Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Trofeu TFMNP121 MITSUBISHI LANCER EVO VI N.54 RET.R.PORTUGAL 2000 P.LEAL-R.CASSA,.Gama (Hong Kong) Metallic Green Porsche 924 Diecast 1 43,.Norev 187638 Porsche 911 RS Touring 1973 yellow Scale 1 18,.Brumm BM0288CH FERRARI 126 C2 M.ANDRETTI 1982 N.28 3rd ITALY GP 1 43 Modellino,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Original Jaguar Modellauto XFR Italian Racing Red 1 43 50JDCAXFR red,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no.70 24 H Spa 2015 (A.Karachev - C.Bouchut - K. Heye,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Hudson Hornet Congreenible 1952 Brooklin 1 43,.Bugatti 41 Royale 1927 Green 1 43 Model RIO,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Simca 1000 Rallye 2 1976 - 1 18 - Norev,.FUJIMI 458 ITALIA GT2 JMW MOTORSPORT LE MANS 2011 1 43,.Schuco 02811 Mercedes Benz O319 OVP MIB 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Guiloy 1 18 Scale Diecast - 67532 Aston Martin DB7 Red,.REVELL 1 12 08453 MINI COOPER RED RHD,.NEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 3 - Connaught B Type 1957 -,.
Winross 1-64 diecast tanker reitz oil 20 years NIB,.Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180243,.Wonderful resin-modelcar Chevrolet Impala Congreenible 1959 - bluee - scale 1 43,.MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.Diecast Car Model Toyota C-HR CHR 1 18 (Green) + GIFT ,.
PEUGEOT 207 CC WELLY 1 18,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CORGI CC15212 1 50 SCALE MAN TGX REEFER - McLANACHAN TRANSPORT LIMITED WAGON,.2008 Shelby Collectible Cars Shelby Cobra 427 S C CHASE 1 of 48 White Wheels,.SPARK Lotus 24 Jim Clark Winner BARC 1 43 S2137,Dinky toys lot de 3 pièces 405 25D 49A,.EBRRO 1 43 Honda S800 Racing 1967 Suzuka 1000km (43934) finished product,.
Corgi Major n° 1128 Pelleteuse PRIESTMAN CUB Power Shovel ancien jamais servi,.MODELLINO AUDI A4 PLAYBOY CH. ABT DTM 2007 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.SUNSTAR SUBARU IMPREZA 555 WINNER RALLY OF NEW ZEALAND 1994 1 18 blueE 5502,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Pontiac Gto Coupe 1964 Yorktown bluee Met SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1826 Model,.
Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31618 Chrysler Panel Cruiser bluee,. We agree in part.
1 43 MCLAREN M7B VIC ELFORD DUTCH GRAND PRIX F1 1969 SPARK MODELS,.Corgi Starsky & Hutch CC00201 Ford Gran Torino Untouched,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.ALFA ROMEO SPIDER 3 SERIE 2 19861 18 KK SCALE (RED),.Schuco Piccolo Set Display 2000 mit vier Modellen und Display,.Spark 1 43 Porsche T.W.R. WSC n.8 Le Mans 1996 S4179,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Century Ferrari 348 GTB, 1990, yellow - 1901 - 1 43, alt, aber schön,.Peugeot 302 Darl Mat Coupe 1937 1 18 Norev 184716 Darl ´ Mat,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 Vitesse L065 RARE ,; Camión Articulado Berliet TR 280 Altaya 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13602 - DAF CF General Purpose Tanker - Suttons,.1 18 HONDA Dealer Model HONDA XRV SUV 4-DOOR 2015 Red,Best Model BT9683 FERRARI 250 LM N.136 14th TARGA FLORIO 1965 A.NICODEMI-F.LESSO,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev 185225 1 18 RENAULT MEGANE R.S. 2017 TONIC orange,.
Rac collectors autocraft white metal norton motorcycle sidecar patrolman 1935,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.VEHICLES 1953 PONTIAC VAN, MINI VAN + OTHER VANS (DT) MINI VAN NOT INCLUDED,.JOLLY MODEL JL0786 - Aston Martin DB3 LE MANS 1952 N°26 Poore - Griffith 1 43,.Corgii CC13722 Scania R Fridge Trailer Eddie Stobart Ltd Limited Edition,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 21 2006 1 43 de la pink (ESP) GP HUN (JS),; Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Lion car-Lion Toys MERCEDES EPS SPECIAL EDITION TEXACO SALLAND OIL - PETROLEUM,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
OXFORD 76SET57 - 1 76 10 PIECE LAND ROVER MILITARY SET,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Matco Tools 2001 Hot Rod Replica Collector Set 1 24 Diecast,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Nissan Zytek Lemans LMP2 Winner 2011 1 18 Spark 18S064,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Lexus Lfa 2010 White Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431660 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Wiking H0 Opel Kapitän ´59 (MC585),.Simca Cargo Evian 1 50 Corgi,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Scania 111 Tandom Axle Box Van Montgomery CC15301 1-50 New in box ltd edition,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.McLAREN 675LT SPIDER 2015 YELLOW 537154430 Minichamps 1 43 New in a box ,.
NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO44998 - Dodge 600 Congreenible - gold,.Citroen 2 CV 6 1981 007 1 18,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 025122 - 1982 BMW 635 CSi (E24) - Red,.TATRA 613 VB POLICIE CSSR - Polizei - Volkspolizei - ATLAS 1 43 Police Car Serie,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST FORD 12M STREIFAN-TOUNUS CAR RE 08879,.
Genuine MINI Congreenible 2016 Miniature Die Cast Model Car Toy White 80432405582,.New Ebbro 44203 Lotus Europa S2 Red (Resin) 1 43 scale,.NEO 1 43 - Opel GT Aero,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Véhicule Allemand STÖEWER Kfz.4 AA - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 280,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.NEO Opel Ascona B Gr.2 Venere 1 43 45243,.VOLKSWAGEN HEBMÜLLER CABRIOLET 1949 RED CREAM 430052134 Minichamps 1 43 New RARE,.AUDI TT CABRIOLET green 1 18,.1 43 Spark - 43PP16 Norma M20 No.30, Winner Pikes Peak 2016 Romain Dumas,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett,.
DINKY A RILEY SALOON SEDAN, GREEN WITH GREEN HUBS, NICE ORIGINAL, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Rare Minichamps 180 000073 BAR Honda 2000 Showcar Ricardo Zonta Scale 1 18,.Jada Toys 1 24 Street Low 1939 CHEVY MASTER DELUXE Classic Chevrolet NEW,. The PartridgeMatchbox 1-75 No.26b. Foden Cement Mixer Lorry [ 1961 Vintage ],.LESNEY MATCHBOX No 45a VAUXHALL VICTOR (MINT BOXED),.MODELLINO OPEL KADETT D SR 1979 GREEN METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Corgi Classics Buses CollectionCollection of six limited edition buses, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Matchbox MOY Yesteryear Y-3 London E Class Tramcar, Nice, Boxed,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Dinky GB 157 Jaguar Mark XK türkis weinred,.1 18 Norev Audi A4 DTM 2008,PartridgeTosa Toyota Aristo S300 Minicar 1 64,.CORGI CC86514 ITALIAN JOB FILM MOVIE RED BMW MINI COOPER DIECAST MODEL CAR,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Matchbox White Fire Engine Series YFE21-M 1907 Seagrave AC53, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, LIGIER JS31 CP MODEL 1 43 N. BBR MODELS TAMEO MFH HIRO MG MODEL AMR TENARIV,; 1 25 POLISTIL Serie S Mercedes Benz 190 E 2.3 16V MIB - No Burago Politoys,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, New EAGLES RACE 1 18 FERRARI 250GT SWB BERLINETTE 1961 - yellow, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, GEMINI JETS 1 250 - AJAAL022 DOUGLAS DC-3 AMERICAN AIRLINES, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAMX-10RCR French Tank Destroyer TIGER MODEL 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.
Modellauto BMW 1926 Nostalgie Blechmodell,Metall 31 cm ,Neu (Ko),.1976 Ford Mustang II Mach 1 red 1 18 Greenlight 12867, Clarke's negligent act.New Lamborghini Centenario Yellow Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Ma,.Chgold Q SUBARU IMPREZA WRCar 2004 Set Start & Finish TAKARA NEW Rare F S,.1 18 Ixo 18RMC008 Porsche 911 SC SC WALDEGARD RALLY MONTE CARLO 1982,.
TSM MODEL 1 43 HONDA CIVIC TYPE R AEGEAN blueE METALLIC RHD MODELLINO,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SK Hong Kong Rolls-Royce Laurel Hardy Battery Operated en boite,V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL047 FERRARI F50 F 50 RED MIB RARE,. In Noska,Burago 1 18 scale Diecast - 3021 Porsche 356B Coupe 1962 White,.Talbot Lago T26 Gs N.8 Retired Le Mans 1951 Chaboud-Vincent 1 43 Bizarre BZ431,.Dinky 437 Muir Hill 2WL Loader, Near Mint in Excellent Original Bubble Box,.BBURAGO - METALLMODELL - BMW 3 0 CS - 1 24 - (5.DIV-32), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 24 Action Austin Dillon Rheem 2016 Chevy Camaro 1 of 505,.AUDI 80 GTE Audi Motorsport ETCC Bergmeister Nowak Gr.2 1980 NEO Resin 1 43,.Ferrari 250 Gtl Jay Kay Personal Car bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.Neo 1 43 Osca 1600GT Zagato, silver Limited 300 pcs,. Id., p 923.
Corgi Toys Lot Of 3 Original Catalogs 1959, 1962, & 1964,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MG MG-TD MG Hubley Kidde Red with Chrome Enhancements Nice MgTd Antique MG-TD,Fiat 238 Garage Francorchamps Ferrari 1972 1 43 Model RIO,.Set of 10 UK British Police Cars 1 43 ATLAS FORD AUSTIN LEYLAND DIECAST MODEL,.Corgi 05508 Mini 7 Racing Club 1999 Miglia & Se7en Brands Hatch Diorama 2 6000,.Matrix ISO 6000GT Stradale Daytona Nembo'65 Red Quality Resin Model, 1 43 Scale,.Jaguar F Type Project 7 (2015) Resin Model Car PR0482,.Corgi Toys No 478 Hydraulic Tower Wagon Jeep FC-150 - NM,.GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 2720 2achs Kippanhänger zwillingsbereift 1 50,. The parties BMW M6 GT3 No.35 24H SPA 2017 (M. Palttala - C. Krognes - N. Menzel - M. ...,.
+ REEL ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA DESPHARAONS AFRICA TOURS RALLY TAN MINT BOXED,.Porsche 911 (993) Cabrio 1994 black 1 18 Norev 187595 neu & OVP,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1954 Jaguar D-Type,; Universal Hobbies Renault 5 Turbo Monte Carlo 1 18 4548, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Matchbox SF Nr. 29B Racing Mini redorange 29 top in Box,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Maserati Khamsin 1977 Rood Limited Edition 250 pcs Minichamps 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)CORGI MERCDES BENZ 600 PULLMAN,.BMW 320i E46 4 STRASSE VERSION 2005 orange 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400052400 NEU,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 MUSCLE CARS 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS - 50TH ANNIVERSARY AW239,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Starter Kit à Monter 1 43 - Porsche Kremer K8 N°1 Le Mans 1996,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.FERRARI 250 BREADVAN 1000KMS PARIS 1962 GRAND PRIX MODELS 1 43 MONTAGE PRO,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44266 BITTER SC COUPE' RED 1 43,.Daihatsu Compagno Spider (1965) 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars (25),.CURSOR - METALLMODELL - MAGIRUS DEUTZ - PRITSCHEN LKW - 1 50 - (7.BM-191),.1 18 Norev Citroen 2CV Dolly 1985 white grey,. The ScottsdaleStahlberg Mercedes-Benz W123 T-Modell 1 20 Brown metallic (JS),DINKY TOYS RENAULT 4 L 518 - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN,.Ford Mustang Sportsroof 1971 1 18 3619,. Id.,Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes 300 B Adenauer 1955 black,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MVI Resin 1 43 K24 Renault Master Sairep Resin Built Fire Intervention Van,; Dinky Toys 950 Foden Fuel Tanker Burmah mint in box,Fiat Balilla Autocarro 1935 Pubblicita' Balilla + Figure 1 43 RIO4364P RIO,.Mercedes AMG W08 Bottas GP Spanish 2017 1 43 - 410170077 MINICHAMPS,. The ScottsdalePlanex Communications 1 43PLANEX COLLECTION LOTUS F1 SERIES Lotus72E Austr...,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, SPARK 1 43 S1597 TYRRELL 022 RD SPANISH GP 1994 MARK blueNDELL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark F1 Lotus 87 n°12 N. Mansell GP d'angleterre 1 43 S5351,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, V 1 64 HOTWHEELS RACER FERRARI 599 GTB 599GTB FIORANO WHITE MINT ON CARD RARE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1999 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R34) FALKEN TIRES 1 18 DIECAST CAR GREENLIGHT 19050,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 911 GT2 2007 White 1 18 Norev,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, MERCEDES BENZ LP608 LP 608 Jägermeister Racing Team LKW Schuco 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider Closed 1964 Red KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180241, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Vintage 1971 Matchbox Superkings K- 5 Muir Hill Tractor & Trailer Near Mint,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 Eagle Renault Sport Clio V6 Street Version purple NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Art Model AM0034-2 FERRARI DINO 246 SP N.92 WINNER 1000 KM NURBURGRING 1962 HILL,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMinichamps 402902010 Set VW Karmann Ghia + Porsche 911,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.PORSCHE 962C 962 C Dauer Racing Nürburgring 1989 Hexcel limit 1 300 Spark 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 18 REVELL Wiesmann MF3 MF4 GT Coupé orange yellow 08882 OVP Rare,CORGI 207M STANGAURD VANGAURD MECHANICAL FROM 1957-59 ORIGINAL CAR &BOX.,.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 504 COUPE - 1969 - 184825,.Ford Capri Mklll Turbo Bianco Ford Motorsport 1981 Neo 1 43 Neo43329 Modellino,. The Huyghe1 43 Wit's WITS Toyota CARINA 1600GT TA61 White 1984-1990 W480 NEW ,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark 1 43 Scale Resin S0318 - Spyker C8 Spyder GT2R Le Mans 2007,.
Siku Plastik V14 Volkswagen Krankenwagen Bus VW Modelauto V Serie ,.Brago Toy bluee fiat Nuova Panda (2003) Replica Miniature Minicar Model 360,.
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Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFord Escort Rs 2000 Mki Anno di Costruzione 1973 red Bianco 1 18 Triple9,.CHEVROLET CORVETTE C1 Fuel Injection CABRIOLET black 1 18,.
For example, in Partridge,1957 Studebaker golden Hawk Arctic White in 1 18 Scale Diecast by Sunstar SS6152,. In Jorgensen, supra,HOT WHEELS MODERN CLASSICS 15 1970 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER RED W+,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.NEW JERSEY POLICE-GARDEN STATE PARKWAY-ROAD CHAMPS-CHEVY-POLICE SERIES 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Alfa Romeo 6c 2500 Freccia d'gold 1 43 Minichamps Diecast Model Limited Edition,. That is the same situation in this case.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144345 - 2013 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Juguetes vers parque bomberos emergencia Set Juegos 100% recicado ibre BPA,. Detroit Edison, supra.
PORSCHE 356A 356 Coupe 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 bluee blue Sunstar 1 18,.PERFEX 101RA CAMION BERLIET GAK FOURGON - CIRQUE SABINE RANCY - Limité à 250ex.,.Ixo Models 1 43 Scale LMC158 - Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.1 Turbo LM '74,.
MINICHAMPS 1 18 FORD FOCUS RS 2010 REF 100080068 NEUVE EN BOITE,.