Maisto Maisto Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy 429283

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Maisto Maisto Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy 429283
DINKY - Hudson Sedan - No 171 bluee Beige,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.DV7181 TEAM T DAM GULF GR 8 LM 75 LE MANS 1975 1 43 3° SCHUPPAN JAUSSAUD,.Ferrari 860 Monza Rouen 1956 E. Castellotti Winner 1 43 Model 0228 ART-MODEL,.Rio 4357 ITALA TARGA FLORIO 1906 1 43 Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Kess Scale Models 1983 Maserati Quattroporte III 4.9 gold 1 43 Resine-Modell,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 21 BREAK - 1970 - 181592,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Norev 183590 2012 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Class 1 18 Model Car Grey,.HOT WHEELS 1981 VETTY FUNNY W+,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast Model 18-16801R Ferrari SF15-T - K Raikkonen 2015 F1,.Corgi Toys 217 Fiat 1800 with original box,.YatMing 92127 Sammelmodell Chevrolet Bel Air 1956 Cabriolet Metal M.1 18, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

SUNSTAR SS-6133 1 18 1931 FORD MODEL A COUPE VALLEY GREEN,.1 18 Norev 187630 1969 Porsche 911 T darkred dunkelred,.Audi A3 Russian Police Minichamps 1 43,.Bburago Ferrari 250 LM 1 18 groen (B) (lim edition 1000 pcs),.

Rarissima DODGE RAM 1500 QUAD CAB MOTOR MAX 1 18 in box da collezione,.Minichamps PM437080911 HHF HYBRID CONCEPT CAR N.11 08 1 43,.DINKY 192 RANGE ROVER - NR MINT in original BOX,.Schuco 04259 BMW Roadster-Set 3-teilig red 1 43,.NEO MODELS Lloyd LT 500 600 1955 1 43 43872,.

Porsche 962C Winner ADAC Eiffelrennen Nürburgring 1986 NOREV 187411 1 18,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL047 FERRARI F50 F 50 RED MIB RARE,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO (964) 3,6L 2009 white WELLY 1 18,.Spark F1 McLaren Honda MP4-31 Jenson Button 1 43 '300th GP' Malaysian GP 2016,ERTL American Muscle 1 18 Die-Cast 'Bullitt' 1968 Dodge Charger,.Spark Model SA128 HONDA CIVIC EF9 N.10 1st GR.3 MACAU GUIA RACE 1990 OSAMU NAKAK,.

MINICHAMPS VW 1303 CABRIOLET 'WORLD CUP '74' 430055141,.Porsche 911 Carrera Rs 2.7 Coupe 1973 White Green Deco NOREV 1 18 NV187636,.Universal-Hobbies 2747 Claas Jaguar 60sf; 1 3 2,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


SABRA 8109 OLDSMOBILE TgoldNADO 1 43 OVP GAMDA KOOR,. We agree in part.

Borgward Hansa 1500 Light Grey 1 43 NeoScale NEO45075 Model,.1968 Mattel Hot Wheels Red Classic '31 Ford Woody Redline,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Best Model 9450 PORSCHE ABARTH RALLY CATALUNOS 1 43 Modellino,.Jeep Fire van Maxwell India 6137,.Marks 6544 LKW MAN F8 Kofferzug Liebhherr Neu OVP,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; SSM 1 43 Artillerieschlepper AT-T,.Mercedes-Benz Glc Coupé (C253) Año Fabricación 2016 Brillante blue 1,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Bburago BU16001R FERRARI LA FERRARI 2013 RED 1 18 Modellino,; Hot wheels Valentino Rossi special limited edition serie completa,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

DINKY 956 DIECAST TURNTABLE FIRE ESCAPE,.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS JAMES BOND 007 ASTON MARTIN DB5 And Others Collectors Toys,Lotus Esprint White 007 James Bond 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Corgi Mercedes Benz actros & c s trailer-McGawn Bros,.

BROOKLIN BRK110X 1952 CHRYSLER IMPERIAL NEWPORT 30 Year Anniversary 1 of 999 MIB,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.BMW 7er 1977 733i 733 E23 silver 1 18 KK Scale diecast,.1 18 BBURAGO 1955 Beetle Kafer-Beetle bluee Alloy Car Model Vehicles Toy,.DINKY TOYS 213 FORD CAPRI RALLY CAR RED METALLIC 1 43 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 HotWheels Elite Ferrari Enzo FXX Diecast Scale Model Car RED Collectible,; Herpa 121521 DAF XF 105 SSC Baustoff-Sattelzug Mai Logistik Kann Baus - 1 87,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minichamps 430791202 1 43 LANCIA STRATOS LANCIA ENGLAND ALEN KIVIMAKI RAC RALLY,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Maisto Maisto Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy 429283Maisto Maisto Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy 429283Maisto Maisto Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy 429283Maisto Maisto Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy 429283

MB Unimog 406 mit TSA 8 Werksfeuerwehr EKU ,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Minichamps 1 43 Bugatti Type 57C Coupe 1939 green L.E. 1948 pcs.,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Porsche 911 3.2 Cabriolet 1989 Spark S4468 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

BOX ALUM UNPAINTED 5.71 LX3.74 W,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.(Go) 1 18 Anson Porsche 911 GT2 24 Hours Daytona NIP,.Norev VW Scirocco 3 2008 vipergreen Industriemodell 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 18 Mercedes R 2006 1 18 • Minichamps 150034600,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.PORSCHE 935 Turbo Kremer Vaillant DRM 1977 Zolder Vaillant Wollek Norev 1 18,.

Classic Metal Works 1 24 BROWARD COUNTY FLORIDA CITIZEN OBSERVER PATROL,.1 76 Hong Kong Bus Model- DBAY Dennis Dart Plaxton Pointer 9.2m Dbay121 3 2 7 8,.Cars 2 - Supercarreras en Tokio V3615 - NUEVO,.Rial ARC1 No.22 Japan GP 1988 Andrea de Cesaris S4314 Spark 1 43 New ,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Tonka Polistil Porsche 911 Metallic bluee 1 16 Diecast Collectible Model Car,.

Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.4 1 24 F12 BERLINETTA 2012,.1957 Bentley Continental S1 Congreenible in Model Car 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Matchbox 22a Vauxhall Cresta in type B1 box,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Figurine V.Rossi Moto GP 2008 Misano 312080146 1 12 Minichamps,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Best 9603 Ferrari 250 GTL from diorama Maranello very rare 1 43 EVP 1412-24-07,.Frontiart SophiArt Koenigsegg Regera Green color 1 43 Diecast Model,.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 25 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE 1958 - IDIANAPOLIS PACE CAR 1 43 -NMIB,.blueestar VW T3 Multivan 1989 Volkswagen blue metallic 1 18 KK Diecast NEU,.METAL BUILT KIT K&R REPLICAS ACE 31 MG TD MIDGET - 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - IN BOX,.

Redline Hotwheels Aqua 1970 Light My Firebird oc17823, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.CORGI - 603 VOLKSWAGEN POLO TURBO - GREEN,.Venturi 400 GTR LM , 24H LeMans 1994 , Spark Models,. The PartridgeBATMAN BATMOBILE - Lot of 15 - Hot Wheels & Matchbox (See Description),.BEST MODEL BT9232 FERRARI 308 GTS 1978 METALLIC blueE 1 43,.PORSCHE 911 - 997 CARRERA S anthracite Maisto 1 18,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Schuco 1 43 Unimog U411 With Trailer And Wood 450312900, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.BMW M6 GT3 No.35 24h Spa 2017 (M.Palttala - C.Krognes - N.Menzel M,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Rare Minichamps 400 132574 1968 Triumph TR6 in Yellow Ltd Ed. 1 of 1536,.First Gear 10-4085 1 34 1953 White 3000 COE Delivery Van,PartridgeSUN STAR 1 18 QUARTZO 18274 LOTUS 72C JOCHEN RINDT 1970 DUTCH GP WINNER,.TRIUMPH TR2 LE MANS 1955 B. HADLEY 1 43 SPARK S1393 NEU,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BOBBY MARSHMAN ECONO-CAR GMP 7625 OFFENHAUSER VINTAGE DIRT CHAMP RACE CAR 1 18, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Scale model 1 43 Lancia Kappa Coupe, metallic-light bluee, 1997,; Corgi 1 50 scale CC12907 - Scania Topline Curtainside - D CURRAN & SONS LTD,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RS h Le Mans 2004 Perspective Racing, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Spark 1 43 Scale S3350 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC Monte Carlo 2012, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMODELCARGROUP MCG18095 OPEL MANTA B MATTING YELLOW blueE 1 18,.

Spark 1 43 Renault 21 Superproduction 4x4 Superturisme 1988 Art. SF015,.HYUNDAI i20 R5 - ASSEMBLY KIT + DECAL ABDELLA - Rally Portugal 2017, Clarke's negligent act.Diecast Car Model for All New Q5L Q5 L SUV 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,.Bburago BU16012G FERRARI FXX-K EVO N.70 WHITE 1 18 Modellino,.Hotwheels 1 43 Scale Model Car P9928 - Ferrari GTO - Red,.

1 18 Norev Simca Aronde Monthiery Speciale 1962 grey NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark 1 43 Nissan GT-R LM NISMO LMP1 Manchester City 2015 S4561,Ebbro 1 43 Honda Coupe 9 1970 Yellow from Japan,. In Noska,Matchbox Caravan with box nice condition,.BMW 3-series Compact Minichamps 1 43 431020071,.Chevrolet Nova Open Congreenible 1963 Saddle Tan 1 18 Model 3975 SUN STAR,.1 43 Rampini Mercedes-Benz 220 Taxi Berlin 1952 Handmade Resin Model Car, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI 396 DATSUN 240Z US RALLY WHIZZWHEELS - EXCELLENT in original BOX,.Hot wheels redine Heavy Chevy Camaro Super Chrome red orange sunburst nice,.MAISTO 1 18 DIECAST BIG 1970 CHEVROLET CHEVY NOVA SS AMERICAN MUSCLE CAR TOY,.MODELER'S 1 43 Initial D smiley Sakai DC2 Integra Resin Model MD43218,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, PORSCHE 935 Turbo DRM 1977 Kremer Vaillant Wollek Zolder Minichamps 1 43,BMW 2000A 1962 silver 1 43 Minichamps neu + OVP 437023000,.Vintage 1966 Matchbox Lesney Series Ferrari Berlinetta Spoke Wheels NOS,.RENAULT MEGANE RS 2017 yellow Sirius 1 18,.Minichamps 1 43 VOISIN C 27 AEROSPORT COUPE - 1934,.Audi S1 2014 yellow, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 882056 - BMW M3 DTM 1988 G.Muller,.CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 74103 CITROEN TYPE 55 FOURGON CHAMBOURCY,. The parties DINKY 109 FORD MODEL T `GABRIEL` CAR,.

Aston Martin DB3 S bluee De Agostini Dinky Toys 104,.Vintage Tekno Holland 950 Mercedes Benz O302 1 50 1971-72 PTT,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Borgward P100 (1960) Resin Model Car 43457,; 5x Hot Wheels CAPCOM Street Fighter Limited Edition Set - 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Minichamps Ford Galaxy 2006 anthrazit Modellauto 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, VINTAGE DIECAST--CORVETTE MAKO SHARK PredO--1 18 SCALE--10 LONG--by MOTOR MAX,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Greenlight 1 18 1950 GMC 150 & CHEVRON Vintage Gas Pump Diecast Model 12992,.MODELLINO AUTO SCALA 1 18 VW CORRADO DIECAST CAR MODEL MINIATURAS COCHE REVELL,.Mercedes Benz W123 280CE Conrad in 1 35 in gold New NOS Mintnoboxed,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SPARK 1 43 MX006 PORSCHE 997 GT3 CARRERA CUP 2007,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.DUBLO Dinky Toys MECCANO England vintage COMMER VAN 1958 first issue MINT,.Honda R-1300 Km Suzuka Race 1969 1 43 Model RIO414107 RIO,.Nostalgic Car Of Showa 1 43 Toyota Crown 1962 Toyopet,.DISC 1 43 VODAFONE McLAREN MERCEDES MP4-26 - J P530114314,.1 87 Bub IROC Daytona 6x Porsche 3.0 RSR NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The Scottsdale1 43 IXO Ford Fiesta R5 VIP Car ERC Rally Ieper Ypres 2013 Neuville RAM554,Citroën T46 1962 Pompiers Pompe Guinard NOREV,.CAT CATERPILLAR 320D L HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85214 C,. Id.,MEIB66960299 by MERCEDES SMART FOURFOUR 2014 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC20 GILBERT & BARKER BP FUEL PUMP,; PROGETTO K 1 43 SCALE PK351 - FIAT 238 FURGONE CARABINIERI 1965,Matchbox MoY C2 Y65 Austin 12th MICA Aldershot aus M3 Set sehr selten OVP K13,.Austin Mini Cooper S Mk1, Almond Green,. The ScottsdaleHonda CBR 1000 RR Fireblade 2007 1 12 Roberto Rolfo,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Norev Renault Megane Trophy NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Citroen C4 Cactus 2014 White Pearl NOREV 1 18 NV181651 Model,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPARK 1 43 S1322 ABARTH FIAT 700S N52 LM 1962,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi 492 Volkswagen European Police Car,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, ZENT CERUMO SC430 2008 SUPER GT GT500 Bugzees 1 32 Scale Diecast Model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Matchbox A Moko Lesney No 26 Erf concrete mixer GMW orange near mint in box, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Rio 1 43 Scale Model Car 4199 - 1930 Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo - Red, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, S5458 SPARK 1 43 Honda Civic EF3 Group A 1988,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMotor Pro 1 43 Scale MP02 - Ford Sierra Cosworth 4x4 - Evans Davies,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 087876 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR - 24h LM 2008,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe2005 Hot Wheels JAPAN Collectors Osaka CONVENTION Dairy Delivery 1 2000 VHTF New,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ferrari 456 GT • Expert • 1992 • Bburago • 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Rare HTF EDOCAR Suzuki Samurai Jimny SJ413Q In White COMPAQ Promo Mint Loose,ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 blue 1 18 1973,.Nissan Leaf ZE1 Weiss 2. Generation Ab 2017 1 43 J-Collection Modell Auto mit ..,.1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,. The HuygheBurago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3006 Jaguar SS 100 1937 100 Green,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1969 Hot Wheels Redline Classic 57 T-Bird (orange) 1 64 Scale,.

1 43 Scale Trax Top Gear Holden HQ Monaro GTS 350 Coupe Barbados Green TR18E,.DINKY TOYS 176 AUSTIN A105 SALOON - CREAM 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.

GMP Donny Schatz Crossroads Sprint Car 1 18,.Citroen C5 Aircross Weiss Ab 2017 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individ..,. Nonetheless, on the facts of BX475-2x Primex Märklin H0 AC Set Güterwagen 4573 + 4584 + 4594, TOP+2x OVP,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeHotwheels elite series 1 43 scale 1989 BATMOBILE nib,.Corgi 1 50 scale CC20304 Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor Pride of the south,.

For example, in Partridge,Norev 184881 1 18 PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 1991 MIAMI blueE,. In Jorgensen, supra,UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 5265 New Holland T7 .165S 1 32,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.16. Danhausen's World Modelcar Book '90, model catalog complete,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Volkswagen T2A 1967 Carro Funebre + Bara Hearse Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 PREM18405,. That is the same situation in this case.Fiat Siata 1500 - Politoys 502 1 43 34479,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Greenlight 1 24 Scale Car 84041 - Steve McQueen 1968 Ford Mustang GT Bullitt,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Matchbox Regular Wheels Ford Corsair and boat with rare E box Lesney MIB,.Greenlight 12968 1 18 FORD F 1 RUN FORREST RUN 1951 (FROM THE MOVIE FORREST GUM,.1 18 KK-Modell Alfa Romeo Spider hellblue light bluee Limited Edition in OVP,.

BMW M3 GT2 2009 WEISS 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400092900 NEU,.