Véhicule Allemand STÖEWER Kfz.4 AA AA AA - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 280 dafcb3

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Véhicule Allemand STÖEWER Kfz.4  AA AA AA - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35  N° 280 dafcb3
BURAGO 1 18 3039 FERRARI 348TB 1989 RED,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Hot Wheels Lamborghini Diablo GTR 1 18 Scale Diecast Yellow 2002 Model Car 53835,.1986 Wartburg 353S yellow 1 18 MC Group 18077,.Fiat 238 Pirelli Servizio Rally 1971 1 43 Model RIO,.1986 FORD SIERRA RS COSWORTH GREY METALLIC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY NOREV 182770,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18PEUGEOT 309 GTI 1987 NOREV,.Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.59 With 1 24 250 CALIFORNIA F S Tr ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Neo 1 43 - Opel Kadett B Caravan whitehe,.1 43 Spark Jaguar XJR9 Silk Cut Le Mans 1988 Sullivan Jones Cobb S4719,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Ford Explorer XLT 2015 bluee 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,.1 76 Hong Kong Citybus ADL Enivro500 MMC facelift 12.8m Year of Rooster,.METAL BUILT KIT ABINGDON CLASSICS MG TD MIDGET OPEN 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Cabriolet, silver, 1 18, Norev,.The Terminator 1977 Dodge Monaco Metropolitan Police with T-800 Greenlight 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S4389 - Jaguar D - th Le Mans 1957,.Norev GT by Citroën Salon de Paris 2008 1 18 Electric bluee,.

Original Boxed Dinky Toys Number 771 International Road Signs,.CASE DC4 WIDE FRONT TRACTOR 1 16 DIECAST MODEL BY SPECCAST ZJD1778,.Matchbox Models Of Yesteryear Lot of Six, Y-3,Y-5,Y-12,Y-17,Y-26,&Y-30, New Cond,.Jada Toys Modellauto 1 18 Subaru WRX STi Sedan,.1 18 Revell TVR Tuscan S in OVP,.

Domestic Famous Car Collection 1 43 Isuzu Beret 1600 Gt-R,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.TSM TSM124312 1 43 CADILLAC DELUXE TUDOR LIMOUSINE 8C 1932 THE LAST EMPEROR OF C,.1 43 Spark - S5165 Toyota Yaris WRC Sweden 2017 J.-M. Latvala,.Minichamps 400090422 Brawn GP BGP 001 Spain Jenson Button 2009 1 43 Japan new .,Spark 1 43 Porsche 935 LM 1979 S4166,.Dinky Toys Alfa Romeo 33 Tipo Le Mans Racing Car - 1970's Dinky Toys Race Cars,.

OPEL 4 PS LAUBFROSCH - 1 18 MCG,.1 18 SunStar Mercedes 220 SE 1958 - OVP (K57),.Bentley Continental S1 Flying Spur 1 43 Minichamps,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 18 Norev Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet 1961 pearl grey NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940039031 Mercedes Benz 300sl Roadster 1955 Red,. We agree in part.

1 43 SRC18K 1966 F1 COOPER MASERATI T81 Rodriguez S Africa KIT BY SMTS,.V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL019 FERRARI 599 GTB 599GTB FIORANO RED MIB RARE,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Minichamps Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 MS Racing 1 18 151113102,.MNC150081208 - Voiture de courses PEUGEOT 908 HDI FAP 5th Place Le Mans 2008 équ,.Rastar 1 18 Scale Metal Model - 61300 Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 - White,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1970 DODGE CHARGER SUPERNATURAL GREENLIGHT 19046 1 18,.RARE Matchbox Leyland Titan London Bus Red With PEDALERS CYCLE & TOYS NIB,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 2006 RCCA Tony Stewart Home Depot Martinsville Raced Win 1 24 1 of 150,; Cadillac Eldorado Biarritz 1956 Metallic bluee 1 43 Premium X,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

CITROEN DYANE 6 blue Myosotis 1 18 2CV,.1 43 1922 Mercedes 28 95 PS congreenible open NEO 46171 Damaged front light,Rio 4321 FIAT BALILLA AMBULANZA ITALIANA 1935,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Vintage - FERRARI 250 Le Mans PininFarina - 1 43 Politoys n° 525,.

Polistil 1 25 Vintage diecast - 02266 Jaguar XJ-S Congreenible Red Model Car,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Hot Wheels HWW1776 FERRARI 430 GT3 N.57 WINNER ITALIAN GT3 2009 1 43,.Dinky Toys Hillman Imp Rally Car Excellent condition.,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale Resin S2070 - Porsche 911 2 Cup LM 1993,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Porsche 911 Targa Politie Netherlands 1991 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400061391,; Maisto 1 18 1965 Pontiac GTO Yellow American Muscle Car Diecast Detailed Model,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Kyosho 1 18 Morris Mini Cooper S 1965 Monte Carlo Winner No.52 OVP,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Elecon Russia 1 43 - Kamaz 4310 Plateau Covered Russian Military Army,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Steyr 220 Congreenible 1937 Beige Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45520 Model,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

1953 Porsche 550 Carrera Panamericana IV Model in 1 43 Scale by TSM,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 , 24H Nurburgring 2016, Sparkmodels,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps 430032604 Mercedes Benz 600 SEC Coupe (C140) 1992 Massstab 1 43,.Lotus Elan SE Roadster 1966 Royal bluee 1 18 Model 4055 SUN STAR,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Nissan Skyline Gt-R KPGC10 whiteo 1 18 Triple 9,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Mercedes S Klass W221 2005 Gun Metallic 1 43 Spark S1063 Model,.

Art Model AM0372 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.120 DNF T.FLORIO 1955 U.MAGLIOLI-S.SIGHINOL,.Land Rover Defender + Horsebox Royal Park Constabulary,.Minichamps - Fiat X1 9 - black - 1974 - lim. Edition - RAR,.Siku Super 2105 pinknbauer Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug, ca. 1 50, Sondermodell,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Tarmac Works 1 64 Honda Civic Type R,.

KAMAZ 6460 SSM1248 1 43,.Minichamps 431028030 BMW E46 2000 323i Cabriolet Siena Red Metallic 1 43,.Minichamps Yamaha YZR-M1 2004 1 12 Carlos Checa MotoGP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Morgan Evo Team Sard Morand , 24H LeMans 2015 , Spark models,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Simca Aronde Montlhery Special 1962 Grey Met Norev 1 18 NV185717 Model,.Matchbox - Moko 69 Commer 'Nestles' Van Boxed,.Herpa MAN TGX XLX Euro 6c Flachbett SZ mit 2 Turmteilen Wasel - 1 87,.Herpa LKW Scania R Topl Aerop. Ga-KSZ Stelzl,.Minichamps 430039210 MB 450 SEL 6.9 (W116) 74 redmet. 1 43 NEU OVP,.

Neo Jensen Healey MkII - green - 1972 - 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes 230 E W124 red,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 43 PONY TRAILER + HORSES - YELLOW - VERY GOOD IN BOX,. The Partridge1970's JEG COUGHLIN CHEVROLET CAMARO NHRA FUNNY CAR 1 18 BY AUTOWORLD AW1160,.AH280 SOLIDO 1 43 MERCEDES 190 SL ref 105,.HWP9888 by HOT WHEELS FERRARI 575 GTZ ZAGATO 2006 1 18,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Ducati 748 1 18 Scale Moto Collection 14, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Vintage - FORD OSI 20 MTS - 1 43 Marklin 1803 Mint in Box,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CONRAD - METALLMODELL - IVECO - EURO TRAKKER - MULDENKIPPER - 1 50 - (9.BM-15),.Dinky Toys Dublo GB n° 070 camion citerne AEC Mercury SHELL BP neuf boîte MIB,Partridge1 18 2015 Mercedes AMG GT Metallic Red NOREV 183496,.CITROEN CX 2400 break green métal Série 1 1 18,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, ContiModels Kit Assembled 1 43 PORSCHE 935 MARTINI RACING N4 WINNER MUGELLO 1976, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 1991 PHASE II 1 18 NOREV (MIAMI blueE),; Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 24H Nurburgring 2015 , Spark models,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 Minichamps MB L 3500 Getränkepritsche Libella 439350050, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 43 Minichamps Bentley S2 Standard Saloon 1960 red, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHot Wheels Mattel 22690 Nascar (Kellogg`s Racing ) 24 OVP ,.

Majorette Car Transporter 1 60 scale - majorette transporter RARE,.1985 Tyco HP7 Chevrolet Camaro IROC, Clarke's negligent act.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 73-1 R.A.F. PRESSURE REFUELLER W KGPW BOXED,.Mercedes W116 450SEL 6,9 Kopfstütze vorne velour,.Dinky Toys Triumph Harold 189 Within Its Original Box,.

Porsche 911 991-2 Carrera 4 Gts Spider 2016 Red HERPA 1 43 WAP0201450H Miniature,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DINKY MATCHBOX DY-13B BENTLEY R CONTINENTAL MINT BOXED DUTCH PROMOTIONAL,1 35 PANZER V - PANTHER D DRAGON PREMIUM ÉD + ADD ON,. In Noska,Batmobile Batman Forever 1995, Modellauto 1 18 Mattel - Hot Wheels,.Hot Wheels 2018 Red Line Club Car RLC Holiday Car Texas Drive'em Reindeer 8000,.Porsche Macan 2013 grey metallic 1 of 252 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 410062602,.602014 Joskin Cargo , 1 32 ROS, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ferrari P4 5 Competizione , 24H Nurburgring 2011 , Sparkmodels,.1964 Chevy Corvette Grand Sport Roadster Diecast Model Collectible 1 18 Scale,.69 CAMARO EARNHARDT RED 1 18th. ACTION MUS. MACH.,.Vtg San Francisco Powell & Mason Sts 514 Cable Car Toy With Box Made In Japan,. Id., p 923.

Tonka LoadMaster Sand Loader Vintage Tonka,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Dinky Toys no. 532 Lincoln Première,Vintage Matchbox Superfast Rat Rod Dragster COUGAR w ORIGINAL BOX NICE ,.SSM 1287 - Magirus 290D26L Pritschen-LKW Baujahr 1975 in orange-green 1 43,.Brooklyn Models Vintage 1 43 Scale -1957 Ford Fairlane Skyliner BRK,.. BROOKLIN BRK 41A 41 A CHRYSLER 300E 300 E CONgreenIBLE RED MINT BOXED,.Viessmann 5171 Spur H0 Muldenkipper MB ACTROS mit Beleuchtung, gel, NEU in OVP ,.Renault Alpine A310 1977 yellow 1 18 Norev 185143 neu & OVP,.Lotus Evora 400 2016 Green Spark 1 43 S2229 Model,. The parties SSM Fire Engine AC-30 (MAZ-205) SSM-1133,.

MCG - 1 18 - OPEL MANTA MATTIG - 1991 - 18095YBR,.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 7325 FORD MUSTAND BOSS 302 1970 - blueE 1 18 - NMIB,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Art Model AM0111 FERRARI DINO 206 N.196 T.FL.'66 1 43 Modellino,; GREENLIGHT 1 18 DDA COLLECTABLES SERIES - 1965 FORD CP FALCON DDA004, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Dinky Toys Supertoys no. 651 Centurion Tank Militairy ovp,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kamaz 5320 red bluee SSM1284 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)PORSCHE 911 964 Targa Carrera weiss 1990 white Spark Resin Highenddetail 1 43,.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Cabrio 300 CE-24 W124 black 1984-1997 1 43 Minichamps..,.Citroen Ds 19 President Car 1962 Attempt Rio 1 43 RIO4451 Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,The Brand Jordan 197 Peugeot R.Schumache 1 18 Scale Car,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.HOTWHEELS ELITE W1119 1 18 FERRARI FF NEW DIECAST MODEL CAR WHITE PEARL,.ALFA ROMEO Giulia 1600 (red) 1970 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400120907,.Fiat 131 Abarth 1980 Red Model Car 1 18 Ixo Models,.Classic 36 Ford Coupe Original Hot Wheels Redline Restoration Aqua,.5242 Valtra S394 with dual wheels, limited edition 1 32 Universal Hobbies,. The ScottsdaleDIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1965 SHELBY COBRA 427 S C W SHELBY SC114 1 18,SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 TARGA 4S - 2017 - S4977,.Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,. Id.,Rio 4294 ALFA ROMEO P3 AUSTRALIA 1954 n.2 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MG TD ARNOLT (Red) 1953-1955,; VINTAGE SCHUCO GERMAN 1041 MIDGET WIND UP MICRO RACER MINT & BOX,Wiking 113 Volkswagen kever - Beetle - Kafer very near mint,.Toy Old 1 43 Norev Renault R8 Years 60 Bel Condition,. The ScottsdaleMatchbox Ford A 1930 Y-22,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Norev Citroën DS3 WRC 2011 1 18 Loeb Elena Wales Rally GB,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Siku Control32 6782 2 - Kreisel-Schwader to Siku Rc Models and 1 3 2 Farmer New,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 330E Dinky France 24X Ford Vedette 54 Taxi 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Vintage Matchbox Lesney Moko No. 18 - Caterpillar Bulldozer - Boxed - VERY RARE,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 18 BMW M Roadster (Red) Burago 18-12028,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, KATO TOYOTA SUPRA blueE ART. 72-502 DIE- CAST NEW, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Albedo 297031 Man Suitcase Tir Fröhling with Great Motif MIP, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 830006 - F1 Brabham BMW BT52,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeVintage Tekno Denmark 451 Scania Vabis 110 Presenningbil 1965-72 nice condition,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Best Model BT9584 PORSCHE 550 RS 1957 4 CIL.110 CV AZZURRO 1 43 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBATMAN BATMOBILE - Lot of 15 - Hot Wheels & Matchbox (See Description),State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.LESNEY MATCHBOX - CITROEN DS 19 - NO= 66 - GOOD CONDITION,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 911 1970 Police Göteborg 1 43 Minichamps-Spark-S-RSR,GAMA Mini 1 43 OPEL SENATOR MIT CAMPING ANHANGER NO 1174 MINT BOXED,.Vintage PL 1 87 RUCH Robur L2500 pritsche plane 1970 plastic grey bluee near mint,.LLEDO DAYS GONE 3 piece sets RR1003 HLL1003 HLL2003 GS4 TPL1003 AB1003 RSL3003,. The HuygheBuild The Delorean Issues 102-108 New & Sealed,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAudi 100 Saloon 1969-75 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34331,.

Porsche 911 (991II) GT2 Rs Weissach Paquete Año Fabricación 2018 Kreidegrey 1 43,.Ligier JS P2 - Nissan no. 40 LMP2 LeMans 2016 ( T. Krohn - N.Jönsson - J.Barbosa,.

Norev 82 Citroen 3CV red,.Corgi 1 76 Scale OM46610B - Wrightbus New Bus For London R11 Fulham,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Best Model 9450 PORSCHE ABARTH RALLY CATALUNOS 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLamborghini Gallardo Lp560-4 White Lambo Academy Minichamps 1 43 436103801 Model,.CORGI SCANIA TOPLINE FRIDGE TRAILER L E JONES LTD RUTHIN MIB CC12908 1 50,.

For example, in Partridge,2001 Hot Wheels Final Runs Full Set - All 12 AWESOME ,. In Jorgensen, supra,ALFA ROMEO 8C COMPETIZIONE MIT LED-BELEUCHTUNG(XENON)1 18 INKL.WUNSCHKENNZEICHEN,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Roco Minitanks 232 Herpa 740425 US ARMY Bergepanzer M88, H0 1 87 getarnt,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,SPOT ON TRI ANG BEDFORD FIELD KITCHEN NO HEADLIGHT OLD,. That is the same situation in this case.Jaguar XKR GT3 2008 grey metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Minichamps,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 Welly Volkswagen VW T1 Samba Bully Bus 1962 green,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Maserati 3500 Gt Sebring Ii Series Coupe 1963 Green Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45644 M,.Corgi CC15211 MAN TGX Flatbed & Load, Collett,.Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper - Washington Fire Co. No.1 - Delanco, NJ NIB ,.

NEW HONDA Paper craft Monkey 1 5 scale from JAPAN F S,.