Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 43 43 Vitesse L065 RARE 053757

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 43 43 Vitesse L065 RARE     053757
1963 Studebaker Avanti black 1 18 Signature Models 18101,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals DUB CITY Big Ballers Jada Chevy Impala SS,.SPARK 1 43 MX012 PORSCHE 997 CARRERA CUP 2008 ALERTE,.AUDI Quattro Rallye Bosch Yokohama Sky Ardennes 1986 lim 1 250 Scala43 1 43,.Mattel 1.18 100% Hot Wheels F355 Challenge diecast model bnib,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.SUBARU Impreza WRC Rallye Madeira 1995 Winner Liatti Pons Velur Trofeu 1 43,.TOYOTA CELICA GT-Four n°15 Rallye Tour de CORSE 1991 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Datsun 200L Laurel C230 blue scuro 1977 Neoscale 1 43 NEO44499 Model,.BARKAS B1000 FEUEWEHR BOMBEROS MCG 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Opel Rekord P1 Caravan 1958 Coca Cola 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 CARRERA RSR Winner Sebring 12H 1977 43SE77,.MRF Kit to assemble 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTS, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 43 Kyosho Mercedes Clk Dtm Amg Cabriolet,.SPARK 1 43 S1322 ABARTH FIAT 700S N52 LM 1962,.SNJ-3 Texan Quantico 1942 First Marine Aircraft Wing HOBBY MASTER HA1512 1 72,.FRANKLIN MINT 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG..1 24..NOS..UNDISPLAYED..DOCS..MINT,.

RARE 1 43 Handmade ZIS 102A Cabrio 1939 Stalin staff white metal CCCP MIB OVP,.1974 Rover 3500 V8 red-black 1 18 MC Group 18044,.STARJETS 1 500 - SJNAL065 NATIONAL DOUGLAS DC-8-61,.Ebro 1 43 Xanavinismo Gt-R Low Down Force Fuji Test 2008,.Ford Falcon XA 351 GT Hardtop 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Red Model Car,.

Porsche 962 , No.68, BF Goodrich, IMSA, Riverside, 1 18, Norev,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Volkswagen Rabbit 4-door 1975 Red 1 43 NEO 43955,.Corgi OOC Scania Irizar PB Bus Eireann Expressway Galway 1 76 Scale CP46213A,.Volkswagen Microbus Sliding Sunroof Edition 1962 - 1 18 - Road Signature,Tvr 450 Seac 1986 Red 1 43 Spark Sp0238 Modellino,.Corgi Classics 1 50 CC99129 HAIG TRANSPORT SET. Last chance before its split ,.

Franklin Mint 1969 Chevrolet Corvette,.Herpa, Bayern LKW 2017 Bayerische Schmakerl Nr. 930765,.1 18 Citroën GS X3 año 1979 color yellow Norev Ref.181624,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Spark 1 43 Scale SG242 - SCG SCG003C - 24Hr Nurburgring 2016,.


1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo Stradale 2011,.Jaguar XKR GT3 2008 orange 1 18 Minichamps,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.SSM LKW 1 43 GAZ-52 Koffer-LKW Möbel (späte Version),.1 18 Ferrari 333 SP 1994 1 18 • Hot Wheels L2975,.Motorsports Authentics NASCAR Toy Carrier Case Transport for 23 Hotwheel Cars,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Brumm BM0590 LOTUS 33 J.CLARK 1965 N.5 WINNER INGHILTERRA GP 1 43 Modellino,.Ferrari California T The Hot Rod 1 18 18-76103,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Bugatti EB118 Paris 1998 blue Concept 1 43 Auto Art Modellauto 50921,; UT Jeep Willy`s USA Militär Geländewagen , OVP, 1 18, K014,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

BROOKLIN MODELS 1937 LINCOLN MODEL K SEDAN - GREEN MET 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 10,.Rare Skoda Favorit Policie CR Police Abrex ABS708XA1 1 43,CARNEL 1 43 Nissan Patrol GRAN ROAD LIMITED Y61 2004 Sakai, Osak... Japan Import,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Porsche 918 Spyder 2014 White 1 43 Spark S4242 Model,.

Diecast Master DM85167 CAT 272C SKID STEER LOADER 1 32 Modellino,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Tesla Roadster - silver - Schuco - 1 43,.Alfa Romeo 8C , 24H LeMans 1934 , Spark models,.Wartburg 353W 1985 Feuerwehr Cars & Co 1 18 NEU OVP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Grey 1 50 Trailer Head 71005,; 1 18 NSU TTS 1968 Revell, OVP,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Corgi 1 50 Scale Model Fire Engine 54903 - E-One 75ft Ladder Bartlett Illinois,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 43 43 Vitesse L065 RARE     053757Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 43 43 Vitesse L065 RARE     053757Volkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 43 43 Vitesse L065 RARE     053757

Coche coleccion Norev,escala 1 18,Mercedes-Benz 280CE,Ref.183589,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Minichamps 430 748101 Timo Mäkinen Ford Escort I RS1600 RAC Rally 1974 1 43,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Spark - 1 43 - Dallara F3 Macau GP 2014 - Max Verstappen,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Neo 1 43 Fiat Abarth 1000 GT Monomille red,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ebbro 44950 Nissan Fairlady Z 240ZR No. 8 1973 Fuji 1000km 1 43 scale,.SPARK ENSIGN N176 British GP 1976 Chris Amon S3952 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark 1 43 McLaren MP4-12C Open GT Tour 2013 SF066,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Maisto 1 18 Scale Radio Control Model Car 82164 - Gran Turismo Vision Merc AMG,.

Motormax 1 48 Scale Diecast Aeroplane 76336 - P-51 Mustang,.Autocraft 54mm White Metal Motorcycle C5414 - Fire Appliance A.F.S.,.TONKIN 1 53 SCALE WAL MART KENWORTH T600 MODEL BN 13493,.1 18 Autoworld Ertl 1971 Baldwin Motion Chevrolet Vega,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.2004 pontiac GTO 1 18 ERTL American Muscle LTD 1 5000 yellow loose no box,.

ASTON MARTIN Vanquish James Bond 007 Beanstalk MINICHAMPS 1 18 Model,.AUDI R8 V10 PLUS WHITE EXCLUSIVE EDITION 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY MAISTO 38135,.Alfa Romeo 1750 Polizia 1932 1 43 Model RIO4237 RIO,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 5 Kinsmart Ford F100 Diecast jgm15,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Fiat 500 Giardiniera 1962 Light Green 1 18 Norev,.IXO18CMC007 by IXO PORSCHE 911 1982 1 18,.Porsche 911 (991 II) GT2 RS Baujahr 2018 indischred 1 43 Spark,.Hpi-racing 1 43 Afla Romeo 155V6 TI ITC BOSCH from japan,.Brumm BM0447CH FERRARI 126 C G.VILLENEUVE 1980 PROVE IMOLA W PILOTE 1 43 Modelli,.

MARKLIN FORD TAUNUS 15M 4 RARE 1 43 DIE CAST MODEL MINT, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Minichamps Mercedes Benz 300 Cabriolet 1 43 437032130,.BMW M3 E30 EVO 24h Spa Winner 1992 Bastos Fina Danner Soper Marti Spark 1 43,. The PartridgeSPARK S5096 Citroën C-Elysée WTCC n°68 Winner R2 Race of Japan 2016 Muller 1 43,.IXO - 1 18 - RENAULT 5 TURBO 1 - 1981 - 18CMC005,.1 18 KK-Scale Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1974 red,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps Jeep Grand Cherokee in Red on 1 43 in Box, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Prodrive 1 43 - Coffret 2 Subaru Impreza WRC Rallye 2003 New Zealand,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MERCEDES 300S cabriolet black W188 1 18,.Rare Matchbox Battle Kings K-109 M-551 Sheridan & Commander & Infantry Figures,PartridgePORSCHE CAYENNE S 2006 OLIVE GRUN METAL NOREV 187531 1 18 NEW,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2014 - 181651,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Nex 1 18 Scale 18054 1963 Volkswagen T1 Bus Splitscreen Camper Yellow Model car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, IST 057 IXO 1 43 IFA F9 Limousine 1952 bluee,; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 069201 - 1993 Porsche 911 Turbo 993 - Metallic bluee,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, TOYOTA Celica ST205 GT Rallye Boucles de Spa 1996 Verreydt NIGHT Trofeu 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Hot Wheels Redline Red Classic '57 T Bird , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMotorcycle Patrol AA van Dinky Toys 44b England 4502,.

REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST blueE ARTEGA GT,.MINICHAMPS 1 18 FORD FOCUS RS 2010 REF 100080068 NEUVE EN BOITE, Clarke's negligent act.1 43 Holden FB Special (Red with White Stripe) Trax TR20K,.Art Model Ferrari 250 P 1963 1 43 Surtees Parkes Targa Florio (JO),.Tekno n° 422 camion Ford V8 bétonniére rare,.

Samurai 1 18 Nissan Cima Hybrid White Pearl Finished Product New,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Norev 1 43 Scale 270301 Morgan Plus 8 1980 Royal Ivory,1995 Hot Wheels '31 Doozie Treasure Hunt In Predector Case,. In Noska,Burago 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette (1997) red -3066- Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto OVP,.Neo Models Arnolt MG in White 1953 44611 1 43 NEW Resin,.1 43 Onyx Indy 90 Collection 076 Ferrari F1-90 Nigel Mansell,.Dinky Toys 106 Austin Atlantic bluee with red made in England 1 43 scale EXC, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.VITESSE 1 43 SCALE 410Y - VOLKSWAGEN CABRIOLET - JUST MARRIED,.Norev Porsche 917K Kyalami Adamowicz Casoni 1 18 187580C,.Takara Chgold Q From Japan Mini Carhg No.21 Skyline Gt-R Q,.Spark 1 43 Scale SF039 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC France 2012,. Id., p 923.

Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 120100 - 1972 Alfa Romeo Alfasud - Red,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Fire Department Vehicle 1988 Nr. 189012 OVP,Willeme LD610 Fardier Holztransport (wood transport),.Norev 181481 1 18 CITROEN DS19 1959 brown GLACE white CARRARE,.Fujimi 1 43 Ferrari F430 GTC JMB Racing 2011 Le Mans TSM11FJ027,.Mercedes Classic Collection 1 43, 50 Jahre SL in OVP,.CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET 1961 PEARL GREY NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.Rio RI4149 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA CARABINIERI 1959 1 43 Modellino,.Matchbox Yesteryear Y3 A6 1907 London ‘E’ Class Tramcar w Orig Type A Box Mint,. The parties Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model,.

Lot 17 Lledo Chevron Commemorative Atlanta 1996 Olympics Die Cast Metal Cars NEW,.Unic Auteuil, Antargaz, 1 43, IXO,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Schuco Mercedes-Benz Unimog U300 1 43 Feuerwehr FFW Stuttgart (JS),; JL Greatest Generation WWII Allied Victory Ver B M3 Grant Tank CHASE WHITE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Norev 188053 Nissan GTR R-35 2008 dark grey metallic 1 18 Neu OVP,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Borgward Hansa 1500 Light Grey 1 43 NeoScale NEO45075,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Simca Aronde 1951 black 1 18 Norev,.Porsche 356 Cabrio 1950 bluee 1 18 Model SIGNATURE,.LAMBORGHINI HURACAN POLIZIA R C 1 14 27MHz,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark 1 43 Scale SG242 - SCG SCG003C - 24Hr Nurburgring 2016,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Matchbox Super Kings Motor-Cycle Transporter Team Honda in bluee in Box,.BMW 335i F30 black SERIE 3 1 18 330d 335d Welly 320d 325d,.Auto Art Gateway 60040 MERCEDES BENK CLK DTM 2000 1 43 n.42 Modellino,.NOREV184716 - PEUGEOT 302 Darl'Mat Coupé (1937) blacke et yellow - 1 101,.KK-Scale Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 - red - 1972 - 1 18,. The ScottsdaleTSM 1957 Land Rover Series 1 88 Soft-Top.,Bentley Corniche Paulin 6th Le Mans 1949 1.43 Spark,.AH276 SOLIDO 1 43 PEUGEOT 403 CABRIOLET ref 108,. Id.,PAUL'S MODEL ART MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 997 II. GEN 2008 TARGA 4S BROWN 1 43 NEW,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPARK Eagle Mk3 Bobby Unser 1 43 S4257,; AUTOWORLD AW209 1 18 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG 289 INDY 500 PACE CAR DIECAST MODEL,FORD MUSTANG 1 2 HARD TOP 1964 whiteHE WELLY 1 18,.1 18 Jeep Wrangler Sahara (Champaigne) Burago 18-12014,. The ScottsdaleMint Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R (Kpgc 10),Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Country Squire 1960 Wooden Red 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark 1 43 BMW 6-series M6 Team Schubert Winner Round 3 VLN 2016 Art. SG370,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox No. 12 Safari Land Rover,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi 1 50 Scale 31007 Diamond T Ballast With Girder Trailer & Locomotive Annis,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MATCHBOX SUPERFAST ROLA-MATICS POLICE PATROL RARE blueE LIGHT J BOX 1975,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, BMW 2002 Turbo Gr.5 Pole 1000km Kyalami 1977 Ertl Ludwig Rodensto Spark 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 2010 Dodge Challenger R T 1 18 Deep Water bluee Pearl Highway 61 DCP, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SUZUKI Vitara 1.6 JLX 4x4 Congreenible Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44980,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLancia Delta HF Integrale 8V White Vitesse 1 43 27011,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1958 Plymouth Fury CHRISTINE Rusted Dirty Version 1 18 By Auto World AWSS119,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFERRARI LAFERRARI F70 HYBRID RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR HOTWHEELS BLY52,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.WELLY 18049W LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR GREEN,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,2019 Hot Wheels 19th Nationals Convention Pink 1967 Chevy Camaro,1 87 Herpa Set PRANGL MB, Scania transport exceptionnel,.Brumm GS001 LANCIA APRILIA 1944-1946 1 43,.NEO Porsche 968 Turbo RS 1993 (metallic pur 1 43 43835,. The HuygheDIAPET YONEZAWA 1 43 NO 06-0346 HONDA CIVIC GF IN GREY NEAR MINT RARE ,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark 1 43 Oreca 07 Gibson Team CEFC Manor TRS h Le Mans 2017 Art. S5812,.

MB Mercedes Benz 220 Limousine 4-türig 1 43 M43 METALL 43 DANHAUSEN Tin Wizard,.CORGI TOYS 221 Chevrolet New York Taxi Cab excellent plus in box,.

MATCHBOX King Size No. 12 Kranwagen green BP Foden Breakdown Tractor Scale 1 43,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - Model Auto Review - bluee,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Wiking 790 ESSO EXTRA Supertankwagen Henschel unverglast 1 87 H0,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVintage 1969 Hot Wheels Red Baron Car Rat Rod Roadster Helmet,.1 18 Norev Opel Manta A Coupe 1970 green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

For example, in Partridge,Matchbox No.65b Jaguar 3.8 litre Saloon - metallic red body, in C type box,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ebbro 43 Porsche 908 Winner '68 Nurburgring 2, Siffert & Elford,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MERCEDES 300 SE Lang 1965 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400035200,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Porsche 911 Turbo 1975 KYOSHO 1 43 05524S,. That is the same situation in this case.Veba Heating Oil Raab Kärcher Setra Bus Stettnisch 5014 Adgreenising H0 1 87 Å,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Porsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.3 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SPARK BMW E30 M3 Winner 24h SPA 1987 Van de Poele, Martin, Theys SB067 1 43,.Wonderful MINICHAMPS-modelcar BMW M4 GTS COUPE (F82) 2016 - alpina white - 1 43,.SUN STAR Mercedes Benz 220 SE Cabriolet 1958 (me 1 18 3557,.

WIKING PKW 185 1 Borgward Isabella X1238,.