Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MÄRKLIN 8035 Made in Germany Fuchs 301 Hochlöffel-Bagger blue ca. 50 Jahre alt,.Mark43 1 43 Honda Prelude Si BA1 Greek White PM4353W,.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS AMG J. ALESI DTM 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Innocenti 950-S Spider - yellow - 1 of 500 - Matrix Scale Models - 1 43,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Ford Falcon XA 351 GT Sedan 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast bluee Model Car,.1 43 TSM Fujimi, 2012 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta, Red,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark Model S5347 LOTUS 72F J.CRAWFORD 1975 N.6 13th ITALIAN GP 1 43 Modellino,.BMW 2000 CS - Solido 157 France 1 43 36185,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.21 Hot Wheels Matchbox vehicle 1970s collection & 1980 Official Collector Case,.1 43 EBBRO Honda Accord EX 1976 Die Cast Model,.872P Herpa Scania 09 TL Sattelzug Markus Hafner,Feichter Hof Nr.915977 in OVP, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
ERTL 1 16 SCALE CASE MAGNUM 380 CVT TRACTOR MODEL BN 46621,.Corgi 12801 Foden FG Artic & Long Platform Trailer Ltd Ed No. 0002 of 6700,.Toyota TS010 () 1992 SWC -- HPI 43,.Kyosho Nissan Gt-R R35 143 Scale,.
Vintage Johnny Lightning Lot of 7 1970 Boss 302 in Different colors MIP MOC,.SPARK LM S4550 Oreca 01-AIM Team Oreca LMP1 Matmut n°10 24h Le Mans 2009 1 43,.Norev 185230. Coche de colección. Renault Clio Williams ´93 blue. Escala 1 18,.Old Vtg Diecast Austin A95 Westminster Countryman Car Grey Wheels England,.Danbury Mint 1948 Chrysler Town & Country,.
Matchbox Lesney Nº34d VOLKSWAGEN CAMPER VAN, Regular Wheels (MIB),. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Sovering gold Met Kess 1 43 KS43020002 Mi,.CORGI - DAVID BROWN 1412 TRACTOR AND TIPPER TRAILER IN BOX 34 - PLEASE SEE BELOW,.Crawler Tractor AT-S 59G (1943) 1 43 Premium Classixxs 47025,59 - Ford F-75 Safari scale 1 43 - Service Vehicles of Brazil,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo Kremer Vaillant DRM 1977 Zolder Vaillant Wollek Norev 1 18,.
SUN STAR 1 18 LANCIA DELTA HF INTEGRALE 16V AURIOL DIE-CAST SS3119,.Spark Model SA115 AUDI R8 LMS N.11 10th MACAU GT WORLD CUP 2016 CHENG CONGFU 1 4,.Minichamps Werbemodell Porsche Panamera 4S Diesel in blue-metallic 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
BMW M3 E30 DTM CHAMPION 1989 1 18 SCALE DIECAST MODEL SUPERB EXAMPLE BOXED RARE,.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 130430 - Jaguar XJS Congreenible - White,. We agree in part.
1 43 FERRARI 166 MM 1948-1953 PROVA VERSION RED RHD AMAZING WHEELS ART MODELS,.1 50 scale Caterpillar 140H Motor Grader Yellow Diecast Vehicle For Collection,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.CITROEN 2CV 50 ANS DE LA 2CV 1948-1998 NOREV 1 43,.LANCIA DELTA SAN REMO 1991 auriol vitesse 1 43,.Minichamps Ferrari 333 SP 1994 1 43 IMSA WSC Presentation,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Schuco 03263 Mercedes Benz L 322 Feuerwehr Stadt Donauworth 1 43 MIB OVP diecas,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,; Hot Wheels 15th Annual 2001 Collectors's Convention Limited 1 of 2000 67 GTO,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
REVELL 1 12 08453 MINI COOPER RED RHD,.NEO MODELS Mitsubishi Lancer Turbo 2000 1 43 45256,Ixo 1 43 Mitsubishi Lancer Evo V 1998 Year Osutorariarari Won T. Mak New F S,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.EBBRO 44641 1 43 Makuransa T-III resin White,.
Minichamps 430780006 Lotus 79 Peterson 1978 1 43 MIB,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 50 Scale T Alun Jones,.FERRARI 458 RED SPECIALE SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BBURAGO 16903,.Brekina Post Serie 17 Mercedes L 322 con Weber-Behältern Deutsche Bundespost,Dbp,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Redline Hotwheels bluee 1973 Double Header oc7440,; Porsche 962 IMSA h Sebring 1985 - 1 43 - Minichamps,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, INFINITI FX50S 2010 blueE MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO44542,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Best 1 43 Martini Lancia Beta Montecarlo - Le Mans 1981 - Patrese Heyer Ghinzani,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Mercedes 1969 Dodge War Horse 1 18 Simulation Modified Alloy Muscle Car Model,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Porsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 aquamarine blue Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Mira 1 18 Scale diecast 26OCT2017B Ferrari 348 Red Model Car,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.S5255 SPARK 1 43 Brabham BT24 South African GP 1969 Sam Tingle,.Porsche 911 CARRERA Cabriolet 1993 1 18 Norev 187592 993 Congreenible Cabrio,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.HONDA CRX CR-X DEL SOL 1993 red 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400161930,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.NEO 43651; 1995 Saab 900 Sedan; White; Excellent Boxed,.
1971 CHALLENGER R T SUPERCAR SC COLLECTIBLES 1 18,.DeAgostini Lot of 10 cars 1 43 DACIA ARO GAZ LUAZ,.New 2005 Peugeot 407 Coupe bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Norev 184764,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 150 GP Wins M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Norev 188053 Nissan GTR R-35 2008 - Dark Grey metallic,.
National Motor Museum Mint 1941 Chevrolet Flatbed And Willys Jeep R1,.Norev 826 jet car Peugeot 104 bluee diecast perfect mint superb,.2 1957 CHEVY BELL AIR'S BY ERTL 1 18 SCALE BEFORE AND AFTER RARE IN BOX,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Spark Audi R18 TDI N°2 Winner 24h du Mans 2011 1 43 S43LM11,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Schuco Mercedes SLS AMG Gran Turismo 5 PS3 Signature Edition 1 43,.PEUGEOT 504 break MAVIC Tour de France cycliste 1977 1 43 velo,.CLASSICO 1 18 - 040026 FERRARI 1958 250 TESTAROSSA & ROAD FUEL PUMP,.Spark Model Porsche 911 3.2 Cabriolet 1989 1 43 S4468,.DINKY 956 DIECAST TURNTABLE FIRE ESCAPE,.
16. MERCEDES BENZ 180 AMBULANCE scale 1 43 - Service Vehicles of Brazil, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 43 BO43K 1970 Plymouth Barracuda AAR TransAm race car kit,.CITROEN DS3 CABRIOLET black A56 1 18,. The PartridgeVolkswagen T2A 1967 Carro Funebre + Bara Hearse Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 PREM18405,.CORGI 486 CHEVY IMPALA KENNEL SERVICE WAGON ORIGINAL PLAYWORN CAR IN REPRO BOX.,.Fujimi model 1 24 real sports car series No.27 McLaren F1 GTR short tail Le Man,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Universal Hobbies UH5266 CASE MAXXUM 145 CVX 2017 1 32 Modellino, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Corgi Toys ca. 60er J. Austin Mini seltene Rally Monte Carlo Variante Dach ,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Schuco 1 43 Mercedes Benz Unimog Kommunal Ersatz-OVP,.Batman Motorized Batmobile Vintage 1989 Aoshima 1 43 Japanese Model Kit,PartridgeJohnny Lightning Holiday WHITE LIGHTNING lot of 6 IMPALA BEETLE NASH C-300 More,.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 2985 Ferguson 40 Einführungsmodel (1955) 1 16,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Lamborghini Jarama 400 GTS 1974 Green 1 43 Minichamps-Espada, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Rolls Royce silver Wraith Imperatrice Hooper RHD black red, Modello Auto 1 ,; 2016 CHEVY CAMARO SS GAMET RED DIECAST 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOWORLD AW230 NEW,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, METAL BUILT KIT 1 43 PRESTIGE 2 BUGATTI ROYALE TORPEDO- RARE SELTEN -, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Norev Jet Car 709 Mercedes Benz C111 made in France 1 43 scale MIB Superb, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRio 4356 FIAT 1100 YV TAXI DI BERNA 1955 1 43,.
Corgi CC10203 Fairground Attractions ERF V 4 Wheel Box Lorry Ltd Ed 0002 of 4000,.Porsche 911 RSR Turbo Mid-Ohio 3h 1977 18 Norev 187427 neu & OVP, Clarke's negligent act.Hotwheels elite series 1 43 scale 1989 BATMOBILE nib,.Ferrari 458 Spider 1 18 Scale Model Car,.VOLKSWAGEN Porsche B32 VW T3 1984 bluee blue metallic Diecast KK 1 500 NEW 1 18,.
MINICHAMPS 1 43 McLaren 12C GT3 Street 2012 bluee Art. 437121397,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark Porsche 914 6 7 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 1 43 S5582,NOREV NV185271 RENAULT 30 TX 1981 BRONZE 1 18,. In Noska,GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 2704 2achs Kippanhänger einfachbereift 1 50,.GLAS 1300 GT Cabrio 1966 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43975,.AUTOart 75368 LOTUS EUROPA S 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR WHITE,.Spark 1 43 Scale SF040 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC France 2012, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Tatra Phoenix 8x8 Mezzo D'Opera Anno di Costruzione 2016 Avorio Bianco ,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast - 75201 ERF Curtainside Eddie Stobart Ltd + Case,.1 43 Russian Moskvich IZH 2717-90 Ambulance Handmade,.Jada Toys - Fast Furious 1 10 R C 2002 Nissan Skyline GT-R,. Id., p 923.
1 43 Ixo Ferrari F 355 Berlinetta,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Renault alpine concept a110 50 2012 1 18 norev,CORGI - 497 THE MAN FROM UNCLE 'THRUSH BUSTER' 1966,.Polistil 1 16 Scale - 016793 Porsche 911 Turbo Cabrio metallic grey,.Ferrari 275 GTS 4 NART Spyder mit Alufelgen Baujahr 1967 dunkelblue 1 18 KK-Scal,.SSM 1 43 T-100 Raupenschlepper,.Minichamps McLaren Ford MP4-1C Ayrton 1 43 540834307,.BMW 2000 CS 1965 dunkelred KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,.Diecast Car Model JMC Yusheng S330 SUV 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT ,. The parties Saab 900 Cabriolet Open 1987 Grey Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43569,.
Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Lègende 2018 Set 517864 1 43 Norev,.ALFA ROMEO 8C 2900 B LUNGO 1 43 Minichamps,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT. Van - India Tyres,; Kyosho 1 43 Nissan GT-R Fuji Speedway official car K03741FSW, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
PORSCHE 911 TURBO (964) 3,6L 2009 white WELLY 1 18,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Oxford Diecast 1 43 Scale OXSET26 - Ford Anglia Set Of 3 Ice Cream Vans - Walls,.Spark Model S5864 AUDI S1 EKS RX QUATTRO N.51 WRX OF FRANCE 2017 N.MULLER 1 43 M,.( Gokr ) 1 18 Gateway Lexus Rx 300,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 64 Johnny Lightning - Toyota Land Cruiser - White - Chase,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Ford V8 Deluxe Coupe Model 01A 1940 bluee bluee 1 18 Eagle Race,.Augusta Area Rug - 5' x 8', Red,.Ford Mustang GT Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.1 50 AEC Ergo Willmotts 1 50 • CORGI CC10301,.1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 orange-whiteo 1 18 Road Signature 9232,. The ScottsdaleVOLGA GAZ 24-02 USSR CCCP CONVERSION 1 43 Without a box,SSM 1 43 MAZ-200 GREY ISSUE VERY RARE BNIB ,.Diapet 12 yonezawa toys Nissan Prince Loyal perfect mint,. Id.,CORGI TOYS FIAT 1800 COMPETITION CODE 3 UNIKAT MINT,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Diecast Car Model Leopard CS10 1 18 (gold) + GIFT ,; Best Model BT9562 FIAT 1500 6 CILINDRI PRESENTAZIONE SALONE DI TORINO 1935 GREY,JEEP WILLYS 1 18 US Army WW2,.MIN540894301 by MINICHAMPS MCLAREN MP4 V10 1989 A. SENNA 1 43,. The ScottsdalePolar Lights Big John Mazmanian Ghost 'Cuda NHRA Funny Car 1 25 Scale Model Kit,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Rio 1 43 Scale Model Car 4199 - 1930 Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Bugatti EB 16.4 Veyron 8.0L Quad-Turbocharged Super Car 1 64 Scale Limited Edt K,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Team Lotus 18 Jim Clark 3rd Portugal GP 1960 S1840 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1967 CITROEN ID 19 BREAK MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY NOREV 181591,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Autoart 1 43 Scale Diecast 50921 - 1998 Bugatti EB 118 - bluee,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Kyosho minicar 64 1 Ferrari, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 24 Scale Model - Ferrari 250 GTO, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, BURAGO 1 18 3040 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA CABRIOLET 1994 blueE,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCollector box of 5 Model Cars - 1 43 DINKY TOYS 24 55 MODELLAUTO CAR MB102,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 76 SCANIA IRIZAR BUS EIREANN EXPRESSWAY LIVERY GALWAY CP46213A,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheClassic Metal Works 1 24 DECATUR GEORGIA Ford Police Interceptor,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Corgi fire engine Hong Kong AEC No 21802,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Britains (England) Tumbrel Cart,WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW 2002 cabriolet E10 1971 K. Red 1 43 Minichamps-E6 E9 E24,.Porsche 918 Spyder Weissach + Martini Stripes 2015 MINICHAMPS 1 43 410062137 Mod,.REVELL1963 CHEVY IMPALA SS PRO FINISH LOWRIDER MODEL KIT 1 25 SKILL LEVEL 2,. The HuygheTekno Denmark 927 Jaguar E-Type White very near mint all original condition,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDiecast vehicles 1 18 rolls royce,.
Ferrari 250 P 1963 Red 1 43 Model 0118 ART-MODEL,.Chevrolet Corvair Coupe 1963 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.
Chevy Impala Open 1958 Red 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,.Mercedes 300 D Pompe Funebri 1960 1 43 Model RIO,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Jaguar Heritage E-Type Coupe Lightweight 1963 Aluminium BEST 1 43 BE9680,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1986 TOY STATE 57' CHEVY with REMOTE Vintage RC Car NOS Flames,.Provence Moulding Kit à Monter 1 43 - Mazda 757 Le Mans 1987 No.201 202,.
For example, in Partridge,MINICHAMPS - VW Bettle Kafer 1200 Red Marsred 1983 1 43, ULTRA RARE ,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 43 IXO Maserati MC12 Vitaphone Winner Spa 24h 2006 Bartels Van de Poele,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 21 BREAK - 1970 - 181592,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,RARE MINICHAMPS 1 43 McLAREN MERCEDES MP4-21 Interim Test Car JP Montoya,. That is the same situation in this case.Trofeu TF0632 SUBARU IMPREZA N.3 2nd RALLY DU VAR 1998 JOSEPH PIVATO 1 43 Modell,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 43 EagleMoss - Fiat 242 - Assistance Lancia Alitalia,. Detroit Edison, supra.
S.M.T.S Gallery Collection Station Hairpin 1987 Lotus 99T - Boxed,.Petite voiture, Majorette, Mercédès 280 SE orange, 1 64,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 045B - 1935 Dodge Van San Francisco Relief 1 Of 100,.
1969 General Lee Dukes of Hazzard 1 25 scale ERTL car NIB Sealed NEW Flag,.