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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast 12566W - 1972 Pontiac Trans Am - bluee,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Alpine Renault A110 1600S Gendarmería Año Fabricación 1971 blue 1 18 Norev,.Revell 08466 1 18 BORGWARD ISABELLA COUPE RACING 1957 LIGHT blueE WHITE,.Art Model AM0161-2 FERRARI 166 MM BARCHETTA N.23 ACCIDENT LM 1949 J.LUCAS-HELDE',.Best Model 9429 LOLA T70 SPYDER BRIDGEHAMPTON 1 43 Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Norev GT by Citroën Salon de Paris 2008 electic blue 1 18 - 181613,.Ford Fiesta Rs Turbo Mkiii 1989 Red Ed.Lim.Pcs 258 1 43 Kess Model KS43015020,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Norev 187660 - 1987 Porsche 911 3.3 Turbo Targa - white - 1 18 - NEU,.Dinky 293 Atlantean Bus, Superb Condition in Original Box,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Mercedes-Benz SL65 Cabrio - 1 43 - Absolute Hot,.Western 1 43 Scale White metal 15NOV2017J Tyrrell 009 Jarier F1 Car,.Tekno Denmark 813 Ferrari racing car SWISS FLAG near mint original condition, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Wiking 778 28 CLAAS LINER 2600 Centre Swath Rake 077828 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.Hamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.12x BMW Z4 E85 Modellautos Sterlinggrey, M 1 43 Norev,.Voiture CHEVY CAMARO 350 Cooter Shérif Fais Moi Peur Métal 1 18 Dukes of Hazzard,.

Corgi Toys 1 43 THE MONKEES MONKEEMOBILE Pontiac GTO TV Movie Car 07104 MIB`01 ,.RENAULT R.S. 01 RS01 Interceptor 01 Sport Jean Ragnotti 1 300 Spark 1 43,.Tim Richmond Folgers 86 Chevy Monte Carlo Action RCCA 1 24 BWB 1 of 5000,.STELCO Mini Cooper Rally orange Modellauto Kunstoff ca.17cm (K42) B,.Mercedes-Benz LP 608 Pritsche Plane METZELER , 1973, Schuco 1 43, OVP,.

Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180243,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Old Vtg Lesney Matchbox Unimog Made In England W Intact Box,.Lola Mk1 1980 Dark Red 1 43 Spark S1128 Miniature,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S0397 - Alfa Romeo 8C Spider - Red,Hotwheels Elite Ferrari 599 GTB RED Panamerican 1 18 Mattel Fresh Case 458 430,.DINKY NO. 943 LEYLAND OCTOPUS ESSO TANKER - MINT BOXED,.

Spark 1 43 Ford Torino Pikes Peak Winner 1969 Unser 43PP69,.ALEZAN 250 LAMBORGHINI URRACO 1973 - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 12,.1997 First Gear 'Freightliner FLD 120 Conventional Tractor & 49' Trailer' 1 54,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Mint Minicar Kyosho Original 1 64 Lamborghini Silhouette White,.

1 43 Ferrari 250 GT TDF Stradale Scaglietti 1957 Carrera D43 (Handmade),. We agree in part.

Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11KE18 - 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air - bluee White,.1 10 Schuco Victoria Avanti red mit Fahrerfigur NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ferrari 250 Spider California Competizione Red 1 43 Model 0115 ART-MODEL,.PORSCHE CAYENNE TURBO, WHITE WELLY 1 18 DIECAST CAR COLLECTOR'S MODEL , NEW,.First Gear Peterbilt 351 West Coast Fast Freight 1 64 Fallen Flag Series 60-0491,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Lancia Astura Type 233C Pininfarina 1936 Metallic bluee 1 43 SPARK S2724,.Signature 1 43 Scale - PM43706 Mercedes Benz G4 6 wheel top up bluee,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Somerville 1 43 Fordson 5CWT Van Butcher Handmade White Metal Model Car,; 70 BLOWN DODGE CHALLENGER RT500 MADE1 18 SCALE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Dinky Supertoys 521 - Bedford Articulated Lorry - Yellow,.NORTHCORD NATIONAL EXPRESS ALEXANDER DENNIS E400H MMC UKB6502,SIMCA 1000 LS 1974 AMARANTE RED NOREV 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Minichamps Porsche Cayman S 1488 1 43 Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast CA3198,.

DeLorean BTTF 1 2 3 Box SET 3 Models Metal 1 24 DieCast DELOREAN Welly NEW,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Norev 185234 1 18 RENAULT CLIO 16S 1991 TUNGSTENE GREY,.Dinky toys France SB 1 43 - Peugeot 204 White 510,.(W) Matchbox Lesney FORD ZODIAC - 33,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mr Bean’s Mini Car Corgi Classics 04419,; Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 028A - 1935 Dodge Van - 12th james leake,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Shelby Collectibles Legend Series 1965 Cobra Daytona Coupe NEW Ships Fast,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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TEAM SLOT CAR 11103 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA GTA YELLOW L12.5cm - UNUSED IN BOX,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567 Model,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Peugeot 208 GTi ,2e Class SP2T 24H Nurburgring 2013 , Sparkmodels,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Minichamps - Lewis Hamilton - Mercedes Petronas - W06 - 1 43 - Japan GP - 2015,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Seat Ateca SUV Samoa orange Ab 2016 1 43 PremiumX Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,.Fiat 238 Garage Francorchamps 1972 Rio 1 43 Rio4242 Modellino Diecast,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Norev NV184831 PEUGEOT 404 COUPE 1967 Apink WHITE 1 18 Modellino,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45695 HAMANN GUARDIAN YELLOW CARBON 2011 1 43,.

Giocher P06 FIAT PUNTO VIGILI DEL FUOCO,.TA474 TEKNO MERCEDES 300 SL Ref 925 1 43 BEL ETAT,.Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 White 1 18 - 182771 NOREV,.1922 Opel 4 PS Laubfrosch green 1 18 MC Group 18050,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Mercedes F1 W05 No.44 Winner Italian GP 2014 Hamilton S3141,.

UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5342 1 32 AMAZONE CATROS 6002 2TS COMPACT DISC HARROW,.Heco Modeles 87 Aston Martin DB 2 Cabriolet kit hand built perfect mint in box,.1996 Hot Wheels JC Whitney Volkswagen VW Drag Bus Warshawsky Ltd Edn 1 10,000,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, WSI 03-1134 1 50 Scale Mercedes-Benz Actros Big Space 4x2,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Club Bialbero 007EDL ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPRINT 1 43,.SPARK BRABHAM BT44 GP Italia 1974 - John Watson S5259 1 43,.Mercedes Sprinter Die Post Bringt Pakete Eligor 1 43,.HO 1 87 Herpa Liebherr 954 Excavator w redating Sorting Grab Attachment,.Ferrari 365 GTC 4 Baujahr 1971 silver KK-Scale KKDC180283 1 18 Neu,.

Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Nissan R89 C N°85 Le Mans 1990, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.TYPE 10 TANK JAPAN G.S.D. FORCE TAMIYA 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.Spark Alfa Romeo 8C P. Etancelin 1 43 43LM34,. The PartridgeMATCHBOX SUPERFAST 35 Merryweather Fire Engine MINT in I2 Box 2 Rivet Clips RARE,.Schuco 450283800 Setra S6 'Reisetraum' mit Skiern und Schlitten,.Renault RS 01 yellow Präsentation 2015 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indi..,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Paudi 1 18 Scale Diecast - PAU7 Nissan Murano 2011 gold Metallic, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Siku Plastik no. V177 Henschel Scraper V Serie,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Neo Mercedes SEC BB Magic Top - metallic-weiss - offen - 1 43,.Kyosho Minutes Ae86 Sprinter Torino Gtv,PartridgeWanderer W 240 Limousine 1935 red black, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Somerville 1 43 Fordson 5CWT Van Butcher Handmade White Metal Model Car,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 830001 - F1 Williams Ford 08C, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 028A - 1935 Dodge Van - 12th james leake,; OAK Pescarolo Judd Le Mans 2011 1 18 Spark 18S063,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, WSI 03-1134 1 50 Scale Mercedes-Benz Actros Big Space 4x2, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 830001 - F1 Williams Ford 08C, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeOAK Pescarolo Judd Le Mans 2011 1 18 Spark 18S063,.

2019 First Gear 1 64 RINGSBY PETERBILT Model 351 Semi 40' Vintage Trailer NIB ,.Politoys M Ferrari 512S Pinninfarina made in 1 43 scale near mint, Clarke's negligent act.Spark 1 43 Scale S3030 - F1 McLaren MP4-26 Winner German GP 2011,.VINTAGE TONKA ROAD PAVER 1974-75 COMPLETE,.Renault 16 1969 Beige Grey Metallic 1 18 - 185133 NOREV,.

PROGETTO K 1 43 SCALE PK351 - FIAT 238 FURGONE CARABINIERI 1965,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 2019 First Gear 1 64 RINGSBY PETERBILT Model 351 Semi 40' Vintage Trailer NIB ,Smart Forfour bluee 1 18 Kyosho,. In Noska,NV155329 - COFFRET CITROEN C3 & C3 AIRCROSS 2017 LIMITED ED.500 PCS (2 CARS) 1 4,.Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast 12566W - 1972 Pontiac Trans Am - bluee,.Alpine Renault A110 1600S Gendarmería Año Fabricación 1971 blue 1 18 Norev,.Revell 08466 1 18 BORGWARD ISABELLA COUPE RACING 1957 LIGHT blueE WHITE, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Art Model AM0161-2 FERRARI 166 MM BARCHETTA N.23 ACCIDENT LM 1949 J.LUCAS-HELDE',.Best Model 9429 LOLA T70 SPYDER BRIDGEHAMPTON 1 43 Modellino,.Norev GT by Citroën Salon de Paris 2008 electic blue 1 18 - 181613,.Ford Fiesta Rs Turbo Mkiii 1989 Red Ed.Lim.Pcs 258 1 43 Kess Model KS43015020,. Id., p 923.

Norev 187660 - 1987 Porsche 911 3.3 Turbo Targa - white - 1 18 - NEU,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Politoys M Ferrari 512S Pinninfarina made in 1 43 scale near mint,Dinky 293 Atlantean Bus, Superb Condition in Original Box,.Mercedes-Benz SL65 Cabrio - 1 43 - Absolute Hot,.Western 1 43 Scale White metal 15NOV2017J Tyrrell 009 Jarier F1 Car,.Tekno Denmark 813 Ferrari racing car SWISS FLAG near mint original condition,.Wiking 778 28 CLAAS LINER 2600 Centre Swath Rake 077828 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.Hamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.12x BMW Z4 E85 Modellautos Sterlinggrey, M 1 43 Norev,. The parties Voiture CHEVY CAMARO 350 Cooter Shérif Fais Moi Peur Métal 1 18 Dukes of Hazzard,.

Corgi Toys 1 43 THE MONKEES MONKEEMOBILE Pontiac GTO TV Movie Car 07104 MIB`01 ,.RENAULT R.S. 01 RS01 Interceptor 01 Sport Jean Ragnotti 1 300 Spark 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Spark 1 43 Scale S3030 - F1 McLaren MP4-26 Winner German GP 2011,; Tim Richmond Folgers 86 Chevy Monte Carlo Action RCCA 1 24 BWB 1 of 5000, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

STELCO Mini Cooper Rally orange Modellauto Kunstoff ca.17cm (K42) B,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes-Benz LP 608 Pritsche Plane METZELER , 1973, Schuco 1 43, OVP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180243,.Old Vtg Lesney Matchbox Unimog Made In England W Intact Box,.Lola Mk1 1980 Dark Red 1 43 Spark S1128 Miniature,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark Models 1 43 Scale S0397 - Alfa Romeo 8C Spider - Red,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hotwheels Elite Ferrari 599 GTB RED Panamerican 1 18 Mattel Fresh Case 458 430,.DINKY NO. 943 LEYLAND OCTOPUS ESSO TANKER - MINT BOXED,.Spark 1 43 Ford Torino Pikes Peak Winner 1969 Unser 43PP69,.ALEZAN 250 LAMBORGHINI URRACO 1973 - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 12,.1997 First Gear 'Freightliner FLD 120 Conventional Tractor & 49' Trailer' 1 54,. The ScottsdaleMint Minicar Kyosho Original 1 64 Lamborghini Silhouette White,1 43 Ferrari 250 GT TDF Stradale Scaglietti 1957 Carrera D43 (Handmade),.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11KE18 - 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air - bluee White,. Id.,1 10 Schuco Victoria Avanti red mit Fahrerfigur NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari 250 Spider California Competizione Red 1 43 Model 0115 ART-MODEL,; VINTAGE TONKA ROAD PAVER 1974-75 COMPLETE,PORSCHE CAYENNE TURBO, WHITE WELLY 1 18 DIECAST CAR COLLECTOR'S MODEL , NEW,.First Gear Peterbilt 351 West Coast Fast Freight 1 64 Fallen Flag Series 60-0491,. The ScottsdaleLancia Astura Type 233C Pininfarina 1936 Metallic bluee 1 43 SPARK S2724,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Signature 1 43 Scale - PM43706 Mercedes Benz G4 6 wheel top up bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Renault 16 1969 Beige Grey Metallic 1 18 - 185133 NOREV,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PROGETTO K 1 43 SCALE PK351 - FIAT 238 FURGONE CARABINIERI 1965,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 70 BLOWN DODGE CHALLENGER RT500 MADE1 18 SCALE,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Dinky Supertoys 521 - Bedford Articulated Lorry - Yellow,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, NORTHCORD NATIONAL EXPRESS ALEXANDER DENNIS E400H MMC UKB6502, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, SIMCA 1000 LS 1974 AMARANTE RED NOREV 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps Porsche Cayman S 1488 1 43 Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast CA3198,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDeLorean BTTF 1 2 3 Box SET 3 Models Metal 1 24 DieCast DELOREAN Welly NEW,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Norev 185234 1 18 RENAULT CLIO 16S 1991 TUNGSTENE GREY,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDinky toys France SB 1 43 - Peugeot 204 White 510,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.(W) Matchbox Lesney FORD ZODIAC - 33,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Mr Bean’s Mini Car Corgi Classics 04419,Shelby Collectibles Legend Series 1965 Cobra Daytona Coupe NEW Ships Fast,.TEAM SLOT CAR 11103 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA GTA YELLOW L12.5cm - UNUSED IN BOX,.Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567 Model,. The HuyghePeugeot 208 GTi ,2e Class SP2T 24H Nurburgring 2013 , Sparkmodels,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps - Lewis Hamilton - Mercedes Petronas - W06 - 1 43 - Japan GP - 2015,.

Seat Ateca SUV Samoa orange Ab 2016 1 43 PremiumX Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,.Fiat 238 Garage Francorchamps 1972 Rio 1 43 Rio4242 Modellino Diecast,.

Norev NV184831 PEUGEOT 404 COUPE 1967 Apink WHITE 1 18 Modellino,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45695 HAMANN GUARDIAN YELLOW CARBON 2011 1 43,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Giocher P06 FIAT PUNTO VIGILI DEL FUOCO,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeTA474 TEKNO MERCEDES 300 SL Ref 925 1 43 BEL ETAT,.Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 White 1 18 - 182771 NOREV,.

For example, in Partridge,1922 Opel 4 PS Laubfrosch green 1 18 MC Group 18050,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark 1 43 Mercedes F1 W05 No.44 Winner Italian GP 2014 Hamilton S3141,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5342 1 32 AMAZONE CATROS 6002 2TS COMPACT DISC HARROW,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Heco Modeles 87 Aston Martin DB 2 Cabriolet kit hand built perfect mint in box,. That is the same situation in this case.1996 Hot Wheels JC Whitney Volkswagen VW Drag Bus Warshawsky Ltd Edn 1 10,000,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Club Bialbero 007EDL ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPRINT 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SPARK BRABHAM BT44 GP Italia 1974 - John Watson S5259 1 43,.Mercedes Sprinter Die Post Bringt Pakete Eligor 1 43,.HO 1 87 Herpa Liebherr 954 Excavator w redating Sorting Grab Attachment,.

Ferrari 365 GTC 4 Baujahr 1971 silver KK-Scale KKDC180283 1 18 Neu,.