI 2004 RED MET RL020 Red Line 1 43 New in the box ,; NEO MODELS 45815 CHRYSLER 300B 1956 - OFF-WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ford GT 2017 Modellauto in 1 18 von Maisto, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mint Bmw Mini Bikes Two 1 18, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi Chevrolet-Superior 61 Ambulance, New In Box,.

Citroen Cx Break Loadrunner 1989 Ed.Lim.Pcs 492 1 43 Matrix MX30304-011 Model,.PEUGEOT 403 CABRIOLET DE 1964 SOLIDO N° 8165 1 18 CREME ROADSTER DIE CAST WAGEN, Clarke's negligent act.Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS green Ab 2013 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder ohne ..,.Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 Capanelle Red 1 18 Norev 184779,.Ferrari Limited Edition 9601 Diorama Rally Montecarlo 1966 Nr.444 3000 M 1 43,.

Porsche 918 Spyder 2014 Metallic Green 1 43 Spark S4243 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Bentley Corniche 1971 green Neo 1 43 44145,Renault Vivaquatre KZ9 7 Places de 1932 bluee & black Rétro 87 - SAI 7288 - 1 87,. In Noska,Chevrolet Impala 1967 2 Door Coupe Marina blue bluee TSM Modellauto 1 43,.Kraz 255V NVA 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs 47039,.Porsche 911 (997 II) GT3 RS 2010 - white black - Norev - 1 18 - 187561,.Minichamps Double Set Red Bull Racing 1 43 412100506, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.GREEN13510 - VW BEETLE 1967 RIGHT HAND DRIVE LOTUS WHITE 1 18 MODELLINO MODELLO,.SPARK S3968 Collectible Miniature Car, bluee White,.Precision 100 Collection 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Congreenible Diecast 1 18 Scale,.2017 Ford GT [Maisto 38134] blue, 1 18 Die Cast,. Id., p 923.

1 18 Jeep Wrangler Sahara (Champaigne) Burago 18-12014,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA - Polizia 1961 - Museo di Roma 1 43 RIO4572 Made in ,Art Model AM0268 FERRARI 500 TRC N.16 WINNER VIRGINIA 1957 W.HELBURN 1 43 Modell,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 B3243 BMW 645CI GREY gold,.Volkswagen UP Lite - 1 43 - LookSmart,.Alfa Romeo Giulia 1973 Europa-Testfahrt Sizilien-Hammerfest - 1 43 - Minichamps,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.67 24H SPA 2014 GDL Motorsport SB083,.Conrad Vögele Super 700-3.i Raupenfertiger Bauma 2016,.1975 Hot Wheels Paramedic (White) (Redline) (Hong Kong),. The parties Ikarus 556 white-red Hungary USSR Soviet Bus 1 43,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, VW Volkswagen 1303 Beetle Cabriolet 1972-80 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34147,; Corgi Diecast Metal Models CC87502 The A Team Van with BA Painted Figure, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Dinky Toys 190 Monteverdi 375L made in England rare 5 spoke wheels NM+ Condition,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Team Lotus 16 No. 14 Graham Hill Dutch GP 1959 S1835 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)NEW GRIP TECHNICA LOTUS EUROPE DIECAST 1 28 SCALE DIECAST CAR,.Lotus J.Herbert 1992 S.Africa 1 43 Spark Sp1675 Model,.NOREV 188521 1973 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE 1303 CABRIOLET 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR orange,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DINKY TOYS 968 BBC TV ROVING EYE VEHICLE 1960 MECCANO,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1960'S FORD ECONOLINE VAN CLEAN-RITE LAUNDRY DRY CLEANER 1 25 FIRST GEAR 49-0399,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 56 - Cooper Bristol Mk1 1952,.FIAT 1100 MOTTO MILLE MIGLIA 1948 JOLLY MODEL JL769,.CORGI CAR TRANSPORTER 1101 V N MINT,.CORGI TOYS 233 Heinkel Economy Car excellent in complete original box,. The ScottsdaleNorev Jet-car n° 812 - RENAULT Alpine A 310 bluee - 1 43 P Series,Cadillac Fleetwood Sixty Special Sedan 1959 White 1 43 Spark S2914 Model,.1 43 NEO INFINITI FX50 S, 2010,. Id.,Jada 1 24 Scale 98399 - Transformers Metal Car 2016 Chevy Camaro - Bumblebee,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox No.73C Ford Model A Van spare wheel filled in casting mint boxed,; Gemini macs 1 400 C-17A India air force CB-8003 Japan Import,SPARK MODEL SJ043 DAIHATSU MIRA WALK THROUGH VAN 1992 blueE 1 43,.Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 1977 olive green 1 18 Norev,. The ScottsdaleSpark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.15 7th ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014 SG134,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Dinky Toys 417 Ford Transit Motorway Services Van made in England NMIB,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Norev Chenard & Walker 1500kg Type CHV 1946 green,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ERTL 1949 MERCURY RAT ROD POLICE 1 18 1 OF 700 MADE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Volkswagen VW Beetle 1967 Right Hand Drive Lotus White 1 18 Model 13510,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Kyosho KY05561D - 1 43 BENTLEY FLYING SPUR W12 DAMSON,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 24 GREEN TEAM RACER LABEL, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Opel Manta B Mattig yellow blue Film Movie 1991 1 18 MCG diecast, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Burago 1 18 Ferrari F50 (1995) red - 3362 - Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeClub Bialbero 011EDL F.TR gold CLUB BIALBERO EDIZION,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mac Due MCG18095 OPEL MANTA B MATTING YELLOW blueE 1 18 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCitroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 White Ewt Kess Model 1 43 KS43011022 Model,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 RMZ Model BMW F07 5er 535 GT 5 Series Gran Turismo White,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,SUZUKI Vitara 1.6 JLX 4x4 Congreenible Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44980,Spark 1 43 McLaren M7C n.27 US GP 1970 Jo Bonnier S3135,.MÄRKLIN Digital - 3665 Diesellokomotive BR 260 Modelleisenbahn Spur H0 (MF11),.Turntable Ladder Vehicle Lp329 Dl30 Metz Lauenburg Heico Hc2028 Nip Μ,. The HuygheJoal Miniaturas Renault R10 made in Spain 1 43 scale Near Mint rare version,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheERTL 1 32 SCALE CASE IH MAGNUM 175TH ANNIVERSARY MODEL BN 44135A,.

VW T1 Zündapp Kundendienst 1 43 SCHUCO RARE ,.Corgi Toys 283, OSI Daf-City Car, Mint in Box ab690,.

DeAGOSTINI 250 California 1957 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.57 F S,.Corgi CC13787 Malcolm Logistics Scania R Colin Prior Collection Ltd Edition,. Nonetheless, on the facts of LOTUS ELAN S 1 1962 YELLOW 1 43 Spark SP1237,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeGreenLight 1 18 1979 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 California Highway Patrol 13506,.V 1 64 HOTWHEELS PHIL'S GARAGE FERRARI 288 GTO 288GTO YELLOW MINT ON CARD ERROR ,.

For example, in Partridge,Norev 1 18 1987 Porsche 911 Turbo Targa 3.3 (bluee Metallic) Diecast Car 187663,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 Die Cast Collectors Edition American Muscle Ford Legends Series Shelby,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Eligor ELI101489 HOTCHKISS PL20 4x4 CCF LE PERREON 1 43 Modellino,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,LESNEY MATCHBOX 1970 MB68 RED PORSCH 910 excellent box NOS,. That is the same situation in this case.Best Model BT9251 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 CODA LUNGA 1968 RED 1 43 Modellino,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Neo Models Citroen SM Espace by Heuliez in bluee Metallic 1971 47000 1 43 NEW,. Detroit Edison, supra.

CAMION BRITANNIQUE FORDSON WOT-2 15cwt, WW2 - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 348,.DCP 1 64 SCALE PETERBILT 379 60 BUNK WHITE RED TOP, FENDERS, AND STRIPE,.Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps Rover Vitesse Team ATN Kurt Thim Champ...,.

Citroen Ds21 Berline Ch.1000.000 1969 gold RIO 1 43 RIO4586 Model,.