Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark 1 43 Lotus 23 1964 Bobby Unser PP00,.Renault SuperCinq GT Turbo Tour de Corse 18 - Norev,.Chevrolet Corvette Le Mans 1972 J.Greenwood-A.Cudini S5075 Spark 1 43 New ,.DINKY SUPERTOYS 964 ELEVATOR LOADER ORIGINAL 1954 MECCANO OVP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Ertl Peachstate 1969 Shelby Cobra GT-500 1 18 Scale Diecast '69 Mustang Car,.Rio 4324 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA PESARO 1969 1 43 Modellino,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CHEVROLET CORVAIR Coupé black 1963 1 18 SUNSTAR 1484 voiture miniature collection,.KB MODLE SPARK 1 43 Porsche 962C 1989 Le Mans KBS025 from Japan F S J2578,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Neo Chrysler Imperial C-15 Le Baron Town Car - black - 1937 - 1 43,.NOREV 2012 MERCEDES BENZ SL 500 DARK GREY MATT 1 18 DIECAST CAR 183590,.Ebro 1 43 Datsun type 17 Phaeton 1938 Ivory finished product, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Spark Model Audi R8 Champion Racing Le Mans 24 Hrs 2005 Biela Pirro McNish,.GERMANY SIKU BATTLE TANK DIECAST CAR SU4913,.CODE 3 1 64 METRO DADE FL PIERCE QUANTUM PUMPER ENGINE 30 - 12760 - NIB,.BMW 520i Touring (E39) metallic-darkred 2002 1 43 NEO 43301,.

Schuco 01053 Wende Limousine 1010 Blechspielzeug Uhrwerk TOP OVP 1605-09-52,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Der Düsenberg J Derham Tourster 1930 A 292 Neuwertig,.SCUDERIA FERRARI SF16-H 1 18,.Tobar 1 18 Scale F50 Model Car,.Premium Classixx PREM18327 MERCEDES Lo2750 HOLZVERGASER BEIGE 1 43,.

Audi V8 Quattro DTM 1990 Minichamps Audi Collection 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Kyosho 1 64 Toyota Ii Hiace Circle K Sunkus Logo,.Spark 1 43 Oreca 03R - Nissan n.37 Le Mans 2014 SMP Racing S4218,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 061300 - 2006 Aston Martin Launch Version - bluee,CAT CATERPILLAR AP600F WHEELED ASPHALT PAVER 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85591,.Minichamps 400 082304 Lincoln Continental Hardtop Coupe 1956 L.bluee 1 43,.

TEKNO 854 Yellow Bus Made in Denmark 1 43 Scale Diecast,.ALFA ROMEO 1500 TARGA FLORIO 1960 FIORDELISI JOLLY MODEL JL6015,.1 43 Original Norev Renault 4 CV Yellow - with suspension,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

652I Joal 147 Scania Irizar Bus 1 50,.

Motor Max 1974 Chevy Vega American Graffiti 1 24 Scale Diecast Metal Model Car,. We agree in part.

Alpine Renault A110 Premier Edition 2017 White Metallic, Model Car 1 18 ,.FRANCE JOUET GEM COX CAB & MERCEDES - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Chevrolet Chevelle Z-16 1965 (369 Engine 50th Anniversary) 1965 - 2015 - 1 18 -,.1970 AMC Rebel Red 1 18 Road Legends YatMing 92778,.KYOSHO Bentley Flying Spur W12 Glacier White color 1 43 Discast Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes E Class W124 Red,.CORGI 404 BEDFORD DORMOBILE 1959 ORIGINAL IN ORIGINAL DAMAGED BOX MISSING END,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Dinky Toys F n° 553 Peugeot 404 en boite,; Hot Wheels 69 Ford Mustang Convention 2017. RARE 10 ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Universal Hobbies 1 43 Scale 2505 - Renault Clio 16V Williams - Metallic bluee,.SPARK BMW E30 M3 Winner 24h SPA 1987 Van de Poele, Martin, Theys SB067 1 43,Ford Fiesta WRC n.2 3rd Rally Monte Carlo 2017 O.Tänak S5161 Spark 1 43 New ,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Solido CITROËN Dyane 6 Jade Green 421184010 1 18,.

QSP Model Collection DAF 33 Bestel 1 43 Grey,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.SHELBY COBRA 427 FE ENGINE MODEL 1 6 BY LIBERTY CLASSICS 84427,.2010 Bentley Continental Supersport Coupe whiteo 1 18 Welly 18038,.MASERATI 150GT SPIDER FANTUZZI 1957 WHITE MX41311-021 Matrix 1 43 New ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Esval Models Mercedes-Benz 260D Pullman Landaulet 1936 - 1940 1 43,; Siku Plastik V52 Mercedes Benz 190 Peterwagen Polizei V Serie,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, HERPA 155441 Wandt 70 Jahre Set 1 87 TOP&OVP,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


MINI DINKY 16 FORD MUSTANG - WHITE L7.0cm - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN GARAGE BOX,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

EBRRO 1 43 Honda S800 Racing 1967 Suzuka 1000km (43934) finished product,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MAZDA MX5 NB orange ougreen 1 43 RHD,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.12 Modellautos BMW Z4 E85 Sterlinggrey M 1 43,.CORGI DAF 105 CAB UNIT SLOUGH INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT(BATTLE OF BRITAIN) CC14124,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SCHUCO 1 43 SCALE 02161 - BMW 2000 1966 - 1972 - blueE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.ERTL 1957 MERCURYY 1970 OLDS 442 CHEVY 1967 CAMARO SS396 SET OF 3 INDY PACE CARS,.

Spark Model SA130 HONDA CIVIC EF3 N.26 DNF GR.3 MACAU GUIA RACE 1989 KAZUO SHIMI,.Norev NV185261 RENAULT 300 kg 1953 PARFUMS REVILLON 1 18 ,.1 18 Norev AC Cobra 289 1963 white weiss Nr. 182752 in OVP,.Minichamps 1 43 Diecast Porsche 911 GT1, 1999 UK GT Championship,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.ASTON MARTIN DB2 SPECIAL STRADALE - ROSSA JOLLY MODEL JL553,.

CEC VEREM & SOLIDO 1 43 réf VL001 DIORAMA CITROEN TRACTION Hé TAXI,.Ertl 1 18 Scale American Muscle Grease The Movie 1932 Ford Roadster NIB,.TSM 1957 Land Rover Series 1 88 Soft-Top.,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, JUMBOS Parking Garage carriable playset,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1971 Ford Bronco Bill Stroppe Baja Edition in 1 18 Scale,.Corgi 54706 E-One Side Mount Fire Tender Washington D.C. Ltd Ed No. 0003 of 3100,.PEUGEOT 406 PROCAR TOURISME BRITANNIQUE 1996 HARVEY MINI RACING Kit Monté 1 43,.Dinky Toys A C Aceca boxed,.Artillery crawler tractor ATS-59, parade version khaki (SSM3019),.

Early Dinky Toys London Taxi Cab with Driver - Dinky Toys Public Transport, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.FERRARI 599 XX EVO MINICAR COLLECTION 12 KYOSHO 1 64 WHITE SECRET RARE pre fxx k,.MMP Ebbro 45138 Car 1 43 Honda FIT 3 HYBRID Premium White Pearl Finished Goods,. The PartridgeCORGI VANGUARD VA12702 PEUGEOT 205 1.9 GTI MIAMI blueE FEATURED ON TOP GEAR,.NOREV 1 18 184702 PEUGOT 302 DARL' MAT ROADSTER LM 1937,.Revell 1 18 Scale diecast - 8834 Ferrari Pininfarina Mythos yellow,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MARK43 1 43 Toyota Celica GT-Four ST165 1986 Super Red II, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Bburago 1 18 Ferrari 70th Anniversary 488 GTB The Schumacher,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Alpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 bluee NOREV - NO 185300 - Echelle 1 18 NEWS,.2002 Monte Carlo Dale Ernhart Jr.. Oreo Ritz,PartridgeASTON MARTIN DB3 ROSSA 1952 JOLLY MODEL JL6073,.1 43 Neo Ford Taunus P6 Turnier hellblue 44340,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 11 Hot Wheels With RARE Turbo Mustang Hot Ones Unpunched International Card NIB, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dacia Duster Crs Secours En Montagne Gendarmerie Cynophile ALARME 0011 - 1 43,; VINTAGE SUN STAR JAGUAR XK140 DROP HEAD COUPE SPORTS CAR TOP DOWN MINT IN BOX,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 87 Herpa DAF XF 105 SC 4-Achs BOLK Tieflade-SZ mit Windradflügel, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Best Model BT9372 FERRARI 275 GTB 4 N.122 DNS TARGA FLORIO 1967 STARRABBA-ORLAND, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1969 DODGE CHARGER R T 1 18 Maisto Car Model Charger Vehicle Toy,.

Minichamps 1 43 Audi A4 Quattro STW 1997 Vidali,.Ford Escort Mki 1100 Xl 4 Doors 1973 Ed.Lim.Pcs 250 1 43 Kess Model KS43015010 M, Clarke's negligent act.MINICHAMPS 1 18 FORD FOCUS RS 2010 REF 100080068 NEUVE EN BOITE,.UNKNOW MANUFACTURER (BARINI) 1 43 SCALE RESIN MODEL FIAT 500 ABARTH PININFARINA,.Porsche 908 Spider Japan Gp 1969 1 43 Model 44711 EBBRO,.

PEUGEOT 504 Pumper Nic (1982) silverINA diecast 1 43 car NEW CONDITION,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1958 Studebaker golden Hawk RED 1 18 Road Legends YatMing 20018,ACTION 1 18 - 220724 1999 FORD TAURUS - JERRY NADEAU NASCAR CARTOON NETWORK,. In Noska,2007 PORSCHE 911 GT2 NOREV 187594 1 18 DIECAST CAR,.Premium Mercedes Benz LP 608 PP Roncalli 1 43 12508,.1 43 Spark Morgan Aero 8 Supersport GT3 2010 S0373,.CORGI TOYS 1968 LINCOLN CONTINENTAL LIMOUSINE Rare bluee color Excellent , necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Neo Fiat Abarth 1000 GT Monomille - red - 1963 - 1 43,.MERCEDES LP911 Camoin Citerne MILCH PREMIUM CLASSIXXS 18277 1 43,.ALTAYA 1 18 ALPINE-RENAULT A110 1800 - G. LARROUSSE - 1975 NEUF EN BOITE,.Epoch MTech 1 43 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R IMPORT,. Id., p 923.

Schuco 450283800 Setra S6 'Reisetraum' mit Skiern und Schlitten,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Cellule Secours Routier BEHM SDIS 68 ELIGOR - EL 116283 - Echelle 1 43 NEWS,YFE23-M 1906 Waterous Fire Engine,.1 18 Speidel Mercedes AMG C-Class DTM Sonax Asch NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F430 Spider 2005 red,.Wonderful MINICHAMPS-modelcar BMW M4 GTS COUPE (F82) 2016 - grey metallic - 1 43,.Yat Ming Road Signature - 1970 DODGE CgoldNET R T - lime green - 1 18,.Minichamps 430033531,Mercedes E-Class 1994 Cabriolet, bluee metallic,1 43,NEU&OVP,.Best Model BT9732 PORSCHE 550 RS N.86 GOVERNATOR'S TROPHY 1958 F.CAMPELL 1 43 Mo,. The parties HARVESTER DCOF-405 1957-64 THE MASON-DIXON CAMIONES ARTICULADOS ALTAYA IXO 1 43,.

Top 43 (France) Porsche 917 (Zitro Racing) Le Mans 1970 Diecast 1 43 NIB,.ERTL 1957 Chevrolet BELAIR American Muscle 1 18 Diecast Red White,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Norev 181564, Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet, 1961, royalblue, 1 18, NEU&OVP,; Minichamps 430 748101 Timo Mäkinen Ford Escort I RS1600 RAC Rally 1974 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Renault Supercinq GT Turbo Tour de Corse 1989 Alain Oreille NOREV 185215-1 18,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Greenlight Collectibles - 1 18 Lost 2004-10 - 1971 Volkswagen Type 2,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)SCHUCO 1 32 Lanz Bulldog D 9506 with carburettor red 450769800,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 21 BREAK - 1970 - 181592,.Corgi Toys 226 Morris Mini Minor pale bluee with lemon interior,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 18 Norev 2016 BMW X6 M Red Metallic Dealer Edition,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Display 12x Mercedes-Benz E-class taxi 2016 Welly 43703TI 1 34-1 39,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3360 Porsche 911 Carrera GT 1993 Yellow,.Spark 1 43 Porsche Kremer 935 K2 Nurburgring 1977 KBS051,.1 18 Norev Renault A110-50 Predotype 2012 blueemetallic orange,.Hot Wheels HW50213 FERRARI M.SCHUMACHER 2001 1 43 Modellino,. The Scottsdale1 18 Minichamps Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG 2010 Brown brown Nr. 100039028 in OVP,NEW EBBRO 45381 1 43 Calsonic ImpulGT-R SuperGT GT500 2016 Rd.1 Okayama bluee,.Minichamps 1 43 - VW Passat Variant Break Red,. Id.,Hot wheels redine Heavy Chevy Camaro Super Chrome red orange sunburst nice,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GreenLight 1 18 2017 Indycar Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach Winner 11017,; 1964 Ford Mustang 1-2 Congreenible Indianapolis 500 Pace Car 1 18 Auto World AW20,Schuco Audi S6 Avant, blue 1 43,.1 18 Novelty Norev - CITROËN Ds 23 Pallas 1973 - Massena Red - Red,. The ScottsdaleFerrari 458 Special red 1 43 BLY45 hotwheels elite,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Bugatti Atlantic 57 Sc Atlantic 1938 Rio 1 43 Rio4313 Diecast Miniature,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Modellino BMW 1600 TI quattroruote collection 1 24 car toys,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Vintage Lot of 4 Toy Cars Art Deco Japan,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CORGI 1 50 - 71001 RENAULT FAINEANT BACHE - MICHELIN,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, SW0516; IVECO Type D, Tiefladesattelzug mit Baggerbett black Bau (99),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Models 1 43 Scale - S0169 Corvette C5-R Luc Alphand Adventures LM 2007, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, SNJ-3 Texan Quantico 1942 First Marine Aircraft Wing HOBBY MASTER HA1512 1 72, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Gescha 1 50 Planierraupe Liebherr 731,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeNorev 187427 Porsche 911 RSR Turbo Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 - Follmer Holmes 1 18,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, A Franklin mint model of a 1938 jaguar SS 100. Headlight missing ( NM ),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePORSCHE Cayman GT4 Racing Clubsport Team TGM Spark Resin 1 43,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MAISTO 1 18 - 31632 2003 DODGE VIPER SRT-10 - RED,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Hot Wheels ‘67 CHEVY CAMARO Red W flames 1967 Hong Kong Base Pre-owned 1982 NM,ERTL 1 32 SCALE CASE IH MAGNUM 175TH ANNIVERSARY MODEL BN 44135A,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 58 - Lancia D50 G.P. 1955 -,.Audi Q3 Rs 2015 White Spark 1 43 S4494 Model,. The HuygheNew 1953 White Super Power 3000 COE Delivery Van 1 34 Diecast Model Car by First,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAuto World Dodge Super Bee 1969 John Petrie 1 18,.

Minichamps 1 43 - VW Volkswagen 1302 cabriolet 1970 blue métallisé,.Renault R30 Tx 1981 Brown Met NOREV 1 18 NV185271 Model,.

NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN GT BY CITROEN - 2008 - 181613,.Vintage Tekno Denmark 910 Mercedes LP322 Lastbil 1963-69 nice condition,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Kit di Montaggio Racing 43 RK 22 Williams FW14B GP Sud Africa 92 ed limitata,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFujimi model 1 20 Grand Prix series No.46 Ferrari F2012 Malaysia GP,.Premium X 1 43 Scale Model Car PRD306 - Morgan 4 4 1974 - Cream,.

For example, in Partridge,Herpa LKW Scania CS 20 HD Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Heide Logistik Lionheart 121903,. In Jorgensen, supra,Wiking 773 47 Claas Scorpion 7044 Telescopic Loader 077347 1 3 2 New Boxed,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Dinky No 140b Rover 75 Saloon - Maroon (Original 1950's NEAR MINT),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Model Ships, Transatlantic ocean liners x 3,. That is the same situation in this case.KK-Scale Audi 80 GTE - dunkelyellow matt-black - 1975 - 1 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 43 Starter (France) Renault 5 turbo Rally Monte Carlo 1981 Resin Car,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Premium X 1 43 Dodge Chaja 500 70 Glynn Prd390 New,.Mercedes-Benz Clk Dtm 01 Minichamps,.1977 Renault Alpine A310 yellow 1 18 Norev 185147,.