Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Mercury italie art 410 Fiat Campagnola Scorta Salmerie jamais joué en boîte 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Star Wars New Item D 'Han Solo' Star Wars Kit REVELL HOBBY 1 72 RV06718 Model,.BARKAS Bus Van B 1000 B1000 Halbbus Polizei Volkspolizei DDR 1970 NEU MCG 1 18,.PEUGEOT 504 cabriolet yellow Capucine 1970 1 18,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Built Kit 36 - CTA Arsenal 1947,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Siku Plastik V 141 DKW Junior perlwhite greye Räder defekt V-Serie,.Dinky Supertoys No 977 Commercial Servicing Platform Vehicle - Meccano - England,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 053061 - 1972 Volkswagen T2b Delivery Van - bluee,.MATCHBOX LESNEY SUPERFAST VINTAGE blueE PORSCHE 928 No.59 VNM IN VNM L BOX 1981-2,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Johnny Lightning Dukes of Hazzard General Lee 1969 Dirty Dodge Charger 1 64,.CORGI TOYS - VINTAGE METALLMODELL - COMMER BUS - 2500 SERIES - (CORGI 16),.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Jaguar E Type MkIII Roadster Red 1 43 Auto Art-Minichamps, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

NEW 1993 Road Champs Country Stars Authentic 6 Tour Buses Hank Williams Jr +More,.Brooklin BRK 29 Kaiser Manhattan four door sedan 1953 1 43 perfect mint in box,.Beautifully Crafted Handmade LIGHTED Mirrored Display Case For 1 12+ Models,.● RARE HTF PLAYART FASTWHEEL 1 64 HONG KONG UNPUNCHED TRACTOR DOZER GREEN,.

Suzuki GSX 1100S Katana silver 12151 1 10 AutoArt Modell Motorrad mit oder ohn..,.Mint Qualified Maisto 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Rs Ss 396 Aqua,.Pqc 1 Bogen 14 Ex Aufkleber Selbstklebend Porsche 917 LH 1969 Gulf Wyer Heco,.NOREV 1990 RENAULT 5 GT TURBO RALLEY MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR,.SSM LKW 1 43 GAZ-66 Bus,.

400031032 MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ SL CLASS 2001 METALLIC RED,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Bmw 3-Series 318 (E21) 2-Door 1975 Red KK Scale 1 18 KK180041 Model,.Rolls Royce silver Wraith Imperatrice Hooper RHD black red, Modello Auto 1 ,.Corgi 234 Consul Classic, Good Condition in Original Box,FERRARI 250 P BRIDGEHAMPTON - 1963 P. RODRIGUEZ 1 43 ART.329 art model,.Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 16v 1989 Grey 1 18 Model TRIPLE 9,.

Sunbeam Alpine Tiger MkII 1967 Red 1 43 Model S4063 SPARK MODEL,.Rubicon Kojima 502 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Diecast Metal Model Car,.Ebbro 44278 Lotus Europa S1 1966 ( White ) 1 43 scale,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Porsche 911 GT3 RSR 1 18,.

Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725 M,. We agree in part.

1977 Matchbox Lesney Container Port Play Set. Good condition,.Spark S2541 1 43 Resin Corvette C6 ZR1, 1st LMGTE Pro '11 LeMans, SiriusXM,,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1978 Mercedes-Benz 250T W123 Kombi Estate red red 1 18 KK diecast -Neu-,.2010 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Gullwing red Metalizado 1 18 GT Autos 11002,.Fiat 242 Martini 1 43 Artigianale,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 43 Trofeu BMW 2800CS Winner Spa 24h 1970 Kelleners Huber TR2701,.Lumyno 1 43 Nissan Rasheen Type Ii Yellow 1994 New F S,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR ERTL COLLECTIBLES 1996 EXCLUSIVE DIE CAST COLOR 1 18,; Schuco VW Käfer Typ 38 Limitiert auf 500Stk. Geschenktip Geschenkidee grey OVP,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Hot Wheels Lotus Lot of 20 cars. Project, mystery, Evora, & Esprit. Toys R Us ,.MODELLINO PORSCHE RS SPYDER LIENHARD THEYS 12H SEBRING 2008 IN METALLO MINICHAMP,V 1 64 HOTWHEELS RACER 60 YEARS FERRARI F40 F 40 WHITE MINT ON CARD RARE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.SPARK 1 43 - S1423 ZYTEK 07S 2 TEAM BARAZI EPSILON LM 2007 2ND LMP2 CLASS,.

Humber Super Snipe Estate 1963 Grey Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46330 Model,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Hot Wheels Flying colors Ice “T” Mint Unpunched Nice ,.Ferrari 250 GT Berlinette • 1961 • Jouef Evolution 1 18 •SUPERBB BOXED,.Corgi Toys 202 Austin Cambridge Saloon 1 43 Oldtimer,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, RIO RI4520 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FERRARI CH POZZI LE MANS 1978 1 43,; PORSCHE 935 MARTINI LE MANS 1976 EBBRO 43768 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Belkits 012 Ford Fiesta RS WRC 2017 WC Ogier Ingrassia kit 1 24,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Porsche 911 (991) Turbo S - vipergreen - 1 of 200 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSI,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Premium ClassiXXs KrAZ 256B1 - oliv - NVA - Muldenkipper - 1 43,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Citroen DS3 Cabrio 2013 silver-blue 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181548,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow Speichenräder KK Scale 1 18 Neu,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 RIO 1931 Mercedes-Benz SSKL Mille Miglia Winner Caracciola 4543,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Audi A4 B5 Saloon 1.8 20V 1995 B.bluee 1 43 Minichamps-RS4 RS6,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DANBURY MINT 1957 CHRYSLER 300C..1 24..NOS...UNDISPLAYED..BRAND NEW..NO DOCS,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi CC11907 ERF EC Petrol Tanker BP - gold Star Special 1 50 Scale - Ltd. Ed.,.

SPARK 1 43 S0558 LIGIER JS02 YELLOW 1975,.Voiture Miniature CITROËN 2CV AZL Malle Bombée de 1957 NOREV 1 18,.Bugatti Veyron Centenaire Edition Crome & Green Minichamps 1 43 400110852,.B66040255 MB Classic Collection Mercedes E320 E-Klasse Limousine 1 43 MIB OVP,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark Model SG401 MERCEDES GT3 N.4 2nd 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 ENGEL-METZGER-MULLE,.

Corgi Toys 208 JAGUAR 2.3 LITRE Saloon White Collectible Car 1960's No Box,.HOTWHEELS - ELITE (MATTEL) - 1 0 - STAR WARS NEW STARSHIP 2015 - THE FORCE AWAKE,.1 87 Wiking MAN F90 Siemens Mobil Funk Wechselpritschen HZ,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, JADA 1 24 DISPLAY 1969 CHEVROLET C10 STEPSIDE GARAGE NUTS SET OF 4 99400-DP1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 km Brands Hatch 1974 1 18 Norev 187423,.Original sealed 1 24 Plastic Esci Kit Made in Renault 5 Alpine Calberson,.Motormax 1 18 Scale diecast - 73144 BMW Z4 E89 Roadster bluee,.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Tatra 111 C White Red Benzina Tank 1 43 47032,.1 18 VW Gran Lavida 2018 Die Cast Model,.

Spark Model SA112 PORSCHE 911 GT3 N.911 4th MACAU GT WORLD CUP 2016 E.BAMBER 1 4, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Brooklin Models BRK17X 1952 Studebaker Commander Indianapolis Pace Car in bluee,.ZIL 133 AC-40 SSM 1076 1 43,. The Partridge1 43 Premium Classixxs 12325 MB LO 3500 elfenbein red,.Greenlight 1 24 Scale 84011 - 1974 Dodge Monaco blueesmobile - The bluees Bredhers,.MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 Carrera RS 3.0 1974 Red 1 43 Scale 400 063122 Limited,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari red-red 1 18 Bburago 16001, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Dinky 30J Austin Wagon Dark bluee - Near Mint Vintage Original Model 1950s Rare,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RARE TOOTSIE TOY RED CADILLAC CONgreenIBLE LOOK LOT D-23,.CITROEN DS3 WRC Winner Rallye PORTUGAL 2011 Ogier Ingrassia 1 18,PartridgeNOREV 1 18 1991 Renault Clio 16S Racing Diecast Model Car Red (185233),.Mercedes Benz W 196 R Monoposto 2,5 Ltr. Formel 1 1954 silver 1 43 Neu OVP,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps Horch 855 Special-Roadster 1938 1 43 Copper Metallic (JS), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford Escort MkII RS Gr.2 Castrol DRM Zakspeed ETCC NEO Resin 1 43,; Wonderful modelcar VW BEETLE POLIZEI (Germany 1953) - white - 1 43 - lim.,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Rio 4426 FIAT BALILLA FURGONE VALORI 1 43 Modellino, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, PORSCHE 356 Speedster black Steve ´ S Speedster - SCHUCO 1 43 -, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVW Bus T3 Multivan Bulli Red Star 1993 - red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.

ZC510 Provence Moulage K744 Resine Vehicule 1 43 Ford RS Cosworth Monte Carlo 93,.1 24 Domestic Specialties Collection (31) 11 14 2017Mazda R360 coupe (1960), Clarke's negligent act.Motorkits 1 43 Scale Built Model Kit - Fod Y Van - Atco - Unboxed,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 DELAGE-ERA 1927,.CORGI 211S ORIGINAL STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK gold PLATED - RARE COMPLETE WITH BOX,.

Mercury Monterey Sun Valley 1954 türkis dunkelgreen 1 43 NEO 44057 NEU OVP,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 718 Boxster Gts 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7619 Model,MODELER'S 1 43 Shingo Shoji EG6 Civic Painted Model Japan,. In Noska,Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast 75803 - MAN Curtainside - Gallacher's,.1971 Ford Bronco Bill Stroppe Baja Edition in 1 18 Scale,.Dodge Charger Daytona 1969 black, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.Neo Bentley T2 Saloon - metallic-grey mattblack - RHD - 1977 - 1 43, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.NEO 43671 Resin; 1984 Saab 90 Sedan; Metallic bluee Green; Excellent Boxed,.2017 Ford GT [Maisto 38134] blue, 1 18 Die Cast,.Volkswagen Beetle Wiesbaden Police Speed Control 1957 RIO 1 43 RIO4556 Model,.1974 Oldsmobile Cultass JoHan n AMT dealership promo model orig wrapping ,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Mint Autostrada 1 43 Lamborghini Miura,Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 517594 - Renault Clio R.S. - Flame Red,.NIB 1962 SEAGRAVE 70th ANIVERSARY FIRE ENGINE NATIONAL MOTOR MUSEUM MINT CORGI,.Hot Wheels 2009 Hotlanta 1965 Chevelle Collector Car NIP,.JAD97179 by JADA TOYS MITSUBISHI BRIAN S LANCER EVOLUTION VIII 1 18,.Spark 1 43 BMW E.30 M3 n.5 Winner 24h SPA 1992 SB069,.PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 RS 2014 RIVIERAblue 1 43 Minichamps 410063222,.Corgi 31001 - British Road Services Collection - Shap Fell Set - MIB,. The parties Corgi CC12924, Scania Topline Curtainside - Westfield Transport Ltd , 1 50,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 18 Solido Citroen 2CV Ente - in edler Blechbox,; NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45695 HAMANN GUARDIAN YELLOW CARBON 2011 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 33130 Giugiaro Design Prima Yellow Model Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)NEO 1 43 - HONDA CRX DEL SOL 1992 (DUTCH VERSION) - EXCELLENT CONDITION- 32,.1 43 WESSEX MODELS ENGLAND MG TF CABRIOLET - UNBUILT KIT,.1 18 Triple 9 Honda Civic EF-3 Si 1987 white,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 113600 - 1971 Renault Alpine A110 - bluee,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.NOREV183451 - Voiture cabriolet MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT C Roadster color yellow -,.1 43 CAMION PEGASO COMET 1100L + REMOLQUE CISTERNA INFANTERÍA PALMA 47 1963,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2558 - Lola Aston Martin AMR LM 2010,.1966 Ford Baja Bronco BFGoodrich 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Greenlight,.Norev 188523 - 1973 VW 1303 Käfer - Volkswagen Beetle - green metallic - 1 18,. The ScottsdaleNissan Figaro - Diapet SV-28 Japan 1 40 in Box 32153,Fiat 500L Nuova Urmodell blue grey 1957-1977 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder o..,.HOT WHEELS 2017 MEXICO CONVENTION ‘71 DATSUN blueEBIRD 510 WAGON REAL RIDERS NIB,. Id.,Franklin Mint Ferrari F40 1989 Modellauto 1 24 unbespielt Top,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AutoWorld 1 18 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona LA & orange County Diecast AMM1091,; MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-43 MERCEDES BENZ HOLZTRANSPORTER OVP 1979,Wiking 709 4 E Mercedes Benz O 302 Autobus Aufbau hell red,.Esval Pierce Arrow Model B Roadster Open Roof 1930 Maroon 1 43 EMUS43006A,. The ScottsdaleNICE Franklin Mint Richard Petty STP Nascar Car Diecast 1 24 Scale,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lion Car 1 50 Scale Nr.338 Mercedes Artic & Trailer - Greenline Carriers - Boxed,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Corgi Classics No 11910 ERF EC series Crane trailer and scrap car load Harris NM,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX21B Mercedes 190 AMG Circuit GrA 1990 2 Vers,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Williams Renault FW18 H.H. Frentzen 1997 Onyx,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Norev GT by Citroën Salon de Paris 2008 1 18 Electric bluee,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Solido 8009 Ford Cabriolet Top Up bluee 1 18 Mint & Boxed, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Renault Alpine A 110 1973 - 1 18 - IXO Models, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, INFINITI FX50S 2010 blueE MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO44542,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFRANKLIN MINT BUGATTI TYPE 57 SC LIMITED EDITION 1936 IN BOX,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Action 1 24 Scale Diecast - WWF Winston World Finals 1996 Top Fuel Dragster,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Daniel Juncadella 1 43 Nip,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ebbro EB44621 TOYOTA SPORTS 800 FUNABASHI CCC N.20 1965 1 43 Modellino,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Corgi Toys 159 Cooper Maserati F 1 very very near mint in complete box a beauty,NZG538 - Pelle LIEBHERR L300 - 1 50,.Lotus Elan S1 1961 Yellow Spark S1237 1 43,.HOT WHEELS DMT90 ELITE STAR WARS THE FORCE AWAKENS TIE FIGHTER STARSHIP,. The HuygheMcLaren MP4-1C th German GP 1983 John Watson Spark S4841 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSPARK 1 43 - S1424 COURAGE LC75 AER TEAM SAULNIER RACING LE MANS 2007,.

Fiat 238 Ambulanza Falk Denmark 1 43 Model RIO,.Ferrari 1 43 F 40 1987 PredAR Version street Handbuilt Open Provini,.

James Bond Twist And Race Launch Set,.1965 FORD MUSTANG CONgreenIBLE GREY LIMITED 1002PCS 1 18 AUTOWORLD AMM1103 MODEL,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Best Model 9450 PORSCHE ABARTH RALLY CATALUNOS 1 43 Modellino,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMercedes-Benz W124 Long (Brown Grey),.Schuco 1 43 Scale Diecast 03334 - VW T2a Feuerwehr Fürth,.

For example, in Partridge,PORSCHE 962C 962 C Dauer Racing Nürburgring 1989 Hexcel limit 1 300 Spark 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,VANGUARDS TALBOT SUNBEAM Ti COLIN MCRAE SCOTTISH RALLY 1986 1 43 VA11300,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Norev 183595 2012 Mercedes Benz A 250 Sport 1 18 Model Car bluee,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 Rennaissance Models Dauer Porsche,. That is the same situation in this case.Schuco Patent Wende-Limousine 1010 green Replica Car Western Germany Box Key,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Herpa Art Collection 3 X BMW 525i Touring 3er Cabrio 1x AUDI A 3 CABRIO limitato,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Fiat 500L 1968 opening features - Minichamps 1 18,.DIE CAST IVECO STRALIS 2002 PACONSA SCALE 1 43,.Camion CITROEN HW VAN HEULIEZ camionette transport chevaux de course joker 1 24è,.

Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale diecast 03AUG6 1938 Jaguar SS100 Cream,.