Ixo model TRU020 TRU020 TRU020 DAF 2600 FRANS MAAS 1965 1 43 Modellino ff6676

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Ixo model TRU020 TRU020 TRU020 DAF 2600 FRANS MAAS 1965 1 43 Modellino ff6676
Volkswagen Emma'S Beetle 1967 Once Upon A Time Yellow GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN12993,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1979 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 California Highway Patrol Hardtop(CHP) 1 18 Model Car,.SPARK 1 43 S3420 PORSCHE 997 GT3 RSR TEAM FELBERMAYR PredON LM 2011,.1 18 Scale Model - 1952 Citroen 2CV,.1 64 Inno64 Honda Civic Type R Fd2 Spoon Sport,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.DUB CITY Big Ballers Jada Chevy Impala SS,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 9-3 KGPW MERRYWEATHER MARQUIS FIRE ENGINE,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 Gun Grey Met.1 43 Kess Model Ks43011020,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S 2004 RED 519431372,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.EMEK 82094 MAN TGS LX Kofferauflieger 1 25,.MINICHAMPS OPEL KADETT C GT E SIGNALyellow black 430045622,.Lloyd Lt 500 600 1955 Dark Beige Light Beige 1 43 Neoscale NEO43872 Model, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

DINKY Meccano England original 1947 RILEY SALOON RMA RMB a DARK GREEN,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3028 Lamborghini Diablo 1990 Light bluee,.PORSCHE 911 991 II CARRERA 4 COUPE 2016 GREY METAL HERPA WAP 020 103 0G 1 43,.HOT WHEELS 1 64 Scale Diecast 7285 35TH ANNIVERSARY OF HOT WHEELS,.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3085 - F1 Infiniti Red Bull Racing Australia GP 2014,.1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,.Vtg 1960's Tonka Toys USA Pink Surrey JEEP w Canopy parts repair,.Corgi 1 76 Scale Model Bus AN40814 - Bristol Lodekka FS5G Lincolnshire Transport,.Rio RI4585 LAMBORGHINI MIURA BERTONE P400 1966 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.

MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.17 LONDONER BUS 'SANTA CLAUS LAND' MIB,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 AF CORSE LE MANS 2011 FUJIMI FJ022 1 43,.BMW 635 CSi “STP” Intertec 1985, spark models,.Renault 5 Turbo 1 Anno di Costruzione 1981 blue Metallizzato 1 18 Ixo,VW Käfer 1303 red 1973 1 18 Norev 188520 Beetle Volkswagen,.Drake Z0B008 Vintage Burgundy Ballast Box,.

Ebbro Eblo 1 43 Honda Coupe 9S White Minicar,.NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 281 Mercedes Benz 280 W126 Dark bluee,.1953 Porsche 550 Carrera Panamericana IV Diecast Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T3 BUS blueESTAR - 1990 - 180202BL,.



A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.VINTAGE DIECAST--1966 PONTIAC GTO TRI-POWER--1 18 SCALE--11 1 2 LONG--by ERTL,.BMW 650i GT 6 Series 1 18 Gran coupe,.UH MODELS LAND ROVER DEFENDER - UK POLICE - 1 18 SCALE MODEL - UH3885,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Brekina 55190 MB Kofferhängerzug Voorburg Basel Verwer´s Express OVP (R8044),.2018 Hot Wheels 18th Nationals Convention Bingo ‘40 Ford coupe Set of 3,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Brand New ROAD SIGNATURE 66 OLDSMOBILE TgoldNADO gold 1 18 SCALE,; MINICHAMPS 1 43 BUGATTI TYPE 57C 1939 green,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM26 - 1953 Jowett Javelin Deluxe - Athena Grey,.Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC090 - Gordini T24 - Le Mans 1953,UT MODELS 1 18 OPEL CALIBRA DTM - LUDWIG 1995 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.CORGI 1 50 - 29201 GUY WARRIOR PLATFORM TRAILER - BRS,.

Hi-Story HS154RE 1 43 Honda INTEGRA TYPE R MUGEN (2004) Milano red,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Matchbox regular wheels No 7 is the Ford Anglia car with SPW VNMB,.Verem 1 43 - Panhard 24 BT Plum,.Schuco 450883100 Ford Mustang 302,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Spark 1 43 Scale S3793 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC nd Monte Carlo 2014,; 1964 Lotus Elan 26R Walker Racing Crystal Palace 1 43 by Spark S0267,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Fujimi 1 43 Resin 2012 Ferrari F12berlinetta Coupe, Modena Yellow FJM1343013,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Humber Super Snipe 1965 Salon Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO46335,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Model Car Morgan Nostalgia Tin Model, Metal 34 cm, New (Ko ),


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Chevrolet Corvette C1 1953 Canopy Closed Metallic bluee 1 43 Neoscale NEO45746 Mo,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,.Techno Giodi Modellauto 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 280 SL 1968,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.WSI 04-2000 20 FT Tank Container VTG Tanktainer Trailer Load 1 50 Scale,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ebbro 44698 TOYOTA IQ orange 1 43 scale,.

KK-Scale Audi 80 GTE - hellgreen matt-black - 1975 - 1 18,.Dinky 276 Bedford Airport Fire Tender With Flashing Light In Original Box - Nice,.Herpa 173735 PC Renault Plan - Trailer lütkemeyer 1 87 BOXED,.Matchbox Lesney 1909 Thomas Flyabout Y-12,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ferrari Dino 268 SP th Le Mans 1962 Baghetti Scarfiotti 1 43 Model 0212,.

VINTAGE CRAGSTAN PRESSED STEEL--FRICTION CAR OUT OF THE 50's--9 LONG--JAPAN,.Dodge 6x6 1949 Pompiers ALERTE,.1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 GT3 (991.2) 2017 PURPLE METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410066027 NEU,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Pontiac Firebird Trans Am 1977 yellow, Modellauto 1 43 Auto World,.Corgi Toys 227 Morris Mini Cooper bluee, bluee bonnet, lemon interior (2),.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1981 CHEVY CAMARO Z28 T-TOP W GREENLIGHT 12906 1 18,.KK-Scale VW Käfer 1200 Hebmüller Cabriolet - dunkelred - 1949 - 1 18,.Edmonton Transit New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701023 Stand. (2018),.

Vintage Matchbox Car Lesney England 1960's Honda Motorcycle In Box, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Audi S5 Coupe Model Car 1 43 Misano Red - 5011615431,.2 MINT RARE Lesney Matchbox Toyota Celica Japanese J-21 & J-22 Picture Box JAPAN,. The PartridgeNEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 - OPEL KADETT CITY 43070 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.MEBETOYS A-17 A17 A 17 BMW 2000 SPORT COUPE blueE NEAR MINT RARE SELTEN RARO,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO47150 CITROEN SM OPERA BY HENRY CHAPRON DARK RED 1 43,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lorraine-Dietrich Type B3-6 Roadster 1928, Modellauto 1 43 Minichamps, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Almost real Bentley GT3 ADAC 24hr Nurburging 43 Discast Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Corgi Mercedes Benz C111, Superb Condition in Near Mint Original Box,.Audi A3 Russian Police Minichamps 1 43,PartridgeBBR KIT 1 43 ALFA ROMEO ROMEO 156 PRESS VERSION 1998 UNBILT BOXED,.Force India Mercedes VJM05 Paul di Resta Formula 1 2012 1 43 410120011,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Fiat 238 Ambulance Tetto Alto Ferrari Fiorano 1972 White RIO 1 43 RIO4555, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Best Model BT9585 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 SPYDER N.5 WINNER MONTLHERY 1969 LARROUSSE-VER,; VOLKSWAGEN VW DRAG BUS LIBERTY PROMOTIONS 2005 Happy Halloween w Case 1 of 1300,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Trojan Esso Meccano Dinky Toys, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, FIAT SEAT 131 Abarth Rallye Villa Gijon 1981 Spain Cardin Motul 1 250 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Ixo 18RMC008 Porsche 911 SC SC WALDEGARD RALLY MONTE CARLO 1982,.

Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes-Benz E-Class 250TE SW (S123) Polizei 1976 Art.430032294,.Corgi Toys 1 36 JAMES BOND 007 BMW Z8 The World is not Enough DIORAMA Set MIB , Clarke's negligent act.Hot Wheels 1969 Vintage Redline STATE POLICE CRUISER Oldsmobile Cutlass 442 Car,.JOBLOT BUNDLE 12 x KINSMART DIECAST & PLASTIC CAMPERVANS WITH SURF BOARDS NEW,.NSU Ro 80 Baujahr 1972 white 1 18 Minichamps,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Top 43 (France) Porsche 917 (Zitro Racing) Le Mans 1970 Diecast 1 43 NIB,Hot Wheels Redline Demon in Olive Collectors Quality Condition,. In Noska,Kode 9 Tokyo Motor Show 2015 bluee Spark 1 43 SJ040 Miniature,.Ford V8 Deluxe Coupe Model 01A 1940 bluee bluee 1 18 Eagle Race,.Hi-Story HS146RE 1 43 Nissan SUNNY 1500 SUPER SALOON (1987) Super Red,.Matchbox Models Of Yesteryear YYM37635 1935 Leyland Cub Motor Pump Fire Issue 1, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.BY370-2x Matchbox Modell Y-5 + Y-1 + Y-16 + Y-8 + Y-7 + YY18 + Ford Model T,.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144342 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.Nissan Gt-r R-35 2008 Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 Model 188053 NOREV,.Spark 1 43 Red Bull RB10 2014 Sebastian Vettel S3085,. Id., p 923.

Porsche 935 1000 miles Portland 1978 n° 30 Momo 1 43 Spark US041,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Coche coleccion Norev,escala 1 18,Mercedes-Benz 280CE,Ref.183589,Trofeu TF1404 FIAT 131 ABARTH N.2 2nd MONTE CARLO 1977 J.C.ANDRUET-BICHE 1 43 Mo,.PEUGEOT 309 GTi 16 blue Miami 1 18,.BMW M3-1987-- IXO ALTAYA 1 18° FASCICULE 43 plus dispo chez altaya,.Matchbox 22 Pontiac Coupe mit OVP,.Fiat 238 Marlbgold Lancia Italia Assistenza Rally Team 1 43 Model RIO4516 RIO,.Herpa Art Collection 3 X BMW 525i Touring 3er Cabrio 1x AUDI A 3 CABRIO limitato,.UT 1 18 FERRARI F355 BERLINETTA,. The parties Mercedes-Benz LP 608 Porsche Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen,.

1969 Dodge Charger Hawaiian NHRA Funny Car - Auto World AW231 1 18 Scale Diecast,.Ukbus 8004 Enviro 200 Travel London 1 76 Scale Model Bus,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, PONTIAC Grand Am Coupe Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44755,; Dodge Charger R T DIRTY MARY CRAZY LARRY Auto World 1 18 OVP NEU, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Mebetoys 1 43 - Fiat Nuova 500 bluee A36,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PLASTIC GERMANY VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - RED L12.5cm RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Tandem Car Trailer Gulf Oil in 1 43 Scale by GMP,.Audi Q7 2015 Modellauto 1 18 Argusbrown brown - 5011407615,.SIKU PORSCHE 928 - 1037 - Lufthansa Junior Service - blue - NEU,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Aoshima Mini Car Plastic model BEEMAX Series No.7 1 24 Nissan 240RS 1983 JAPAN,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.ALFA ROMEO Giulia 1600 (red) 1970 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400120907,.1956 Bentley S1 Continental Park Ward DHC in 1 43 Scale by Matrix MX10201-041,.Maserati Quattroporte Iv 1994 Amarant 1 43 Neoscale NEO45172,.Norev 1 18 - Peugeot 404 Cirque Pinder,.1 43 Best Model Lola T70 Spyder Car from 1966 Bridgehampton D.Gurney,. The ScottsdaleVINTAGE MOKO MATCHBOX ESSO PETROL TANKER RED GPW & ORIGINAL BOX,Brumm () Red Porsche 356 Carrera Coupe 1952 Diecast 1 43 NIB,.PORSCHE 911 GT3 2016 black METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410066021 NEU,. Id.,Wiking PMS-Nr. 81-31 PMS-Kollektion Historica Daheim auf dem Land - No. 1 W571,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox Lesney 1960’s K-2 Muir-Hill Dumper,; Collection Of 3 Rare Spot On Cars Jaguar XK-E Humber Super Snipe Bentley Saloon,Ixo 1 43 Maserati Ghibli Spyder Brown JAPAN,.VW CADDY 2K DELIVERY VAN 2010 FACELIFT CANDY WHITE 1 87 RIETZE (DEALER MODEL),. The ScottsdaleERTL 1969 Ford Mustang Mach 1 American Muscle 1 18 Diecast New,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, CHEVROLET CORVETTE C6RS ROADSTER 2009 1 43 SPARK (YELLOW),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Cadillac SRX Credver 2011 - 1 43 - Luxury Collectibles,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels - What-4 - 1971 - Redline - Purple - HK - Fair - Tough scarce color,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MITSUBISHI DELICA SPACE GEAR Dark bluee 1996 1 40 Diapet Made in Japan NEW,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, FORD Fiesta New WRC 2017 Rallye Tänak MS-RT Winner Castrol Spark 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Britains Collectibles LAND ROVER SERIES I año 1948 Ref. 08735 50th Aniv. 1 32, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Classic Metal Works 1 24 CLEWISTON POLICE FLORIDA Ford Police Interceptor, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 64 Inno Honda Civic Hong Kong Limited,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSoviet all terrain vehicle AT-T, parade version khaki ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Schuco 1 43 VW Volkswagen Käfer Ovali Beetle 1 Million Käfer goldmet. OVP,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMINICHAMPS 1 43 BENTLEY EMBIRICOS 1938 blueE 436139821,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.NOREV 181651 Citroën C4 Cactus 2014 Pearl White & Chocolate Airbump 1 18 OVP,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Dinky 260 royal mail morris j van vintage boxed 1955,1 18 Lamborghini Murcielago (White) Burago 18-12022,.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4120 1 32 BRANTNER Z18051 XXL TIPPING TRAILER,.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,. The HuygheMstchbox Y-4-1 Sand And Gravel Lorry MIB,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDIECAST MASTERS 1 87 SCALE PROGRESS RAIL - A CATERPILLAR COMPANY 85534,.

UT MODELS 1 18 PORSCHE BOXTER x,.Corgi Volkswagen 1200 Police International Crimebusters 373 Exlt 1973 White 1 50,.

VINTAGE WIKING MERCEDES GIFT SET - Model CArs,.Renault R5 Maxi Turbo Schuco Scale 1 43 white limited edition 500 pcs,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 1971 FORD BAJA BRONCO STROPPE LIMITED EDITION 714 PIECES.,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeErtl 1 18 Scale Diecast - 32296 1960 Ford Starliner Light bluee White Faulty,.TOYOTA PRIUS PHV PRIUS Prime Storefront Display Items Super White,.

For example, in Partridge,Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione black 2004 (Spark 1 43 S0394),. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche 911 (991 II) Gt2 Rs Pacchetto di Weissach 2018 Bianco black 1 43 Spark,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Wiking MAN TGM Feuerwehr pinknbauer AT LF, Metall - 0431 97 - 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,OLD VINTAGE LESNEY MATCHBOX B BEDFORD REMOVALS VAN,. That is the same situation in this case.PEUGEOT 206 RC 2003 Red, Model Car 1 18 Norev,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BRUDER 03654 - MB Arocs camion betoniera,. Detroit Edison, supra.