NOREV 184831- PEUGEOT - 404 COUPE COUPE COUPE 1967 1 18 Norev 666d89

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
NOREV  184831- PEUGEOT - 404 COUPE COUPE COUPE 1967   1 18 Norev 666d89
1 43 Minichamps BMW 320i Group 5,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals FRANKLIN MINT 1932 FORD BOYD DEUCE HOT ROD 1 24 DIECAST W PAPERWORK BOX,.VW T1 Camper Campervan Van 1 22 Scale Diecast Detailed Model T1,.Herpa PC Iveco SZ Edition 1 Italien OV,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31875 Volkswagen New Beetle Metallic bluee,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Hot Wheels Swingin' Wing - Magenta - NEAR MINT - Vintage Redline,.TINTIN HERGE 69 FORD CLUB CABRIOLET VB - SCEPTRE D'OTTOKAR 1937 - NICE IN BOX,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.BMW 650i Cabriolet (E64)-2006- bluee Metallic, Minichamps 431026030,.Corgi Mercedes actros mp4 & reefer trailer- Mcculla,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.COFFRET TOYOTA CgoldLLA TROPHEE ANDROS 2006 1 18 Alain PROST,.BUB Kaelble Transporter mit Anhänger und Kabelrolle Maßstab 1 87 - OVP,.Corgi Classic Saddlers Famous Fan Fairs con VW Van 1 43 limited edition 31702, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 Hours of Spa 2013 SB048,.DINKY Toys Jaguar E Type 2+2 - Purple - In Case,.Lamborghini 350 Gt 1 43 Mini Car Champs Made,.Tin Wizard 1 43 Scale White metal 000106 Mercedes Benz 180 1952 bluee,.

Citroën 2CV AZU 1959 Wegenwacht assistance NL NOREV - NO 151413 - Scale 1 43,.Spark Porsche 991 GTS 2015 (bluee) 1 43 S4938,.1 43 Mercedes-Benz Concept Fascination Land of Fire -grey-bright Paris 2008,.Lancia Stratos Stradale hellgreen 1975 - 1 18 Sunstar 4522 NEW,.LLEDO BRITISH MOTORING CLASSICS 1960'S 24 CARAT gold PLATED SET,.

Mercedes Benz L 3500 Pritsche Rennabteilung Premium ClassiXXs Diecast 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ford Country Squire Metallic Green Wood 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.SWISS-MINI OPEL DIPLOMAT - CHAMPAGNE 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION - 9,.BX475-2x Primex Märklin H0 AC Set Güterwagen 4573 + 4584 + 4594, TOP+2x OVP,1 18 Large Elegant Wooden MODEL DISPLAY CASE - Wood & Glass - CAR NOT INC.- 1 18,.Porsche 911 Club Sport - Werkstatt Workshop 2009 2010 1 43 Norev Porsche Museum,.

Hotwheels Ferrari F1 2012 GP Fernando Alonso Malaysia Win 1 18 BBW94,.Norev 183539 1957 Mercedes Benz 190 SL 1 18 Model Car Beige,.Spark S2541 1 43 Resin Corvette C6 ZR1, 1st LMGTE Pro '11 LeMans, SiriusXM,,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Corgi Toys 1 43 JAGUAR AUSTIN HEALEY MGA FORD CORTINA ALPINE RALLY 4-Car Set MIB,.

WIKING 230 3 C Mercedes 300 SL Coupé - 60er Jahre,. We agree in part.

Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo,.Audi S6 Limousine grey 1 43 Schuco PRO-R neu & OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Williams FW08C Last Race Carlos Reutemann GP Brasil 1982 1 43 Unique,.PORSCHE 956K – JOEST RACING LINDSAY SAKER MOTORS WOLLEK 18 Minichamps,.Aston martin AR1 SPARK 1 43 miniature,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Hasbro Nerf Nitro Flashfury Chaos Toy Autoblaster Playset from 5 Years,.Dinky Toys 30J Austin Wagon dark bluee with mid bluee hubs,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Range Rover Classic 4x4 3.5 4 Doors 1982 IXO 1 43 HCS-CC001 Limit 482 pcs,; CIJ RENAULT 300 kg break JUVA 3 66 COMME NEUF sans boite, MADE IN FRANCE 1955,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

RENAULT 5 Maxi Turbo Rallye Chatriot TdC Diac Gr.B Solido Schuco SP 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3030 - F1 McLaren MP4-26 Winner German GP 2011,Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3015 Mercedes Benz 300 SL1954 Red Model Car,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Matchbox b - Mercedes 220SE - Maroon (BPW) - A+ A,.

Minichamps Mercedes-Benz 200 1 43 Polizei (JS),.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.ERTL 1969 Chevy Camaro SS 427 Baldwin Motion orange 1 18 Scale Diecast '69 Car,.Bentley Mulsanne Rhd 1980 Metallic Brown 1 43 NEO 44170,.Opel Manta B Mattig Baujahr 1991 yellow orange 1 18 Model Car Group,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ford Shelby Mustang 2012 GT350 Super Snake Weiss gold 1 18 Shelby Collectibles..,; 1959 Cadillac Eldorado Biarritz - Model Car - Pink - 1 18 Scale,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Siku VW Volkswagen Transporter T3 Badische Zeitung in Green on Blister,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

NOREV  184831- PEUGEOT - 404 COUPE COUPE COUPE 1967   1 18 Norev 666d89NOREV  184831- PEUGEOT - 404 COUPE COUPE COUPE 1967   1 18 Norev 666d89

NOREV185261 - Voiture utilitaire RENAULT 300kg de 1953 aux colors Parfums Revi,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 50 L Hydraulic Caterpillar 320D Excavator-Core 85214 Classical Diecast Model,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Corgi CC12916, Scania Topline Curtainside - Montgomery Transport, 1 50,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1969 Brabham Repco F1 Green Redline Hot Wheels Diecast Hong Kong 1 64,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 120441 - 1965 Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GTA - White,.Ebbro EB44332 LEXUS SC430 N.38 SUPER GT 500 2010 1 43 Modellino,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Schuco Porsche 911 Coupe indian red 1 43 450891200,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Norev 1 18 1976 Simca 1000 Rally 2 Maya Yellow Diecast Model Car Yellow 185708,.

Mercedes 280 Ce (C123) 1980 Dark bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.Spark 1 43 McLaren F1 GTR n.29 6th Le Mans 1996 S4404,.BBURAGO - METALLMODELL - OPEL KADETT GT E RALLY - 1 24 - (5.DIV-26),.RIO 4208 CITROEN DS Cabrio 1961 - Red,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ferrari 512S Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Red,.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK23 003A - 1956 Ford Fairlane 2Dr Victoria Green,.1 18 Solido BMW X5 Rally Raid Vent de Sa,.SCHUCO 450238900 DKW Schnelllaster BÜSSING mit Anhänger , 1 43 Spur 0 NEU OVP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, HOT WHEELS 2002 TREASURE HUNT SET LOOSE COMPLETE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Spark MG B GT V8 1973 1 43 S4141,.Danbury Mint 1949 Mercury Police Cruiser (1),.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce pink Celeste 1 43 Model RIO,.Alfa Romeo Spider 3 Serie I 1983 red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES (UH) DIECAST MODELLE 1 16 Valmet 565 Tractor NEW OVP,.

Porsche 911 930 Turbo Usa 3.3 1980 bluee Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43259 Model, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.RIOR2 FERRARI 365 GTB 4 DAYTONA SPIDER 1969,.Mercedes W110 230 S Universal 1967 sw vehicle miniature WB207 Whitebox 1 43,. The Partridge1953 Corvette Polo White 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33142,.Porsche 911 (991II) GT2 Rs Weissach Paquete Año Fabricación 2018 Kreidegrey 1 43,.LANSDOWNE 1 43 LDM109 1966 FORD ZODIAC AMBER Mk4 METALLIC gold SUPERB MODEL,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, RIO 4235 FIAT 238 1970 BIANCO WHITE, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.TEKNO WSI CORGI, Heavy Haulage, Wind Turbine Load for Low Loaders.1 50 Scale,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MODELCARGROUP MCG18095 OPEL MANTA B MATTING YELLOW blueE 1 18,.Mercedes-Benz Modellauto 1 50 NFZ Unimog U430 Sommerdienst B66004134,PartridgeBritains 1 32 Scale Model Plough 9546 - Ploughs Charrues Pfuge,.1980 MERCEDES BENZ 280 CE COUPE blueE METALLIC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY NOREV 183589,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1999 Hot Wheels Racing Stewart SF3 Grand Prix Johnny Herbert Ford 1 43 Scale, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NEO 1 43 Scale - 43986 Datsun 240Z 2+2 Metallic bluee - Resin Model Car,; Dkw F94 Kombi Universal 1955 Light Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45091,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 1 43 439380021 Mercedes Benz Atego Stibel Eltron OVP (JS3682), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car Diorama BD1002 - Ford Anglia Van - Whitbread, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePOLITOYS 530 ALFA ROMEO 2600 SZ - METALLIC RED1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.

Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 22 2007 1 43 Lewis Hamilton (GBR) GP AUS (JS),.OPEL Commodore A Steinmetz 24h Spa 1970 von Bayern Gos Minichamps 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Jadi 1 18 Scale - FOX2 Mini Cooper Foxton Mayfair Green,.Norev 181494 1 18 CITROEN 2CV DOLLY 1985 WHITE CORMORAN GREY,.Buddy L JEEP pressed steel Japan bluee white stars and stripes vintage 6 metal,.

MINICHAMPS MASERATI INDY 1970 NEU OVP 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Vintage Dinky 25Y - Jeep - Red - Model Supplied In Collectabox NOT Original,Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS Riviera blue Ab 2013 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit od..,. In Noska,VINTAGE HOT WHEELS 1968 REDLINE AQUA SPLITTIN IMAGE - MADE IN USA - NICE PIECE,.Spark Porsche 911 3.2 Cabriolet 1989 1 43 S4468,.PANHARD 24CT blue Tolede & black 1 18 24 CT,.Schuco Replicas Grand Prix Racer with Box, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.WESTERN MODELS CHEVROLET BELAIR 1957,.Toyota TS010 () 1992 SWC -- HPI 43,.Corgi CC13219 DAF XF Crane Trailer & Pallets TARMAC Ltd Edition of 1796 New,.1971 PLYMOUTH GTX 440 BUTTERSCOTCH ERTL 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE HOBBY EDITION,. Id., p 923.

VW Volkswagen T1b T1 Bus Fensterbus red black 1962 KK Scale limited 1 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ferrari Dino Competizione 1 43 KingStar KS103,EBBRO MM P 1 43 TOYOTA 86 Nurburgring24-hour Race 2012No.165,.SPARK Porsche 962 Winner 24h Daytona 1989 B. Wollek - D. Bell 43DA89 1 43,.AUTOWORLD AMM1146 1971 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS 1 18 PURPLE w WHITE TOP,.1 500 Jet Star Sky400 Sky500 A320-200 Low Farews Forever VH-VGF F S JAPAN Sale,.3231 Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes Benz 400 E V8 Limousine champagner mit Box 509542,.Dinky atlas camion saviem avec sulky chevaux de course fiche et certificat,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1940 FORD DELUXE COUPE NYPD GREENLIGHT 12972 1 18,. The parties Auto Art Gateway 60138 MERCEDES BENZ CLK DTM 2001 1 43 n.15,.

PORSCHE 911 Turbo 2010 1 18 Norev 187622 997 brown Metallic,.GOZAN 1 32 155 MM US HOWITZER. BRITAINS COPY IN PLASTIC AND METAL.BOXED.VGC,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Team Lotus 18 Jim Clark 3rd Portugal GP 1960 S1840 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,; GreenLight 1 18 2018 Schmidt Peterson Motorsports, Arrow 11029, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Printhead Norev CL6912 Berliet Gak Sirop Des Comptoirs Francais ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DIECAST MASTERS 1 12 SCALE CATERPILLAR C15 ACERT DIESEL ENGINE BN 85139,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1996 Matchbox Series 8 Premiere Collection die-cast complete collection POLICE,.Vintage - SEAT 131 E - 1 43 Auto-Pilen 521 MIB,.ART MODEL AM0070 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 YELLOW 1 43,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,KK-Scale KKDC180121 BMW 2000 CS, 1965, creme,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.A Corgi cc20101 Fred Dibnah's choice Fowler B6 with low loader & boiler,,.Renault Break Juvaquatre 300 Kg 1951 Ivory 1 18 Model 185260 NOREV,.McLaren F1 Xp-4 1993 bluee Experimental Predotype 1 43 Model,.Johnny Lightning Complete Collection of 10 James Bond die-cast vehicles - New,.1958 CHEVROLET SPARTAN & 1957 CHEVROLET BELAIR R26 17-16 BOOTLEGGER,. The ScottsdaleHESKETH 308 JAMES HUNT 3rd SWEDEN GP 1974 1 43 SPARK S2241,Jensen Healey Mkii Spider 1972 Green NeoScale 1 43 NEO44391,.FERRARI MONDIAL 8 blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS P9883 NEW,. Id.,Norev 187661 Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet 1987 - elfenbein 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MERCEDES BIONIC 2007 GREEN MET.1 43 SPARK SP1019,; Spark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015,NEW Kyosho KS03658W Original 1 43 Lexus IS 350 F Sport White Nova Gf. from JAPAN,.Polistil 1 16 Scale Diecast - 01764 Lamborghini Countach Red Model Car,. The ScottsdaleMercedes Benz E class 320CE Coupe W124 1 43 Minichamps Limited Facelift,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Franklin Mint B11PW43 1939Mercedes Benz 770k Maroon,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mecedes 300sl Roadster Toy By Hubley,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Johnny Lightning 1 64 Scale Ghostbusters And Christine Dioramas 2018 Release Set,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 04259 BMW Roadster-Set 3-teilig red 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, CORGI 338 CHEVROLET SS 360 CAMARO,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Fiat 238 Ambulanza Corpo Militare S.M.O.M. Sovrano Militare Ordine Di Malta 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Peugeot D4A POMPIERS red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Peugeot 3008 GT Ultimate red mit blackem Dach 2. Generation Ab 2016 1 43 Nor..,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDINKY SUPERTOYS FODEN 8-WHEEL WAGON TATE & LYLE UNIKAT CODE 3,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Porsche 911 964 Purple Techno Classica 2018 Limited Edition Spark 1 43 BRAND NEW,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSelf-propelled three-roll roller DU-50 USSR 1 43 Start Scale Models SSM8003,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Venturi Trans Cup 1990 SPARK 1 43 S2245 Model,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Saurer D330F Willy Schlauri Removals 1978,1 18 Die Cast Collectors Edition American Muscle Ford Legends Series Shelby,.CORGI 1 50 - 70001 BERLIET TLR8 SEMI CITERNE - CHAMBOURCY,.Hot Wheels Red Line 1969 Sand Crab,. The Huyghe1 18 Triple 9 Honda S800 Congreenible 1966 white,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHummer H2 SUV 1 18 Diecast Maisto 36631 NEW NOS VHTF [1394],.

IXO PR0275 - 1 43 MINI COOPER S YACHTSMAN 2002 DIECAST MODEL,.Rare neo 1 43 lagonda 3-litre 1955 limited 300 pcs,.

GMP Corvette Racing Transporter & Shop Set 1 18th scale set Limited Edit,.UT MODELS 1 18 OPEL CALIBRA DTM - LUDWIG 1995 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Trofeu TFRRAL50 OPEL KADETT GTE N.26 RALLY OF PORTUGAL 1977 INACIO-BATISTA 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAmerican Car Series Friction Drive T225-59 Cadillac Sedan Made In Japan W Box,.Marvel Hot Wheels Spider-Man Web-Car Launcher,.

For example, in Partridge,DINKY SUPERTOYS MECCANO 561 BLAW KNOX BULLDOZER RARE BOXED TOY CAR,. In Jorgensen, supra,Peugeot 404 1965 green Modellauto 1 18 Norev,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.EFE 1 76 Scale Bus Set 14 - 110549 Dartford 1963 AEC Renown & AEC RT,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Mayfield Dairies 1 32 Step Van Employee Only Release Fleet Safety Award,. That is the same situation in this case.Ford Mustang II Stallion 1976 - 1 18 - Greenlight,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Schuco Piccolo 707 BMW 507 red (N4333),. Detroit Edison, supra.

Premium X 1 43 Nissan Qashqai 2014 Red New F S,.Motor City Classics 1948 Chrysler Town & Country 1 18 Scale,.Porsche 911 RS 1973 - white - Norev 1 18 - 187636,.

Lamborghini Miura P400S Bertone 50Th Anniversary 1968 Green RIO 1 43 RIO4584 Min,.