Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 2013 Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 WO4 L. Hamilton - 1 43 scale - Minichamps,.Dinky Toys 216 Ferrari Dino with brown interior in box all original condition,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 ELITE FERRARI 250LM MARANELLO 1964 DIE-CAST RED T6261,.Porsche 911 GT3 R n.912 2nd Macau GT World Cup 2016 1 43 Scale by Spark,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Norev 825000 Auto Union 1000 S Audi AG neu OVP,.Ferrari Bburago LAFerrari Diecast Red OFFICIAL Signature Series1-18scale,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Dinky Toys Airplane Lot 735 734, 736, 733, Gloster Javelin Shooting Star,.Audi Quattro 1981 Saturn Metallic 1 18 Model 4159 SUN STAR,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Johnny Lightning Surf Rods Race Version Set of 6 First Release W Predecto READ,.Ebbro EB44443 NISSAN GT-R N.12 FUJI 2010 1 43 Modellino,.Citroen Ami 6 1964 jade green1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181536, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
SUN STAR 1472 1963 FORD GALAXIE 500 XL GOODWOOD REVIVAL 2011 ST.MARY'S 1 18,.Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 VW T 1 B Camioncini con Cassone Persil Von 1958 In,.Fiat 1100Tv Taxi Mumbai India 1956 bluee Yellow Rio 1 43 RIO4496 Model,.TAMEO BUILT JPS LOTUS 97T SENNA TEST 1985 43,.
LANSDOWNE MODELS LDM 35 HILLMAN AVENGER 1970 - RHD - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 14,.2014 Ferrari California T Closed Top red 1 18 Bburago 16003,.Triumph TR3 S , 24H LeMans 1959 , Spark models,.Peugeot 504 Coupé 1973 Brown Metallic 1 18 Norev,.Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 785016 - 1985 Lancia Delta S4 - Red,.
Surber Mercedes SK 88 Koffersattelzug „East – Kärcher – AMG“ Nr. 5407 SU3-1,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.OPEL TIGRA TWIN TOP blackE blackE 1 18 NOREV COMME NEUVE ,.Best Model BT9530 ABARTH SP 1000 N.59 15th 1000 Km MONZA 1968 PASOTTI-GRANO 1 43,.Atlas Editions Dinky Toys - Austin Atlantic Congreenible - Red,PORSCHE 962C 962 C Dauer Racing Nürburgring 1989 Hexcel limit 1 300 Spark 1 43,.Lexus IS XE3 350 F-Sport Limousine Starlight black 3. Generation Ab 2013 1 4..,.
BMW 507 Cabriolet 1956 silver 1 18 Norev 183230 Congreenible,.+ REEL ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA DESPHARAONS AFRICA TOURS RALLY TAN MINT BOXED,.1 24 Franklin Mint 1955 '55 Chevy Corvette Roadster Congreenible bluee Free Ship,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Norev NV187585 PORSCHE 917K N.43 5th 1000 KM SPA 1970 H.LAINE-G.VAN LENNEP 1 18,.
1 18 Norev Audi A4 DTM 2008,. We agree in part.
Norev 185226 1 18 RENAULT MEGANE R.S. 2017 SIRIUS YELLOW,.Spark 1 43 Ken Okuyama Design Kode7 SJ028,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Lion car-Lion Toys MERCEDES EPS SPECIAL EDITION TEXACO SALLAND OIL - PETROLEUM,.Rare NIB Elegant Miniatures Marx Collectoy Military Vehicles Tank No. H.K. 6058,.2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Wonderful resin-modelcar Chevrolet Impala Congreenible 1959 - bluee - scale 1 43,.CORGI NO. 218 ASTON MARTIN DB4 - RARE YELLOW WITH CRISS CROSS WHEELS,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Mercedes 300 Sl 1986 Inca Red 1 18 Model NOREV,; Citroen Gt Salon De Paris 2008 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV181610 Miniature,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 Vitesse L065 RARE ,.Auto World Ford Ford Mustang GT 2016 Yellow 1 18,1994 Corgi Auto-City Hot Wheels 1 64 Ferrari F1 Race Car Shell Tow Jaguar XJR12,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 43 Spark - S5160 PORSCHE 997 GT3 RS - Dumas,.
KK-Scale KKDC180071 VW Passat B3 VR6 Variant, 1988, grey-metallic,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 TARGA 4S - 2017 - S4977,.Neo Maserati Quattroporte IV 1994 1 43 45172,.McLaren Mercedes MP4-25 J.Button 2010 530104301 1 43 Minichamps,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, McLAREN M20 N°96 RIVERSIDE CAN-AM 1973 M. ANDRETTI SPARK S1118 1 43 Abd,; RENAULT 5 Alpine Turbo 1981 Sport blue bluee met navy 185157 RAR Norev 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Ford Usa Shelby Mustang Ii Cobra Ii 1976 White bluee Greenlight 1 18 GREEN12880T,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
KK-Scale BMW 733i (E23) - metallic-black - 1977 - 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Tour de Corse 1972 Marquet Bic Trofeu 1 43,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Nissan Skyline Gt-R KPGC10 whiteo 1 18 Triple 9,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Matchbox Lesney Yellow Chevy Impala Taxi Cab Diecast Car With Original Box,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Hot Wheels MASTERS OF THE UNIVERSE 200X COMPLETE COLLECTION,.Rare & Vintage 1969 Only Tootsietoy Hitch-Ups Jeep And Tiger With Trailer MInt,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.MINICHAMPS VALENTINO ROSSI AGV HELMET 1 8 MOTOGP 2007 mugello,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN TOP CONgreen WHITE SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 BBURAGO 16904,.
Hot Wheels 69 Ford Mustang Boss 302 Super Treasure Hunt,.1974 Rover 3500 V8 Policia Reino Unido 1 18 MC Group 18045,.NEO NEO46525 1 43 CHEVROLET CORVAIR WINDOW VAN 1963 RED WHITE,.Juguettes Roman 1976 - Citroën Traction 11cv voiture miniature échelle 1 24,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ltd Edn Corgi 1 50 CC10302 AEC Ergo 8 Wheel Platform & Girder Load BRS Untouched,.
CITROEN DS21 DS 21 Rallye Monte Carlo 1966 Toivonen IXO Altaya 1 18,.Minichamps PM436068446 FORD FOCUS N.46 WINNER MONZA 2006 V.ROSSI-C.CASSINA 1 43,.International Harvester DCOF-405 1964 yellow, Modellauto 1 64 Neo Scale Models,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari Laferrari Anno di Costruzione 2013 black OPACO 1 18 Bburago,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.VW New Beetle Cabrio orange 1 18 Autoart neu & OVP 79754,.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,.Willeme LD 610 T Fordier Norev 879996 Includes Logs,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size MAZDA RX-7 FC3S Resin Kit,.Porsche Panamera 4S 2016 Saphir bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207210G Miniature,.
ROVER 3500 V8 Limousine red red RHD GB 1974 MCG RAR 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Aoshima Bunka kyouzai 1 24 More Gracian No. 05 Kenmeri 4 Dr,.CORGI TOYS VOLKSWAGEN ( VW ) 1200 KÄFER FLOWER POWER 1 43 OVP TOP,. The PartridgePorsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.0 - minervablue - Minichamps - 1 of 200 - car.tima EXC,.Tyrrell Ford 007 M.leclere 1975 Retired Usa Gp 1 43 Model 400750115,.Solido Ferrari Type 500 TRC 100 serie near mint condition,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Club Bialbero A2000 ALFA ROMEO 2000 RED 1 43 Modellino, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.GUISVAL REF. 42 1º SERIE CAMPEÓN EXCAVADORA MECÁNICA - ESPAÑA AÑOS 70,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Conrad 2982 LINDE R16 FORKLIFT 1 25 CARRELLO Modellino,.Glas Kunst ca. 1 16 Sehr seltener Fiat Seat 600 als Karaffe Dekanter 512126,PartridgeVintage 1970's Mighty Tonka - Heavy Duty Loader - Original,.MINICHAMPS BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT RED 436139025,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 NOREV Toyota Cgoldlla olive-green 1966 Japan Import NEW OVP, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 187574 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 1977 olive green 3,3L 1 18,; N.O.S GAMA MINI BMW 528i 1 43 TOY + BOX,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43ème PEUGEOT CONCEPT CAR PEUGEOT RC CARREAU - MONTAGE RESINE - STARTER, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 43 Spark Benetton B194 Australian GP 1994 S4484, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeClub Bialbero 004EDL F.375 gold 1 43 ALFA CLUB EDIZI,.
KIT EBBRO 1 20 DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 72E 1973 ART 009 5800,.Gama 1 43 Scale Vintage Diecast - 9354 Mercedes Polizei Auto White, Clarke's negligent act.Schuco 7243 MB CLC CL203 CONCEPT WHITE 1 43,.Dodge Aries K-Car (Green Metallic) 1983,.Wiking Claas Schwader Liner 2600 - 1 32,.
1 20 Fujimi, Alpine Renault A310 V6, Calberson,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Tatra 128N oliv grey Pritsche mit Plane - 1 43 Premium Classixxs PCL47077 NEW,1 43 Minichamps Audi Front 225 Roadster, 1935 , black,. In Noska,SPARK 1 43 S1311 ABARTH OT 1000 COUPE PININFARINA 1965 WHITE,.Spark Model S5420 PORSCHE 906 N.42 DNF 12H SEBRING 1967 J.CANNON-E.HUGUS 1 43 Mo,.Dinky Toys GB n° 152 Austin Devon Rare version,.Ford Mustang 2 Stallion 1976 yellow, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark Model S5663 KTM X-BOW GT 2016 PURPLE 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 Toyota Cgoldlla Wrc 1998 Sainz,.Original Porsche911 GT3 RS 2018, black, 1 43, Limited Edition 500 Stk, Resin,.1968 DARK GREEN REDLINE HOT WHEELS LOLA GT70 VERY NICE ,. Id., p 923.
MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX A London Trolley Bus Very Scarce SPW Excellent.,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Rio RI4571 FIAT 1500 6C GASOGENO 1935 1 43 Modellino,CORGI CLASSICS LIONEL CITY FISHBOWL GM 5301-54302,.Vintage Nylint Walmart Sam's Club 18 wheeler Tractor Trailer In Orig. Box big,.Lancia Beta Monte Carlo in 1 43 Scale Model by Spark,.Aston Martin Rapide Ginevra 2010 Pma 1 43 437137904 Modellino,.Lamborghini Diablo 1 43 Diecast Minicar,.Pontiac Gto Coupe 1964 Pinehurst Green Met Sunstar 1 18 SS1827 Model,.Dinky f - Estate Car - Light Brown Brown - B NB,. The parties Minichamps Lotus Renault 97T Team Lotus 43 540854312,.
Wonderful SCHUCO-modelcar MERCEDES-BENZ 200 (W123) HEARSE VOGT 1980 - 1 43,.1 43 MG EX 182 LE MANS 24 HOURS 1955 LUND WAEFFLER BIZARRE MODELS,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Aston Martin DB4 GT Bertone Jet 1961 Grey Met. Art. 44575,; VW Volkswagen T4 Transporter Personen Elfenbein Taxi Beige 1990-2003 1 43 Prem.., (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Minichamps Aston Martin DBRS9 Nurburgring 2008 1 43 400081392,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford Expedition XLT UT Models 1 18 met. gold,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Mclaren F1 Xp-4 bluee Experimental Predotype True Scale 1 43 TSM134328 Model,.MEIB66960299 by MERCEDES SMART FOURFOUR 2014 1 18,.SAUBER MERCEDES C9 WINNER 400 KM SUZUKA 1989 NOREV 1 18,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 43 Western Models 1949 Alfa Romeo Villa D’Este Coupe Red Box England Handmade,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Volkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 bluee 1 18 Model YAT MING,.RETRO VITESSE 140 FERRARI 250 SPYDER CALIFORNIA 1960,.Simca Aronde 1954 hell blue 1 18 Norev 185741 neu & OVP,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford GT43 GT40 550hp 2004 White bluee Stripes 1 43 Minichamps,.MERCEDES BENZ 190 E 2.5-16V Evo 1 1990 red red 1 300 Minichamps 1 43,. The ScottsdaleNorev 1 43 Scale Model Car 810043 - 1992 Saab 900 Turbo 16 Cabriolet - White,Verem Military Army 1 50 - Acmat 6X6 VLRA France,.Norev BMW M 535i E12 gold 1980 1 18 183268,. Id.,Neo 1 43 - Gaz Vloga M22 Ambulance van 1960 - Mint in box,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 76 Hong Kong Citybus ADL Enivro500 MMC facelift 12.8m Year of Rooster,; Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S0243 - Loal B05 40 AER Intersport Le Mans 2006,Premium Classixxs 13351 VW LT28 BUS blue 1 43 Modellino,.1968 Hot Wheels Redline Python HK PURPLE w WHITE INT ALL ORIGINAL YR1 SC,. The ScottsdaleUT 1 18 FERRARI F355 SPIDER xc,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lancia Astura Type 233C Pininfarina 1936 Metallic bluee 1 43 Spark S2724 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark 1 43 Scale S3025 - F1 Force India VJM04 Monaco GP 2011,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Maisto M38135 1 18 Scale the Audi R8 Die-cast Model (colours May Vary) - R8,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Renault T460 tracteur camion ref 115508 1 43 eligor,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 12. TDH-3610 pink Parks scale 1 43 Ônibus del Mundo Brazil,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, VW-Käfer 1962 - Faller 4356, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . CHRYSLER LE BARON CABRIOLET . 1994 ., (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Premium ClassiXXs Tatra 111 C - weiss red - Benzina - Tankwagen - 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeGLAS 1700 Limousine Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44225,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 Norev Porsche 911 (997) Turbo 2010 brown met. NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheTROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 624 SUBARU IMPREZA WRX HUMBERSIDE POLICE GB,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1967 Ferrari 275 GTS 4 NART Spyder Yellow by KK-Scale LE 1 of 250 1 18 Very Nice,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Ebro 1 43 Xanavinismo Gt-R Low Down Force Fuji Test 2008,VOLKSWAGEN VW POLO R WRC TEAM VOLKSWAGEN MOTORSPORT st SPAIN 2014 NOREV 1 18,.1 18 Dongfeng Honda 2016 Civic Sedan orange Dealer Edition,.Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Model Diecast,. The HuygheFerrari 458 Speciale 2014 red, Modellauto 1 18 Burago,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDuesenberg J Derham Tourster Cabrio in red brown, Franklin Mint, 1 24, o.OVP,.
Wonderful modelcar ALFA ROMEO 75 V6 2.5 SPORTSWAGON 1986 - grey - 1 43 - lim.ed.,.TEKNO SCANIA 142m HARRY VOS 215 & 347 INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT SPEDITION,.
JAMES BOND DIE ANOTHER DAY ASTON MARTIN V12 VANQUISH & JAGUAR XKR SET (XP),.ANSON 1 18 30333 DODGE 1997 CONCEPT CAR orange,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Solido 37 Renault 17 TS Rallye Du Maroc 1 43 scale made in France MIB Superb,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeDANBURY MINT 1969 CHEVROLET CAMARO RS CONgreenIBLE w DISPLAY CASE bluee White 1 24,.1 43 SUZUKI SX4 2008 WRC DIE CAST MODEL,.
For example, in Partridge,Norev 181700 1 18 CITROEN DS E-TENSE SALON GENEVE 2016 METALLIC LIGHT GREEN,. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche 911 GT3 RS 2010 dunkelgrey-gold 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 187569,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 87 Herpa Scania R HL Rungen-SZ Felbermayr mit Gittermastteilen 303873,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Mercedes-Benz 770 Open Cabriolet 1938 Rio4021 1 43 Modellino Diecast,. That is the same situation in this case.BUS STOP HALTESTELLE DIORAMA IN SCALE 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark 1 43 Scale S3360 - Citroen DS3 WRC rd Monte Carlo 2013,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 052100 - Volkswagen Kafer - Green,.UH MODELS LAND ROVER DEFENDER - UK POLICE - 1 18 SCALE MODEL - UH3885,.NOREV 183597 Mercedes-Benz CLA-Klasse 2013 grey metallic 1 18 NEU OVP,.
Spark 1 43 Ken Okuyama Design Kode9 GULF SJ034,.