43 PORSCHE 906 SIFFERT SIFFERT SIFFERT 24H LE MANS 1966 P400666630 0d35f3

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
 43 PORSCHE 906 SIFFERT SIFFERT SIFFERT 24H LE MANS 1966 P400666630 0d35f3
RENAULT ALPINE A210 ANDRUET NICOLAS 14TH LE MANS 1968 SPARK S4375 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MODELLINO CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT COUPE’ N.2 12 ORE SEBRING 1964 IN RESIN,.BoS MODELS 1 43 VW Passat Variant GT Syncro , red,.1970 1 2 Camaro Z28 American Muscle Ertl 1 18 Diecast - Green,.TRIPLE 9 T9-1800171 LANCIA DELTA HF INTEGRALE 16V 1989 RED 1 18,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 540874312 1 43 LOTUS 99T AYRTON SENNA 1987,.1975-79 CORGI 1 43 Gratte-Ciel Grue à tour No1155 Très Bon Etat BOITE ABIMER,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1971 FORD MUSTANG SPORTSROOF BROWN SUN STAR 3619 1 18,.Spark BMW 635 1983 Macau Guia Race D. Quester 1 43 SA053,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.JadaToys 1 24 scale FAST & FURIOUS (2 FAST 2 FURIOUS) BRAIAN'S NISSAN SKYLIN,.Politoys M Ferrari 512S Pinninfarina made in 1 43 scale near mint,.MATRIX 50408011 DELAHAYE 235 CHAPRON COUPE 1953 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 39 38, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Subaru Legacy B4 2009 white Kyosho J-Collection 1 43 JCP70002W,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 081001 - 1974 Ford Escort - Red,.Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps McLarenF1GTR Predotype,.Conrad 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 3065 Mercedes Benz 230T Light green,.

Ford 17 M (P2) Turnier 1958 Yellow White 1 43 NeoScale NEO44551 Model,.ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 N°18 rallye MONTE CARLO 1973 1 18,.Mercedes 260d W138 green 1936 1 43 Ixo museum,.Vintage Hot Wheels Mattel The Hot Ones Drag Race Number 3534 Missing Peices,.Exem EXR1016 1 43 1960 Porsche Abarth 695 GS Resin Model Car,.

Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 37 B Coca Cola Lorry yellow r. Ax. BPW Lesney 1,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Mercedes Sauber C9 Winner Le Mans 1989 1 18 Norev 183442,.AMIE AM43004 Mini Car 1 43 Ultraman 80 UGM Scouter S7 AJ-5 Finished Goods JAPAN,.Neu Ebbro 44473 1 43 Hondacityturbo R 1982suzuka K.Acheson whitee yellow,Rio RI4533 MERCEDES SSK SUPER-SPORT-KURZ 1928 RED 1 43 Modellino,.DINKY Meccano England original 1947 RILEY SALOON RMA RMB a DARK GREEN,.

AUDI 200 quattro 20V Turbo metallic dunkel red red 1990 NEO Resin N 43,.(36) Hot Wheels JDM Lot Brand New See Pictures JDM2,.Burago 1 18 Scale 18-16904 Ferrari California T Open white Diecast model car,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 KrAZ 255V SZM NVA- olive,.

Miniminiera RIOAK41 VW AFRICA KORPS 41 TYP 87+PERSONAGG,. We agree in part.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3329 - Citroen DS3 WRC Monte Carlo 2012,.MODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN 1200 EXPORT 1951 VIGILI DEL FUOCO DORTMUND IN METALLO MINIC,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 Coupe green 1977 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Wiking 1 32 077325 Traktor Claas Arion 650 mit Frontlader - NEU OVP,.PORSCHE Cayman GT4 Racing Clubsport Team TGM Spark Resin 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Dinky Toys 157 Jaguar 2 tone in excellent plus all original condition,.NOREV E92 BMW M 535i 1987 blueE METALLIC MIB 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Polistil 1 18 Scale Diecast - 058373 Lamborghini Diablo Yellow,; Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11XF11 1937 Cord Phaeton Coupe,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Volkswagen Rabbit 4-door 1975 Red 1 43 NEO 43955,.Opel Olympia Limousine White 1954, model cars 1 43,Spur H0 1 87 Kibri 10326 Gottwald Auto-Gittermastkran 1000t - OVP (877B),. Pontiac School Dist, supra.NOREV183543 - MERCEDES-BENZ E500 Class blacke - 1 18,.

Mercedes-Benz 560 SEL 1990 Pearl bluew Metallic Norev 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MAZ 6312 Emercom SSM 1216 1 43,.Bmw 320 I orange 2005 Minichamps 1 43 400052400 Model,.Matchbox Moko No 2 is the model of the Muir Hill dumper with MW VNMB,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Peugeot RCZ-R matt black, 1 18 NOREV,; Neo Lagonda 3-Litre DHC - dunkelgreen - 1956 - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Trofeu TFRRAL14 FORD ESCORT Mk1 N.23 RETIRED PORTUGAL 1973 F.SANTOS-J.ANJOS 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

60s.LESNEY.Matchbox.42.Studebaker Station Wagon.Hunter.Dog.Mint in box,Original,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

IXO 1 43 Lada Niva mit Dachzelt 1981 - red,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Opel Kadett C City red 1978 Minichamps 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

ORIGINALE - DINKY TOYS - FRANCE - 2 CV VESPA 400,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.982 PULLMORE CAR TRANSPORTER,.Pegaso Z 206 barajas 1 43 Ixo Altaya,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.VW Sharan 1 18 Minichamps,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 613G WHEEL SCRAPER MODEL BN 85235,.

Mercedes-Benz 560 SEL 1990 blue Pearl bluee metallic 1 18 Norev 183464 NEU,.Lot of 9 Hot Wheels Lexmark,.Alpine A110 Premiere Edition 2017 - 1 18 - Norev,.Ebbro 1 43 Mazda Savanna RX-7 Yellow from Japan,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Supercar Collectibles Mr Norm's 1968 Dodge Dart GSS 440 Magnum w Box RJ,.

Citroen Gt Salon De Paris 2008 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV181610 Miniature,.CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET 1961 PEARL GREY NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.Volkswagen VW Maggiolino Wiesbaden Police Speed Control 1957 1 43 Model RIO,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, MAISTO 1 18 - 36196 MERCEDES BENZ SLS AMG - RED,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.AUDI Quattro Rallye Gr.B 555 Hongkong Peking 1985 Mikkola S-PRE Sunstar 1 18,.1 43 Ixo Ferrari Enzo,.Schuco Volkswagen Typ 38 (grey) 1 43 450889100,.RIO 4235 FIAT 238 1970 BIANCO WHITE,.NOREV 183451 2017 MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT C ROADSTER 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR YELLOW,.

Mazda Cosmo AP (1975) 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars Vol.63 RX-5, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.GDR DDR MSB set of 2 PKW Cabriolet 1954 - 1965 tin plate 1 43 in minor condition,.SCHUCO 1 43 SCALE 02161 - BMW 2000 1966 - 1972 - blueE,. The PartridgeBurago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3015 Mercedes Benz 300 SL1954 Red Model Car,.OOC.Modelzone. Wright Eclipse Go NE X10. 1 76. Ltd Ed. (Middlesbrough). OM41216,.602052 Joskin Cargo 24000 TSM, 1 32 ROS,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, ERTL 1 18 1958 CHEVROLET IMPALA American Muscle Memories BRAND NEW SEALED BOX, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Solido 1 43 - Ferrari 2.5L No.152 Ref 129,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.SAAB 900 SALOON 1995 Aubergine MINICHAMPS 1 43,.2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002,PartridgeMaxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 060220 - 2012 Porsche 911 Carrera S - bluee,.FORCES OF VALOR FOV861006A 1 700 GERMAN BATTLESHIP BISMARK DENMARK STRAIT 1941,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MVI Resin 1 43 K 58 Toyota Land Cruiser Remorque Pompier, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PEUGEOT 404 CABRIOLET 1967 1 18 NOREV (MENDOZA blueE),; SCARCE VITESSE VW T1 VAN COTE D'OR BELGIAN PROMO 1 43 LTD EDT MB 1 OF 1000,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3L Coupe 1977 Olive Green NOREV 1 18 NV187575 Miniature, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1937 Tatra 87 black 1 18 MC Group 18069, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePrecision 100 Collection 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Congreenible Diecast 1 18 Scale,.

MERCEDES LKW LP608 Renn Service Porsche redhman s Racing Premium Classixx 1 43,.Herpa, MAN TGS LX Euro 6 Kempf Stöffel-Liner 150. Thronjubiläum , 918305, Clarke's negligent act.Mercedes 250T W123 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,.Dinky Toys Supertoys no. 651 Centurion Tank Militairy ovp,.Vintage Lesney Matchbox Lotus Europa ,.

DIECAST MASTERS 1 32 SCALE CATERPILLAR 308E2 MINI HYDRLIC EXCAVTOR PLUS 85239,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SCHUCO BMW 328 WINNER 2L CLASS MILLE MIGLIA 1938 - 1 43 EXCELLENT IN DEALER BOX,Hot Wheels 2009 Hotlanta 1965 Chevelle Collector Car NIP,. In Noska,1957 MERCEDES 190 SL BEIGE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 183539,.MINICHAMPS 1 12 SCALE HONDA NSR 500 VALENTINO ROSSI (DIRTY VERSION) 122 016186,.Lancia Stratos San Remo 1980 Tabaton-Radaelli 1 43 430801224 Minichamps,.LADA NIVA - 1 43 SCALE - DARK YELLOW orange TYPE COLOUR - BOXED, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 43 Minichamps Bentley S2 Standard Saloon 1960 red,.PORSCHE 911 964 RS Cup Supercup Beru Pfeil Bimbo Mühlbauer Minichamps 1 43,.Alfa Romeo 6c 2500 Freccia d'gold 1 43 Minichamps Diecast Model Limited Edition,.SCHUCO Volkswagen Small Vehicle Volkswagen Service 450900900,. Id., p 923.

A.36 Mebetoys 1 43 Fiat Nuova 500 magentamet. ohne Box 508092,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Ertl Auto World Dodge Charger Daytona 1969 white bluee,McLAREN MP4-6 GP D'ALLEMAGNE 1991 A. SENNA MINICHAMPS 1 43,.Porsche 911 R 2016 1 43 Minichamps 410066232 991 NARDOGREY YELLOW 504pcs.,.McLaren MP4 12C (2011) Diecast Model Car from Top Gear 519431330,.Saab 9-3 Sport Wagon (2003) Red Scale 1 43 Cararama Hongwell Diecast model car,.FAST & FURIOUS Lykan Hypersport 1 18 SCALE DIECAST OPENING FEATURES by JADA,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast 36203 - 2015 Ford Mustang GT Police Car,.Bentley Continental GT3-R - yellow - 1 of 504 - Almost Real - 1 43 - 430404,. The parties WILLIAMS FW08 GP 1982 K. ROSBERG MINICHAMPS 1 43 1er,.

RARE COMPTOURS CAMION ANCIEN CITROEN RU 23 KIT RESINE POSTES POSTE PTT REF 1059,.Brabham BT50 BMW Turbo Formula1 N.Piquet + R. Patrese 1 20 Building Kit,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Citroën C35 phase 2 VSAB Auxerre ELIGOR,; CONRAD - METALLMODELL - MAN - PRITSCHEN-LKW + HÄNGER - OVP -1 50 BOXED, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Schuco Borgward Traktor (08946) - 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 3 Collector Johnny Lightning James Bond 007 CHOOSE Q’S RUSE WHAT THE goldFING,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)VINTAGE CORGI gold JAMES BOND'S ASTON MARTIN DB 5 ORIGINAL OWNER,.KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - silver - 1 18,.RUSSIAN CCCP USSR NOVOEXPORT VOLGA GAZ TA3-24 TAXI YELLOW NEAR MINT BOXED,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ferrari Daytona Corgi 1 36,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.(W) PAULS MODEL ART MINICHAMPS 1 18 F1 MCLAREN PEUGEOT MP 4 12 D COULTHARD boxed,.MODELCARGROUP MCG18017 VOLGA M24 1967-1992 TAXI WHITE 1 18,.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 16A 1935 DODGE VAN CITY ICE DELIVERY MINT BOXED mq,.MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.Art Model AM0370 FERRARI 500 TRC N.184 (F.TEMPO MASSIMO) T.FLORIO 1965 TAGLIAVIA,. The Scottsdale6 X JAMES BOND 007 LIVING DAYLIGHTS CARS DIORAMA ASTON EAGLEMOSS FABRI NEW WOW ,1979 Vintage Hot Wheels 40's Woodie HiRakers Die-Cast Car A,.Minichamps Horch 855 Special-Roadster 1938 1 43 Copper Metallic (JS),. Id.,NEW 1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Die Cast - 1 18 Scale Collectible Muscle Car,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ERTL Chevrolet Corvette 1961 1 18 red white Neuwertig OVP,; Kyosho 1 43 Scale 05051Y - Ferrari 365GTB 4 Early Version - Yellow,FUJIMI 1 24 PORSCHE 356 B C 2000 GS Carrera 2 enthusiast model - Rare,.Bentley R Type Continental 1955 Green 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,. The ScottsdaleVector 1 43 1941 Russian GAZ 61-73 4x4 Handmade Metal Model Car,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Mercedes-Benz 260D Pullman Landaulet 1936 - dunkelred - 1 of 500 - Esval Models,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CORGI TOYS 406 MERCEDES BENZ BONNA AMBULANCE - EXCELLENT IN BOX,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky Toys France Pump Double Flow 1935 ,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ebro 1 43 JAPAN GP Series TOYOTA 7 1968 Japan GP No3 finished product,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Alfa Romeo GTV 916 Police Plastic 1 24 19.5cm Li Wei Battery Op Mint Box White,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Porsche 911 (991II) GT3 Rs Weissach-Paket 2018 silver con Llantas Doradas 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Porsche 991 GT3 Cup ,Porsche Carrera Cup 2013 , Sparkmodels, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2004 R.Barrichello F1 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps 43 McLaren M8A, 1968 CanAm Series, Bruce McLaren Ltd Ed,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Schuco Piccolo 3er-set 2003 Size Prix Racer Midget Maserati all Red (65064),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNEO Porsche Panamericana Closed 1 43 44585,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.PEUGEOT 207 BERLINE NOREV black 1 18 184768,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Kyosho Original 1 64 Bentley Porsche 3 Set,Speccast 35508 JOHN DEERE FREIGHTLINER M2 1 64 Modellino,.Spark 1 43 Audi R8 LMS ultra n.502 9th ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014 SG136,.Ixo model F03MC143 FORD FOCUS N.3 WINNER TURKEY'08 1 43 Modellino,. The HuygheEso-5094 IMU 1 87 Mercedes LKW Spedition sehr guter Zustand,Führerhaus red,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 43 Minichamps Mercedes Benz W196,.

Mercedes Benz Cla-Class Amg Cla 45 Shooting Brake 2016 White SPARK 1 43 S4990 Mo,.LEO Hot Wheels NEET STREETER India MOC Yellow BW MOSC,.

1 43 NEO MITSUBISHI Sappgold MkI, 1982,.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR 2.8 (CHASSIS 911 360 0307 R7) OSSIB 430736904,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Spark S2223 1 43 Resin Lotus Exige S Open Top Roadster, LHD, Dark bluee Metallic,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSiku 1000er Serie Citroen DS hellblue in ungeöffneter Blister OVP Karte,.Danbury Mint 1959 Cadillac Series 62,.

For example, in Partridge,Hot Wheels - Pista Supergarra de Rescate Toy Story 3 R2524 - NUEVO,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 150 Kyosho Diecast bus Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Queen SHD (N scale) Kira Kira tour,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 Spark Falken Porsche 911 GT3 R VLN Nürburgring ´11 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCAR,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Herpa 121453 Scania RTL Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Bayern Star III Trio Trans -1 87,. That is the same situation in this case.NZG Mercedes-Benz Actros Wensink Aangenaam Semi-Tractor Trailer 1 50 NIB D,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Schuco 450595600 - Piccolo Set Edition 100 Years, Set with 3 Polished Models,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13239 - DAF XF Super Cab Fridge Trailer - Kinlochbervie,.FIRE BRIGADE MODELS - DENNIS METROPOLITAN FIRE BRIGADE 1 50 SCALE,.Bmw 2000 Ti Type 120 1966 Light Grey MCG 1 18 MCG18112 Model,.

NEO 1 43 - MG RV8 DARK GREEN - EXCELLENT CONDITION- 32,.