BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals NEO Fiat 128 CL Maradona 1982 1 43 45119,.Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 13901 VW T1b flatbed Zündapp with Bella Roller,.Art Model 271 FERRARI DINO 246 SP FRIBURGO 1 43 Modellino,.Renault SuperCinq GT Turbo Tour de Corse 18 - Norev,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Premium Classixxs 13350 VW LT28 BUS YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.Best Model 9503 LOLA T70 COUPE G.P.DEL GIAPPONE 1 43 Modellino,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CORGI OOC FIRST LONDON WRIGHT ECLIPSE FUSION BENDY BUS MODEL OM41304 1 76,.GRAND PRIX MODELS BUGATTI TYPE 252 2 GP CAR - 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.BMW M2 Coupe 2016 Alpine White 1 43 Minichamps 410026104 New,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 12 MG TF RED - No windscreen,.Porsche 911 (997) GT3 Rs 2007 Green 1 18, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

CORGI 1 50 80105 FOWLER B6 SHOWMANS LOCOMOTIVE & BADGE SUPREME SJ WHARTON,.Opel Manta B Mattig yellow blue Film Movie 1991 1 18 MCG diecast,.Norev 185230 Renault Clio 1993 Williams blue 1 18,.Schuco 5207 SET 3 PICC.OPEL MANTA+OPEL GT+NSU Modellino,.

Renault Clio 16S 1991 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 185234,.@@@ Free Shipping 1 76 DMS Citybus D20 CP2781 Yellow Livery,.Best Model BT9561 FIAT 1500 6 CILINDRI PRESENTAZIONE SALONE TORINO 1935 blueE 1 4,.MAJORETTE FRANCE. RENAULT 5 publicitaire convention nationale... REF 200.,.Hot Wheels 19th Nationals Delorean DMC-12 Dinner Car,.

1 18 Red JOYRIDE 2003 SALEEN MUSTANG S281 THE FAST AND THE FURIOUS Year One,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ebbro 1 43 Xanavi Gt-R Fuji Test Car Super GT500 from Japan,.AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC14 - THE WAYNE ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP - SHELL,.Western 1 43 Scale White metal 1077 Mercedes Benz 190C Limousine,BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3036 FERRARI 456GT 1992 - METALLIC blueE,.Mga 1500 Cabrio 1957 red, Coche Modelo 1 18 Triple9,.

Renault R 4 L Jogging 1981 118483 1 18 Solido,.Brazilian Working Cars Altaya - Mercedes - Benz 712E Armored Transport Ppinkgur,.1 43 Art Model Ferrari Dino 246 Car Nurburgring ART911 Diorama,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Schuco 1 43 Scale Model Car 04354 - BMW 320i - Polizei,. We agree in part.

LOT of 2 VOLKSWAGEN T1 RENNTRANSPORTER BUNKER & PORSCHE T5 BUB 1 87,.AUTOart 1 43 58206 Pagani Huayra (2011), silvermetallic,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ford Country Squire blacke Bois 1 18 MODELCAR GROUP,.EBBRO 25010 1 24 CITROEN H CREPE MOBILE VEICOLO,.CORGI TOYS 208 Jaguar 2.4 Litre Saloon Scare white version.,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 43 Minichamps Audi RS 4 Avant Ibiswhite white Nr. 501.12.142.13 in OVP,.FERRARI 250Gt California Ch.4095 Spider 1962 Green Met Art Model 1 43 ART364 Mod,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE 1969 WALLY BOOTH DRAG RACING 1 18 AUTOWORLD,; LESNEY MATCHBOX NO. 38 VAUXHALL VICTOR WAGON - 300 WHEEL VARIATION ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Corgi Diecast 327 - Chevrolet Caprice Taxi - Yellow,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1427 - Courage-Oreca LC70-Judd Team Oreca LM 2008,FERRARI 275 P 500 KM. BRIDGEHAMPTON - 1964 P. RODRIGUEZ 1 43 334 art model,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Hot Wheels Redline Double Vision Dark Green Enamel. 1973 - Near Mint ,.

Renault Clio 16S 1991 Tungstene Grey 1 18 - 185234 NOREV,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.86 5th 24H SPA 2014 HTP Motorsport SB075,.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Tatra 147 DC5 bluee Yellow 1 43 47035,.76SET57 Oxford Diecast OO Gauge 10 Piece Land Rover Military Set,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, NEO Chevrolet Corvette C1 1959 1 43 45997,; Neo Audi TTS Roadster - metallic-dunkelred - 2014 - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels Lamborghini lot of 18 cars. Huracan 610 & 620.,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683BURAGO 1 18 3353 SHELBY SERIES 1 1 1 1999 RED 0c7683

Dinky Toy No 250 is the model of the Mini Cooper police car VNMB,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Lion Car 50 Daf 2600 Auto Transporter 99.9% mint original condition rare GREEN,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

MERCEDES BENZ 300 SEL 6.8 AMG Test Le Mans 1972 Heyer Sieg Minichamps 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18071R,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Hotwheels Elite Ferrari 599 GTB RED Panamerican 1 18 Mattel Fresh Case 458 430,.Delage D8 120 Letourneur 1938 bluee 1 43 Spark S2707 Modellino,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 RS, Lim. 500, Minichamps,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5293 1 32 MASSEY FERGUSON 8740S,.

MINICHAMPS VW 1303 CABRIOLET 'WORLD CUP '74' 430055141,.MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 - 2017 - 410066027,.1 18 Triple9 Lancia Delta S4 Rallye Gr.B San Remo NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Hot Wheels Porsche lot of 25 1 64,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Norev NV183419 MERCEDES L319 VAN 1957 FRUBA 1 18 Modellino,.

DINKY TOYS 207 TRIUMPH TR7 RALLY No 8 - WHITE - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Greenlight 1983 GMC Vandura White 1 18th scale,.Citroen Dyane 6 Beige 1967-1983 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiu..,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, URSS USSR CCCP LIMOUSINE GAZ 13 CHAIKA CHAYKA blackE 1985 REF A15 BOX C177,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.PEUGEOT 908 HYBRID 2008 CHROME SPARK 1 43 SP1282,.1 18 ERTL EUROPEAN CLASSICS 1948 JAGUAR XK120 GREEN od,.CORGI TOYS FIAT 1800 COMPETITION CODE 3 UNIKAT MINT,.Universal Hobbies UH4988 FERGUSON TO 35 1 32 Modellino,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 RSR N.38 JLP 1977 John Paul US045,.

McLaren F1 XP-3 - Predotyp - silver - TSM-Model - 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Schuco 1 43 VW Käfer Kombi Van bluee VW Service 450900900,.Minichamps BMW Mini Cooper IAA Frankfurt 2003 1 43 diecast Car,. The Partridge1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Carmen Red-High End Diecast,.Toyota Celica LB 2000GT - Diapet Yonezawa Toys Japan 1 40 34473,.FORD Fiesta WRC 2017 Rallye Monte Carlo Tänak MS-RT Nightversion Spark 1 43,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 43 Diecast REXTOYS Rolls Royce Limousine S.M. LA REINE DANGLETERERE 36, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1994 Corgi Auto-City Hot Wheels 1 64 Ferrari F1 Race Car Shell Tow Jaguar XJR12,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Minichamps 1 43 Opel Vectra GTS V8 OPC Team Holzer DTM 2004 from Japan,.Mercedes L911 Postbrauerei 1 43 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,PartridgeVintage Radon (Russian USSR CCCP) 1 43 Red Moskvitch 434.With Original Box.,.FORD Coupé bordeaux 1949 echelle 1 18 MIRA 6251 voiture miniature de collection,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 R N.911 Spa 2017 SB167, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Art Model AM0114 FERRARI 225 S N.94 WINNER G.P.MONTE CARLO 1952 V.MARZOTTO 1 43,; Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Trofeu 821 ALPINE REANAULT A110 1600S WINNER R. Modellino, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, REBELLION R-ONE AER LE MANS 2016 SPARK S5106 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHITCH & TOW SERIES 16, SET OF 4 1 64 DIECAST MODELS BY GREENLIGHT 32160 A B C D,.

Ford Mustang Shelby GT 350H Baujahr 1966 black gold 1 18 ShelbyCollectibles,.Lamborghini Diablo 1 43 Diecast Minicar, Clarke's negligent act.KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 365 GTC 4 1971 silver MODELLINO,.1 43 scale resin model 1991 F1 Lamborghni 291,.CITROEN C ELYSEE WTCC 2014 S. LOEB SPARK 1 43,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Chevy Bel Air 1954 Police Sun Star USA Collection in schw. white, Maßst. 1 18,1 50 CONRAD 68153 0 MAN TG-M LKW 2 ASSI CASSONE CON TELONE,. In Noska,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 076771 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR - 24h LM 2007,.Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin - sx6 Mercedes Benz 190 E 2.3 16 AEG,.Chevrolet Impala Sedan Four Windows 1959 Lobster Red 1 43 Spark S2903 Modellino,.Danhausen Opel Rekord P1 Von 1958 M1.43 Kit de Montage Neuf&emballage D'Origine, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Wiking 1 87,black Bau Set, MB Tieflader,Unimog U406,Tankstelle,Ballastpritsche,.1 50 Corgi Dukes Transport Limited Renault Tractor unit. Edition number 0633,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Kapitän B 2.8L I6 Auto 1970 White 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.Rio 4321 FIAT BALILLA AMBULANZA ITALIANA 1935,. Id., p 923.

Fast and furious cars X11,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Brooklin Ford F1 Panel Delivery Modelex Special 1990,Minichamps 1 43 VOISIN C 27 AEROSPORT COUPE - 1934,.Trix H0 66158 Kraftfahrzeuge im Hamburger Hafen OVP,.GAMA MINI 973 - Porsche 911 - 1 42 - 500 Mile Race Decal - NEU in OVP -Model Car,.Faller 163704 Car System Chassis-Kit Transporter,.CORGI AN13805 MERCEDES BENZ ACTROS SKELETAL TRAILER & CONTAINER - MINT in BOX,.Chgold Q Toyota rally history set,.Renault Dauphine 1958 NOREV 1 18 NV185169 Model,. The parties JADA HYPER SPEC 1 24 2017 LAMBORGHINI CENTENARIO DIECAST MODEL CAR BRAND NEW,.

Corgi Toys 235 Oldsmobile Super 88 in light bluee,.PRECISION MINIATURES 1 43 - 1957 FERRARI 250 TESTAROSSA 1980,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, TEKNO WSI CORGI, Heavy Haulage, Wind Turbine Load for Low Loaders.1 50 Scale,; 1 43 Spark 1963 AC Cobra Sebring 12 hours, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 43 Mercedes-Benz Concept Fascination tierra-del-fuego-grey-bright Paris 2008,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI 1 50 - 80307 GARRETT ROAD TRACTOR & FLATBED TRAILER - ANKER VALLEY,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)REVELL 1 32nd SCALE SHELBY GT-350 JERRY TITUS SLOT CAR RE 08371,.1969 Peugeot 504 Coupe weiss 1 18 Norev 184825,.Welly Porsche Cayenne Turbo Die Cast Metal 1 18 ovp,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DAF XF 105 SSC SZ MAI Logistik KANN 1 87 H0 Baustoff Sattelzug PC Herpa 121521,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.SOLIDO VINTAGE NO. 139 MAERATI 3.5 - MINTY AND RARE ,.Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 Hanomag Corrieri Hofmeister kg Kirchheim ,.Kit JPS Prépeint - Renault 4CV Fifitie - Concept Car - Echelle 1 43,.Vintage Dinky Toys Mercedes Benz C.111 Diecast Car No.22 -Mint Mint Display Case,.Bentley Flying Spur W12 2012 Dark bluee 1 43 Kyosho 05561NX NEW,. The ScottsdaleMatchbox cars (40) from around the year 1960,Dinky 410 Bedford Van whitebread Promotional very near mint in near mint box,.14 Matchbox Nascar Transporters with Labonte,. Id.,Wiking 81-51 Wiking Favoriten PMS W686,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AC ACE SPIDER LHD 1955 GREY MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO45007 Model,; Minichamps F1 Lotus Renault E21 Showcar 2013 K. Raikkonen 1 43 410130007,Norev NV187724 FIAT 500 GIARDINIERA 1968 POSITANO YELLOW 1 18 Modellino,.Citroen Ds 19 Cabriolet 1961 (Chapron) Pearl Grey 1 18 Model 181598 NOREV,. The ScottsdaleJohnny Lightning Commemorative gold Chrome 8 Car Set (BH011),Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 19 - Alfa Romeo 158 1950 - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Slightly Modified diecast model 1 18 scale by Hotwheels,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hartoy PEM Ronnie Dowdy Tractor Trailer 1 64 Die-cast M74510 NOS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps AMG Mercedes C-Class DTM 1994 1 43 Klaus Ludwig 1994 (JS),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Cadillac SRX Credver 2011 - 1 43 - Luxury Collectibles,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, MASSEY FERGUSON KENWORTH T880 SLEEPER CAB W LOWBOY TRAILER 1 64 SPECCAST 30556, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Fiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Model Ks43010011, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1954 Chevrolet Belair Congreenible Yellow 1 18 SunStar 1712,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDinky b - Triumph 1800 - bluee - C NB,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43 Scale model Chevrolet 150 2-Door Sedan, gold white, 1957,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNOREV 181591 1967 CITROEN ID 19 BREAK WAGON 1 18 DIECAST MODEL MONTE CARLO blueE,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.PEUGEOT 3008 DKR 2ND DAKAR 2017 LOEB 1 43 spark,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car 31386 - Lamborghini Centenario - Grey,Jaguar D n.4 6th Le Mans 1957 D. Hamilton - M. Gregory by Spark S4389,.CORGI TOYS 112 RICE´S BEAUFORT HORSE BOX 1 43 OVP ORIGINAL,.Hot Wheels 1 43 - Coffret 3 F1 Ferrari 2002 - 2002 F2000 F2001 F2002,. The HuygheGREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT NYPD MODEL BN 19036,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePorsche 919 Hybrid Porsche Team Bernard Webber Hartley Spark S4638 1 43,.

Porsche 956 Winner Le Mans 1983 1 43 - 43LM83 SPARK,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2004 R.Barrichello F1 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

1 18 Autoart Contemporary Saturn SUV Rust,. Märklin 860 7 - MERCEDES 3500, BEIGE, WIE NEU, TOP-RARITÄT ,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Porsche 911 (964) 30 Jahre years purple-metallic Minichamps 436 069171 - 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeNOREV185138 - Voiture sportive ALPINE A 110 Première Edition de 2017 - 1 18,.Minichamps Lamborgini Murcielago (Sealed) 1 43 Very RARE Only Seller Worldwide,.

For example, in Partridge,Renault 12 TS (orange) 1973,. In Jorgensen, supra,CITROEN C3 blue, C3 PLURIEL orange & C2 black NOREV 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.SAMSUNG SL150-2 WHEEL LOADER - YELLOW 1 40 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 Matrix Ghia 230S Christmas Edition with golden ribbon 2014,. That is the same situation in this case.BMW 650i Cabriolet (E64)-2006- bluee Metallic, Minichamps 431026030,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Modellautokatalog SIKU Modellautos Modelle Autos Katalog Preisliste Buch Book,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Classic 36 Ford Coupe Original Hot Wheels Redline Restoration Purple,.UT Models Porsche 911 Series TYP 993 White Diecast 1 18 scale,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 020101 - 1991 BMW Z1 E30 - Metallic bluee,.