Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals SUNSTAR SS4159 AUDI QUATTRO 1981 SATURN METALLIC 1 18,.MAISTO 1 18 - 36637 MORGAN AERO 8 - DARK GREEN,.McLaren F1 1995 Papaya orange High Mirrors 1 43 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,.Tekno 60591 Meiller Tipping Trailer 3-achs 1 50 NEW BOXED,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.RUSSIAN USSR DATED 1995 MADE 'LADA' MODEL 2107 BOXED - VERY RARE MODEL,.Porsche 935, Winner Giro D`Italia 1979, Sparkmodels,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.AUTO D'EPOCA IN LATTA PER COLLEZIONISTI MODELLINO GIA' MONTATO,.REVELL® METAL 08971 1 18 MESSERSCHMITT KR 200 JUST MARRIED NEU OVP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Car Danhausen Ford Baroque Taunus Von 1957 M1 43 Kit Plastic,.1972 FORD MUSTANG TROJAN HORSE NHRA FUNNY CAR 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOWORLD AW1122,.Best Model 9466 LANCIA BETA GIRO D'ITALIA 1980 1 43 Modellino, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

FERRARI 126 C2 GP SAISON 1982 GILLES VILLENEUVE HI-FI 1 43 MONTAGE PH. CALLA,.Ford Mustang GT Bj.1968 - Oldtimer Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,.Bburago 1 24 Scale Jaguar Xkr-s Diecast Vehicle (colors May Vary) - 124 Xkrs,.Force India Mercedes VJM05 Paul di Resta Formula 1 2012 1 43 410120011,.

Norev 184825 Peugeot 504 Coupé 1969 - Apink White 1 18,.AUDI R8 V10 PLUS VERSION PREMIUM voiture miniature 1 18 collection maisto 38135,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1969 PLYMOUTH GTX CONgreenIBLE DIE-CAST blueE AMM1102,.MODELLINO OPEL KADETT GSI 1989 RED METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.SPARK MERCEDES-AMG GT3 th FIA GT World Cup Macau 2017 Juncadella SA141 1 43,.

ERTL 1969 AMC AMX LIME GREEN w stripes RARE 1 18 '69 2001 issue LIMTED EDITION,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DTE 1 20 W GERMANY NZG CONRAD 248 BOMAG BW90S ROAD ROLLER NIOB,.Nippon's Working Car Kit 2 Fire Engine 2 10pcs Complete BOX (All 9) Candy Toy,.Vintage PL Estetyka RUCH 1 72 Jelcz MEX-272 good condition with missing bumper,1 43 Spark - SF115 PORSCHE 997 GT3RS - Dumas,.1 18 Welly GTA Serie MB SLS AMG red,.

Matchbox No.47B Beach Hopper YELLOW interior mint boxed,.SPARK 1 43 - S1424 COURAGE LC75 AER TEAM SAULNIER RACING LE MANS 2007,.SMALL WHEELS MODELS, 1 43RD SCALE, 1967 FORD MUSTANG, HAND BUILT MODEL,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

CORGI TOYS 419 Ford Zephyr Motorway Patrol excellent plus all original condition,.

Porsche 911 991-2 Carrera 4 Gts 2017 SPARK 1 43 S7621 Model,. We agree in part.

Sakura Mercedes Benz 450 SLC Coupe made in Japan 1 43 scale MIB,.VANGUARDS 1 43 DIECAST 1983 ROVER SD1 SD 1 3500 V8 VANDEN PLAS AUSTRALIAN SPEC.,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 43 Honda Life 1972,.Rio RI4556 VW MAGGIOLINO WIESBADEN POLICE SPEED CONTROL 1957 1 43 Modellino,.1 87 Herpa Scania CS 20 HD KüKo SZ Heide Logistik Lionheart 121903,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; CITROEN C3 blue, C3 PLURIEL orange & C2 black NOREV 1 43,.BMW 507 Cabriolet 1956 silver 1 18 Norev 183230 Congreenible,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Lola LC89, Philippe Alliot , GP Spain 1989 , Spark models,; MATCHBOX SUPER SPEED KINGS K-3 MOD TRACTOR & TRAILER, EXCELLENT, BOXED,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Porsche 911 991 Targa 4 Gts 2014 Dark Red Schuco 1 43 WAP0201450F Model,.OR149 - 1 43 MINICHAMPS 430 062361 PORSCHE 356 CARRERA 1963-64,Audi R10 TDI, No.2, Winner Le Mans 2008 in 1 43 scale by Spark 43LM08,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Rio 4001 ITALA GRAN PRIX 1906 1 43,.

Dinky 1 43 Scale Diecast DY-903 - Classic British Sports Cars Series 2,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 87 Kibri Feuerwehrhaus Schneuzelreuth Bausatz 9207,.Lada Samara 1984 red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,.PEUGEOT 402 ECLIPSE 1937 New Norev 1 18,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, (A) triang minic SALOON CAR No 2 rare with self steering action,; DINKY TOYS 1 43 ENGLAND LINCOLN CONTINENTAL,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Porsche 911 Turbo Targa 1987 bluee metallic 1 18 Norev,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Best Model BT9288 FERRARI 275 GTB N.53 14th 1000 KM MONZA 1967 VESTEY-GASPAR 1 4,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Premium Classixx PREM18327 MERCEDES Lo2750 HOLZVERGASER BEIGE 1 43,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

BENTLEY Brooklands Coupe 2007 STUNNING BIANCO LINEA Minichamps 1 of 2008 pcs,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Spark Model Oreca 03R Nissan 43 S4224,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 87 Herpa Set PRANGL MB, Scania transport exceptionnel,.Spark Model 1 43 Chevrolet Corvette C1 Hard Top 1960 White Art.S2967,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Schuco Fendt 211 mit Frontlader (07644) - 1 32,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi 80001 Tate and Lyle Sentinel Steam Wagon Corgi grey 1 50,.

Wiking 077811 Claas Arion 420 Tractor 1 3 2 NEW,.1 18 Action Performance - Ford Ranger blueemet,.Bmw 320 I orange 2005 Minichamps 1 43 400052400 Model,.Ford Escort XR3i Cambridgeshire Constabulary Model -Icons 1 18 OVP NEU,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.DANBURY MINT NIB 1958 CHEVROLET IMPALA blueE NEVER DISPLAYED,.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 052100 - Volkswagen Kafer - Green,.Ferrari P4 5 Competizione , 24H Nurburgring 2011 , Sparkmodels,.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale V202B - Leyland Victory II Bus - Hong Kong R70,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Dinky Toys 130 Ford Corsair metallic red made in England EXC-NM,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Dinky x 2 racing cars BRM 243 and cooper 240,.Best Model BT9734 FERRARI 330 GTC 1966 BY PININFARINA NOCCIOLA METALLIC 1 43 Mod,.Dinky atlas leyland octopus tanker esso,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1974 White Limited 1000 Pcs 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport 2017 Alpine White S5200 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.

CORGI TOYS AUSTIN SEVEN ( MINI ) 1 43 RED, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Hi-Story HS154RE 1 43 Honda INTEGRA TYPE R MUGEN (2004) Milano red,.HOT WHEELS MAD MAGAZINE '66 DODGE A100 SPY VS SPY, HAULIN’ GAS, 55 CHEVY. 8 CARS,. The PartridgeBrooklin Models BRK 41A 1959 Chrysler 300E Congreenible Car Red,.Hpi 1 43 Alfa Romeo 155 V6 TI 1996 ITC Suzuka S.Modena,.Western Models 1 43 Scale WP107X - Ferrari 246 GT Dino Open - Yellow Damaged,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, RENAULT CLIO 16V 16S 1 18 NOREV (TUNGSTENE GREY), although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Citroen C3 WRC Official Presentation Version (2017) 1 18 Norev 181630,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NEW Spark 1 43 Schuppan Porsche 962 CR 1994 metallic bluee KBS035 from Japan F S,.BMW M6 GT3 Walkenhorst VLN Nürburgring 2016 Dunlop Blomqvist Krog Spark 1 43,PartridgeTruescale Land Rover Series I 88 Merioneth Fire Engine 1957 TSM144324 1 43 NEW,.Lamborghini Gallardo 1 43 Diecast Minicar,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DV8317 NOREV 1 43 SEMI REMORQUE PLATEAU HENSCHEL HS 3-180 TAS 1956 Ref 820561, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Replicagri REPLI120 ARATRO ESAVOMERE A BILANCIERE CHARRUE GREGOIRE BESSON RWY8 1,; ZC599 Speidel SPE.07 Voiture Miniature 1 43 Fiat 131 Abarth Röhrl Geistdörfer,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, SPARK PORSCHE 911 GT2 Evo Le Mans 1996 Jarier - Pareja - Chappell S5513 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Opel Blitz 1,75 Tonner Werbewagen Scale 1 43 - limitiert, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeArt Model AM0249 FERRARI 290 MM N.48 DNA ROAD AMERICA 1963 J.FLYNN 1 43 Modellin,.

Model Ferrari 1 43 Ferrari F1 1973 312B3 F1 Arturo Merzario,.NOREV MADE FRANCE CHRYSLER NEW-YORKER COUPE DECAPOTABLE + REMORQUE BATEAU ROCCA, Clarke's negligent act.Jaguar Xkr Roadster Green 007 James Bond Die Another Day 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Norev Citroën 2CV Dolly 1985 1 18 white green,.SOLS1850006 by SOLIDO' CITROEN TYPE HY 1969 CIVIL 1 18,.

Asahi Collection Mercedes Benz SSKL 1929 Modell Auto Model Car 1 24 Mint in Box,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Conrad 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN4 Container Trailer + Scania Cab,Ferrari 290S Buenos Aires 1957 1 43 Von Trips Castellotti Model 0237,. In Noska,RARE Ralstoy Ralston Slush Lead U.S. Army Scout Plane Toy,.Schleich Giganotosaurus and Velociraptor SL42264 Miniature Figure Toy,.CORGI 1 50th SCALE HEAVY HAULAGE 8x NICHOLAS 6 WHEEL BOGIES AND DRAW BAR,.Lotus 72E South African GP 1974 Paddy Driver Spark S4833 1 43, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.SPARK RENAULT 5 Turbo er Tour de Corse 1982 J. Ragnotti - Andrie S3862 1 43,.ERTL 1 44 SCALE TEXACO - WINGS OF TEXACO MODEL BN 19813,.SAAB 96GL Neo scale models 1 43 NEO43682,.SCHUCO Porsche 911 Targa 1975 (grand prix white) 450891300,. Id., p 923.

Danbury Mint 1966 Ford Mustang Congreenible 1 24 OHNE OVP,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spark 1 43 McLaren MP4-12C Open GT Tour 2013 SF066,Mercedes L3000 , weiss blue, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,.AutoWorld 1 18 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona LA & orange County Diecast AMM1091,.1 87 , Herpa Eigenbau Bender MB SLT 4-achs m. 10-achs TL u. Ladegut,.Mclaren M6B Gt 1969 orange, Model Car 1 43 Premium x Models,.Solido Citroen Ds Spezial Red White 118419 1 18,.Porsche 962 C – 3rd Place Le Mans 1988 NOREV - NO 187410 - Echelle 1 18,.Ebbro 1 43 APR Hasepro Prius GT 2012 Super GT300 M. Nitta H. Saga,. The parties MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.

2017 Mercedes-Benz AMG GT C Roadster solarbeam 1 18 Norev 183451,.Minichamps 430019428 Audi Quattro (B2, Typ 85Q, Baujahr 1981) 1 43, OVP,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Spark 1 43 Tyrrell 021 Yamaha GP 1993 Miyazawa Japan new.,; 1954 Chevrolet Belair Congreenible Yellow 1 18 SunStar 1712, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

GAMA SUPER Mercedes Benz Combi 300 TD 110 1 24 Very Near Mint Unplayed in Box,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Range Rover Classic 4x4 3.5 4 Doors 1982 IXO 1 43 HCS-CC001 Limit 482 pcs,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Neuheit norev V.Übersicht PEUGEOT 205 RALLYE 88 Auto Miniatur 1 43,.MINICHAMPS Delahaye Type 145 V-12 Grand Prix 1 1 43 437116100,.Dodge Cgoldnet Woody Wagon 1949 Red 1 43 PremiumX,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Porsche 997 GT3 GTA Ypres 2015 DUMAS 1 43 Spark SB104,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 18 Shelby Collectibles 2011 Ford Shelby Mustang GT350,.Schuco 02389 DKW Schnelllaster Büssing mit Anhänger Baujahr 1962 orange 1 43,.RENAULT 4 1965 COPENHAGHE blueE NOREV 1 18,.Kit pour miniature auto CCC Peugeot jeep predotype 203R ou VSP 1955 réf 92,.Norev 1 43 - Berliet GAK Benne,. The ScottsdaleFerrari 488 GTB The Green Jewel 1 18 18-76101,Renault Dauphine 1958 NOREV 1 18 NV185169,.Fiat Panda 30th Anniversary set,. Id.,Schuco 03109 camion Pompiers Mercedes-Benz Unimog 401 Stadtwerke Köln 1 43 mint,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 9-3 KGPW MERRYWEATHER MARQUIS FIRE ENGINE,; SUNSTAR 1 18 - 4426 CITROEN XSARA WRC RALLY SWEDEN 2007 CARLSSON GIRAUDET,Fiat Ritmo Bertone 100S Supercabrio Closed 1985 Red Kess Model 1 43 KS43010041 M,.DINKY TOYS - VINTAGE METALLMODELL - CITROEN SERVICE - NO REPLIKA (DINKY-T-64),. The ScottsdalePAZ 32051 City Bus SSM 4026 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 T 1969 DARK RED NOREV 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; BO718-1 x Wiking H0 1 87 Lorry Iveco Medecin + Drbinger Spedition etc.,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1970 CHEVROLET CHEVELLE SS B&M RACING AND PERFORMANCE DIECAST SCALE 1 18 NEW,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1960s.MATCHBOX,LESNEY.20,USA Chevrolet Taxi CAB YELLOW BPW mint in box.ORIGINAL,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Matchbox Foldable Playsets Swamp Chomper and Beach Bait New 16 Cars included,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Maisto GT RACING Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR 1998 1 18 Ludwig Zonta FIA VN M BOX, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Dinky Toys 1402 Citroen Visa made in France 1 43 scale EXC-NM rare, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, CATERPILLAR EXCAVATOR 325L MODEL NZG MODEL,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 UT Models Chevrolet Corvette Pace Car 2000 yellow NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mini Gt Nissan Gtr R35 Lb Works Zero Fighter Hong Kong Limited,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 Sun Star 5357 Opel Ascona 400 Kulläng Berglund Rally Monte Carlo '81,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ford Escort Mki Turnier 1968 Dark Green 1 43 Neoscale NEO44336 Model,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,MINICHAMPS 1 12 HONDA NSR 500 NASTRO AZZURRO ROSSI 46 2001 PRE SEASON TESTBIKE,Matchbox b - Mercedes 220SE - Maroon (BPW) - A+ A,.Porsche 911 R 2016 white mit reden Streifen 1 43 Minichamps 410066221 neu & OVP,.Redline Hotwheels Antifreeze 1969 Lola GT70 oc15188,. The HuygheChgold Q SUBARU IMPREZA WRCar 2004 Set Start & Finish TAKARA NEW Rare F S,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheTalbot Lago 2500 coupe T14 LS 1955 Spark 1 43 S2719,.


1965 Pontiac GTO Capri gold 1 18 Sun Star 1809,.Minichamps 400045890 OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE - 1970 - ´FEUERWEHR COESFELD´ L.E. 1008,. Nonetheless, on the facts of ERTL American Muscle 1 18 Die-Cast 'Bullitt' 1968 Dodge Charger,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark Model S5957 TOYOTA YARIS WRC N.7 3rd MONTE CARLO 2018 J.M.LATVALA-M.ANTTIL,.CORGI TOYS ALPINE RALLYE SET ( HEALEY CORTINA MINI ) 1 43 ORIGINAL,.

For example, in Partridge,Renault 16 Baujahr 1968 grey metallic 1 18 Norev,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps 400090422 Brawn GP BGP 001 Spain Jenson Button 2009 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Pre-owned Franklin mint 1960 Mercedes Benz 300SL, no Box, loose,,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,HMMWV (Humvee) Military Police Desert Tan 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Autoworld,. That is the same situation in this case.Audi 80 GTE 1972 - yellow black - 1 18 KK-Scale NEU,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 32 Schuco Fendt 211 Vario mit Frontlader Nr. 450764400 OVP,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Mint Mini Champ 1 43 Car Bmw 320I Limited World 1920,.BMW 2000 tilux Cremewhite 1 18 ModelCar Group,.Citroen 2CV Dolly Weiss grey 1949-1990 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,.

Trofeu 1 43 Scale 510 - 1973 Ford Escort RS 2000 RHD - White bluee,.