Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 50 Scale Caterpillar CAT 85266 Wheel Loader 930K Diecast Vehicles Collection,.Willie 1 18 BMW X6 Red finished product,.ROAD SIGNATURE PLYMOUTH BARRACUDA 1969 - GREEN 1 18 - NEAR MINT IN BOX,.SPARK PORSCHE 911 GT2 Evo Le Mans 1996 Jarier - Pair - Chappell S5513 1 43,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.NOREV184716 - PEUGEOT 302 Darl'Mat Coupé (1937) blacke et yellow - 1 101,.SPARK RENAULT-ALPINE A442 Winner Le Mans 1978 Pironi - Jaussaud 43LM78 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 RS (1973) 1 18 Norev 187636,.Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS 2000 Red 1 18 Model 1987 SUN STAR,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1965 FORD SHELBY MUSTANG GT 350R 18 SHELBY COLLECTIBLES SC363,.Ferrari 488 GTB 70th Anniversary Green Jewel 1 18 Diecast Model by Bburago 76101,.Porsche 911 (991 II) GT2 RS Baujahr 2018 indischred 1 43 Spark, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Fiat 238 Croce Gialla Ancona 1 43 Model RIO,.1998 Racing Champions Police USA Chevy Ford Dodge Dare Car Lot of 12 Diecast NIP,.Takara Chgold Q 10 units,.Corgi James Bond 40th Anniversary Aston Martin DB5,.
Mercury Appx 1 43 Scale vintage diecast 307 Mercedes Benz C 111 orange,.SPARK 1 43 S1322 ABARTH FIAT 700S N52 LM 1962,.Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Porsche B32 Carrera Cup PCL13031,.Best Model BT9233 FERRARI 330 GT SPIDER 1966 GREY 1 43 Modellino,.RENAULT 8 Gordini Rallye Tour de Corse Piot 1966 RAR IXO Altaya 1 18,.
Jamara 410023 1 16 Scale 2.4 GHz 'Mercedes E350 Coupe Polizei' Car,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps 1 43 minicar Kyosho Super Aguri F1 Honda 2006 out of print,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 033101 - 1955 Mercedes Benz 180 - Red,.Pilen M296 - Mercedes Ambulancia - White - A+ A,ZAZ 968A ZAPgoldZHETS METAL CAR 70' 1ST EDITION CCCP 1 43 RARE SEE MORE USSR CCCP,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S0244 - Lola B05 40 AER Chamberlain Synergy LM 2006,.
Herpa LKW MB Actros 11 Giga SLT Tieflade-Sz Max Bögl+Kiste 308373,.Alfa Romeo Duetto 3-Series Evo2 Spider Soft-Top 1986 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180191 Mo,.1953 Porsche 550 Carrera Panamericana IV Diecast Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Siku Super 2523 Mercedes LN-2 Koffer LKW hansa speed speditionsgesellschaft,.
1 18 Triple9 Opel Kadett C2 white 1977 2-Doors NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. We agree in part.
Matchbox Superfast Nr.16A Case Bulldozer mit Superfast Box,.1 43 Brooklin Models 1961 Chevrolet Impala Sport Coupe BRK original Box B44,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.D.G MODELS AUSTIN SEVEN 1925 DAVE GILBERT 1 43 - IN BOX - GOOD CONDITION,.Renault Kerax Chasse Neige 2008 yellow 1 43 Norev 518842,.Spark Model SG401 MERCEDES GT3 N.4 2nd 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 ENGEL-METZGER-MULLE,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Nissan Fairlady Z Coca Cola Japan 1984 1 43 Tsm104317 Modellino Miniature,.1 43 Chevrolet Corvette n°28 ADAC GT 2011 1 43 • Minichamps 437111428,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Mga Twin Cam Soft Roof 1958 bluee 1 43 Bizarre Bz380 Modellino Auto,; 1 18 Norev Citroen SM 1971 gold metallic NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
1 18 American Muscle Dodge SuperBee 1969 - OVP (K71),.Spark 1 43 Aston Martin Vantage GT3 n.107 24H SPA 2014 SB099,Picsan ALIJU Camion Pantera Gasolina AGIP Fuel Tanker - RARE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1954 Jaguar D-Type,.
Tin Wizard Opel Super 6 cabriolet 1938 in Red on 1 43 in Box,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Motormax MTM73175R CHEVY BEL AIR 1957 RED 1 18 Modellino,.Citroen Cx Break Loadrunner 1989 Ed.Lim.Pcs 492 1 43 Matrix MX30304-011 Model,.Quartzo 1 43 Scale - Q4019 LOTUS 72 JOCHEN RINDT WINNER GERMAN GP 1970,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Franklyn Mint 1 24 Volkswagen Karmann Ghia wie Neu , Nos , Mintnoboxed,; Ruf Rt12R 2011 gold Met.1 43 Spark S2175 Model,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 12021 - BMW M3 Sport Evo Team Linder Heger,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
CORGI 1 50 CC13404 MAN TGA CURTAINSIDE WITH MOFFETT MOUNTY - EMMERSONS & SONS,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
PORSCHE 911 930 Turbo Targa 1987 white weiss 187660 Norev 1 18,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
CITROEN DS3 WRC RALLYE MONTE CARLO 2012 NEUVILLE S3328 1 43 SPARK,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Super Car Series No.22 Pagar two Uaira Plastic,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Lamborghini Gallardo 1 43 Diecast Minicar,.Cadillac Series 62 Berline 1950 P. V. Green 1 43 Model S2923 SPARK MODEL,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Porsche 356 a 1500 Gs Carrera Gt Año Fabricación 1957 green Metálico 1 18,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2564 Audi R10 TDI Kolles LM 2010,.
Citroen CX Break Beige 1976 1 18 - 18088 MCG,.JEEP WRANGLER open top orange cuivre 2014 1 18,.Dinky Toys Hong Kong Chev Impala Beautiful All ORIGINAL CAR,.MCT 1 18 Scale Plastic - MCT01 Porsche 911 GT2 Red Race Car,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 RS n.66 Winner 24H of Daytona 2003 43DA03,.
Norev 181700 1 18 CITROEN DS E-TENSE SALON GENEVE 2016 METALLIC LIGHT GREEN,.1 64 Kyosho Toyota MR-S Red Diecast Model Car,.Tekno 931 Monza GT Spyder rare light yellow made in Denmark 1 43 scale EXC,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Citroen Acadiane La Poste Yellow 1 18 Scale Solido S1800405,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.SCHUCO BMW 328 24h LE MANS 1939 - BRIEM SCHOLZ 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN DEALER BOX,.1 18 1970 DODGE CgoldNET R\T HEMI CABRIOLET IN YELLOW BY ROAD SIGNATURE..,.Original Jaguar Modellauto XFR Italian Racing Red 1 43 50JDCAXFR red,.ModelPro 1 43. ZIL-131 APA-50M Airport Power Unit.,.Modelcar Ford T 1908 bijgenaamd Tin Lizzie . Kleur zwart. Schaal 1 10.,.
CORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - SCANIA Box Trailer - MB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Siku Plastik V190 Mercedes 190 V Serie Siku,.Mac Due MCG18090 VW 1500 S (TIPO 3) DARK RED 1 18 Modellino,. The PartridgeBurago 1 18 Scale - 3031 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1961 Plum,.KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN T1 SAMBA 1959 red black MODELLINO,.Ford Explorer XLT 2015 bluee 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Msb Voiturette Rda Jeep avec Accessoires en Tôle Amendements Rare Rare Vintage, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Soviet all terrain vehicle AT-T, parade version khaki ,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.GREENLIGHT ASPEN SKI LODGE MUSTANG F-100 2017 POLICE INTERCEPTOR JEEP RAW CHASE,.Revell Renault R202 2002 1 18 Jenson Button (GBR) (F1NB),PartridgeNovoexport GAZ 3102 Volga USSR, 1 43 OVP,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Ferrari 250 TESTAROSSA No. 22 White Brand New,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Premium Classixxs 13300 VW LT28 BOX VAN GREEN 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Porsche 964 Carrera 4 World Tour 1994 1 43 Spark S1373 Model,; 1 18 Minichamps Jaguar XK Coupe 2006 red - RARITÄT §,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Buses Model Co 1 76 Scale Model Bus 300800 - Guy Arab MkIV Recovery Vehicle, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, SSM 1 43 Panzer KV-2 83SSM3033, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNeo Opel Admiral Cabrio Red 1 43 Scale Neo43196,.
Citroen Ds21 Pallas Taxi Milano 1970 Green Rio 1 43 RIO4506 Model,.REBELLION R-ONE TOYOTA LE MANS 2014 SPARK S4207 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.SPARK Lancia Beta Monte Carlo Le Mans 1981 R. Patrese - H. Heyer S1384 1 43,.ALFA ROMEO JUNIOR Z 1300 WHITE 1 43 SP0611,.Modellautos mille miglia mercedes benz sieg . Siehe Foto,.
Soviet hungarian long bus Ikarus 280 33 1988 Yellow version USSR Soviet Bus 1 43,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, JUMBOS Parking Garage carriable playset,Art Model AM0380 FERRARI 500 TR N.128 WINNER BRYNFAN TYDDYN ROAD RACES 1956 C.SH,. In Noska,WR LM Le Mans 1994 Libert-Yvon-Regout S0341 Spark 1 43 New in a box RARE ,.PORSCHE 911 2.4S (green) 1972 1 43 SPARK S4925,.1 18 Norev Citroen DS 19 1959 grey-brown lightgrey,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.224 MERCEDES BENZ C111 PERSPEX BOX VN MIB, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Brekina DAF DO2000 + FT2600 MAMMOET Sonder-Set - 99264 - 1 87,.Renault Vivaquatre KZ9 7 Places de 1932 bluee & black Rétro 87 - SAI 7288 - 1 87,.Vintage Corgi Toys Morris Mini-Minor no.226 Boxed. Box Poor A F,.1 43 Premium X Porsche 924 turbo combi 1981,. Id., p 923.
Modelcar Group 18046 Rover 3500 V 8 Beige 1 18 Schönes Modell,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MODELLINO PORSCHE 935 77 VAILLANT DRM ZOLDER 1977 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,Spark Model S1362 PORSCHE 356B CARRERA ABARTH GTL N.37 DNF LM 1961 BUCHET-MONNER,.1 43 Western 1927 Rolls Royce Weyman Saloon white metal WMS36 Box England,.BMW M6 GT3 No.35 24H SPA 2017 (M. Palttala - C. Krognes - N. Menzel - M. ...,.Yat Ming SM38201 Porsche 356 Cabrio 1950 1 18 modellismo,.ALPINE A110 PREMIERE EDITION black 1 18,.CORGI 1 50 80105 FOWLER B6 SHOWMANS LOCOMOTIVE & BADGE SUPREME SJ WHARTON,.Shelby Trans Am Mustang 1968 24 Hours by Greenlight Diecast Model,. The parties Burago 1 18 Ferrari F50 (1995) red - 3362 - Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,.
PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 2 4 964 1992 yellow MINICHAMPS 1 43,.PARPA-97072 - Voiture 4x4 BWM X5color silver - 1 18,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,; LANSDOWNE MODELS LDM13 HILLMAN SUPER MINX 1953 - OFF WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT 4, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
1974 Hot Wheels Sir Rodney Roadster (Redline) (Yellow) (Hong Kong),.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark 1 43 BMW E.30 M3 n.5 Winner 24h SPA 1992 SB069,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Maisto 1 18 1971 Nissan Datsun 240Z Devil's edition Red Sports Car Diecast Model,.Ebbro 1 43 Toyota Ts010 Nippondenso 1993 Sekiya Suzuki Irvine New F S,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3090 Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet 1994 Brown,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Art Model AM0213 FERRARI TRC 500 N.132 8th TARGA FLORIO 1959 CAMMARATA-TRAMONTAN,.NOREV - 1 18 - RENAULT CLIO 16S PHASE 1 - 1991 - 185234,.Spark - 1 43 - BMW Z4 GT3 Macau GP GT Cup 2014,.MATCHBOX KING SIZE K2 MUIR-HILL DUMPER BOXED,.Diecast Car Model Citroen C3-XR 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,. The ScottsdaleJYE (Spain) Porsche 910 Bardahl Battery-Operated NIB,Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Coupé Año Fabricación 1993 black 1 18 Norev,.Red Line Kit Monté 1 43 - FERRARI F 550 Maranello- 24 Heures du Mans 2003,. Id.,MATCHBOX K-38 DODGE AMBULANCE - WHITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SUN3968 by SUN STAR CHEVROLET NOVA 1963 1 18,; Minichamps 1 43 F1 Ferrari F310 Win Gp Spain 1996 M. Schumacher Art 510964311,Porsche 911 GT3 Cup, No.55, Asian Carrera Cup, Macau, 1 43, Minichamps,.2007 PORSCHE 911 GT2 NOREV 187594 1 18 DIECAST CAR,. The ScottsdaleMercedes-Benz 300SL W198 II Roadster 1 43 Minichamps NEW condition RARE color,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Porsche 911 Turbo 3.0 1974 grey silver Louise Piëch 1 43 Spark WAP0201440G,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO spyder blue clair 1 18,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Joustra n° 2010 Autocar de tourisme en tôle lithographiée moteur à clé 14 cm,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MiniMarque43 UK10C 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 170 Cabriolet Handmade White Metal Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, DINKY TOYS 120 JAGUAR E TYPE E-TYPE ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX NEAR MINT CONDITION,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Hot Wheels Jordan EJ13 Fisichella Winner Brazil NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Peugeot 402 Eclipse 1937 - Dark Green - green - 1 18 Norev NEW, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Best Model BT9400 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.62 17th TARGA FLORIO 1964 A.NICODEMI-F.LESSO,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSUNSTAR AMERICAN MUSCLE 1442 FORD GALAXIE 500 1964 CONgreenIBLE - 1 18 - NMIB,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, RENAULT 16 1968 GREY METALLIC NOREV 1 18,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 43 Russian bus PAZ-672M Militsia Sovetsskiy Avtobus 1970's,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Schuco Garage Magico 500,Made in US Zone Germany, 50er Jahre,Top,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,FIRST GEAR 1 34 Michelin Tires 1957 International R 190 w Dry Goods Van,Art Model AM0042 FERRARI DINO 246 SP N.28 26th LM 1962 R.RODRIGUEZ-P.RODRIGUEZ 1,.Minichamps Red Bull RB13 - D. Ricciardo - Australien 2017 - 1 43,.Minialuxe 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Car 151 - Citroen DS 19 - Red White,. The HuygheTrofeu TF0840 ALPINE RENAULT A110 N.52 NQ LM 1971 NUSBAUMER-BOURDON 1 43 Modelli,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHerpa 303873 Scania R HL tractor with gittermastteilen for LR1600 Felbermayr,.
Best Model BT9618 JAGUAR E SPYDER CANTAGIRO 1962 ADRIANO CELENTANO GREEN MET.1 4,.RK-Modelle® 46210 L60m mit Ponton-Auflieger,.
FIAT RITMO ABARTH 125 TC NURNBERG INTERNATIONAL TOYFAIR 2007 1 43 PROGETTO K,.BMW M3 E36 Coupe (1994) 1 43 MINICHAMPS in OVP 316i 318i 320i 323i,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky Toys F n° 24T Citroën 2 CV un feu,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFERRARI 275 GTS Pinifarina Spyder red red Metall NEU Resine KK 1 500 1 18,.1 18 Porsche 911 GT2 Street 1997 , original brake discs - UT -3L050,.
For example, in Partridge,Fiat 238 1970 Simca Service 1 43 Model RIO4333 RIO,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ses Modelltec Robur Ld 3000 Fortschritt Cosechadora Service Medio Bus 1 87 , Rda,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Bugatti Atlantic bluee 421184560 1 18 Solido,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940133021 - McLaren 12C - 2011 - bluee Metallic,. That is the same situation in this case.Brumm BM0272CH FERRARI 126 C 2 G.VILLENEUVE 1982 N.27 LONG BEACH GP W PILOTE 1 4,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Norev 184881 Peugeot 309 GTi16 1991 Miami bluee 1 18,. Detroit Edison, supra.
TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 624 SUBARU IMPREZA WRX HUMBERSIDE POLICE GB,.Best Model 9429 LOLA T70 SPYDER BRIDGEHAMPTON 1 43 Modellino,.Corgi CC60213 Skirmish Panther Ausf.G Tank & 3 German Infantry, Ardennes,in 1 50,.
PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43,.