Brabus Brabus Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS 252985

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Brabus Brabus Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS 252985
Schuco Modellauto Neu Lamborghini 2241 R 1 43 - 450902800,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Brumm A006 SET 2 PCS. FIAT NUOVA 500 OPEN 1 43,.Porsche 911 (964) Speedster Nuevo Gt Spirit Gt008cs 1 18,.Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture 2018 B Case - Team Transport,.1 43 Spark Porsche 911 997 GT3 R Car Hours of Spa 2011 SB025,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Action 1 24 Top Fuel Dragster Shirley Muldowney Go Racing . Revell,.Schuco 1 43 VW Käfer 1600-S, red 450903900,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.8 JOHNNY LIGHTNING CARS POKER SERIES I PONTIAC, CHEVY, FORD & MORE VERY RARE,.B38-212 JOUEF RECOED 64 CIRCUIT VOITURES GT,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Joustra Peugeot J7 Ambulance vintage années 60 tin toy made in France,.Art Model AM0239 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.12 29th SCCA 1957 L.KATSKEE 1 43 Modellino,.Scale model 1 18 1966 Lotus Elan SE Roadster (Royal bluee), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12934 - Scania Topline Fridge Trailer - Anderson,.1 18 HIGHWAY 61 ORIGINS OF SPEED 1929 FORD MODEL A ROADSTER 44 50156 2002,.Tenariv - 1 43 Factory Built White Metal - FORD C 100 - Maquette Bensignor,.Lada Samara 1984 Creme KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180215,.

VW VOLKSWAGEN Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 weiss Typ 14 Metall NEU Minichamps 1 18,.Aston Martin DB4 Gt Bertone Jet 1961 Metallic Grey 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Dinky Toys 1450 Simca 1100 Police Perfect mint in box difficult to find a beauty,.Schuco Piccolo Merry Christmas 2012 Pin Studio I und VW Käfer Cabriolet SO,.1965 Pontiac GTO Danbury Mint 1 24 Diecast Original Box & Papers,.

Hpi-racing 1 43 Nissan Skyline R32 Gr.A Yellow from Japan,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.RARE MODEL 1961 Jaguar E Type S1 Coupe in 1 43 scale by Spark,.Guiloy 1 18 Scale Diecast 67007 - Aston Martin DB7 - Metallic bluee,.MARK43 PM4348BL 1 43 Honda Civic Type R (FK2) Brilliant Sporty bluee Metallic,Neo 43470 1 43 1979 BMW M535i E12 Resin Model Car,.Motormax 1 18 Scale Model Car 73181 - Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera - Yellow,.

Solido 1 18 scale Diecast - 8082 Chevrolet Corvette 1953 Congreenable White,.Spark Model S0642 MAZDA 767 N.202 LM 1988 1 43,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 MG TF 1953 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Mercedes Amg Gt3 2016 1 18 Model NOREV,.

1 18 Greenlight Ford Bronco Police Pursuit NYPD 1967 green white,. We agree in part.

DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S 1951 green, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Best Model BT9423 PORSCHE 908 4 N.1 PRESENTAZ1ONE 1970 MARTINI 1 43 Modellino,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Redline Hotwheels Light Green 1975 Sand Drifter oc14341,.GREENLIGHT 1978 Ford Mustang II King Cobra White 1 18 Diecast 13508,.DINKY TOYS 162 FORD ZEPHYR SALOON blueE SPOT ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX VERY NEAR MINT,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Spark Models 1 43 Scale - S0240 Lola B06 10 Chamberlain Synergy LM 2007,.SPECCAST YELLOW PETE 385 SEMI CAR TRANSPORT TRANSPORTER CARRIER TRAILER 1 64 MTB,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Corgi Toys No. 900, 1927 Bentley, - Superb,; SIKU 2519 UNIMOG WITH BUILDER'S HUT - HEITKAMP - 1 55 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS,.DCP Giant Food Stores International Cab w Reefer Trailer 1 64th Scale,Corgi Toys No. 900, 1927 Bentley, - Superb,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.RC2 Brands Inc JoyRide Austin Powers Mini Cooper No.33593 NIB,.

Corgi CC11502 AEC MkV Mammoth Major Tanker Shell & BP in 1 50, N E U & O V P,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ford Country Squire cream 1 43 Premium X,.Dodge Ramcharger 1974 Amarant White 1 43 Neoscale NEO44785 Model,.EBBRO 1 20 KIT DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 88B 1981 ART 010 6800,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1280 - Peugeot 908 HDI FAP Team Peugeot th LM 2008,; RC2 Brands Inc JoyRide Austin Powers Mini Cooper No.33593 NIB,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 True Scale Models TSM Chaparral 2F Targa Floria P.Hill TSM124317,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Brabus Brabus Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS 252985Brabus Brabus Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS 252985Brabus Brabus Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS 252985Brabus Brabus Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS 252985

NEO MODELS Bentley SIII Continental 1 43 44162 1 43 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

CITROEN TRACTION 15 POMPIERS LANNEPAX ELYSEE 558 1 43,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Giocher FM01BIS FIAT MAREA POLIZIA BERLINA LAMP.LUNG,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Tron Kit Assembled SB 1 43 - Fiat Abarth 2000 Sport Cuneo,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1961 Lincoln X-100 Kennedy Car Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24048,.Schuco Modellauto Neu Lamborghini 2241 R 1 43 - 450902800,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Brumm A006 SET 2 PCS. FIAT NUOVA 500 OPEN 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Porsche 911 (964) Speedster Nuevo Gt Spirit Gt008cs 1 18,.

Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture 2018 B Case - Team Transport,.1 43 Spark Porsche 911 997 GT3 R Car Hours of Spa 2011 SB025,.Action 1 24 Top Fuel Dragster Shirley Muldowney Go Racing . Revell,.Schuco 1 43 VW Käfer 1600-S, red 450903900,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.8 JOHNNY LIGHTNING CARS POKER SERIES I PONTIAC, CHEVY, FORD & MORE VERY RARE,.

B38-212 JOUEF RECOED 64 CIRCUIT VOITURES GT,.Joustra Peugeot J7 Ambulance vintage années 60 tin toy made in France,.Art Model AM0239 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.12 29th SCCA 1957 L.KATSKEE 1 43 Modellino,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi CC11502 AEC MkV Mammoth Major Tanker Shell & BP in 1 50, N E U & O V P,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Scale model 1 18 1966 Lotus Elan SE Roadster (Royal bluee),.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12934 - Scania Topline Fridge Trailer - Anderson,.1 18 HIGHWAY 61 ORIGINS OF SPEED 1929 FORD MODEL A ROADSTER 44 50156 2002,.Tenariv - 1 43 Factory Built White Metal - FORD C 100 - Maquette Bensignor,.Lada Samara 1984 Creme KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180215,.

VW VOLKSWAGEN Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 weiss Typ 14 Metall NEU Minichamps 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Aston Martin DB4 Gt Bertone Jet 1961 Metallic Grey 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Dinky Toys 1450 Simca 1100 Police Perfect mint in box difficult to find a beauty,. The PartridgeSchuco Piccolo Merry Christmas 2012 Pin Studio I und VW Käfer Cabriolet SO,.1965 Pontiac GTO Danbury Mint 1 24 Diecast Original Box & Papers,.Hpi-racing 1 43 Nissan Skyline R32 Gr.A Yellow from Japan,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, RARE MODEL 1961 Jaguar E Type S1 Coupe in 1 43 scale by Spark, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Guiloy 1 18 Scale Diecast 67007 - Aston Martin DB7 - Metallic bluee,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MARK43 PM4348BL 1 43 Honda Civic Type R (FK2) Brilliant Sporty bluee Metallic,.Neo 43470 1 43 1979 BMW M535i E12 Resin Model Car,PartridgeMotormax 1 18 Scale Model Car 73181 - Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera - Yellow,.Solido 1 18 scale Diecast - 8082 Chevrolet Corvette 1953 Congreenable White,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ford Country Squire cream 1 43 Premium X, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark Model S0642 MAZDA 767 N.202 LM 1988 1 43,; Dodge Ramcharger 1974 Amarant White 1 43 Neoscale NEO44785 Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, WESTERN MODELS 1 43 MG TF 1953 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes Amg Gt3 2016 1 18 Model NOREV, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Greenlight Ford Bronco Police Pursuit NYPD 1967 green white,.

DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S 1951 green, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Best Model BT9423 PORSCHE 908 4 N.1 PRESENTAZ1ONE 1970 MARTINI 1 43 Modellino, Clarke's negligent act.Redline Hotwheels Light Green 1975 Sand Drifter oc14341,.GREENLIGHT 1978 Ford Mustang II King Cobra White 1 18 Diecast 13508,.DINKY TOYS 162 FORD ZEPHYR SALOON blueE SPOT ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX VERY NEAR MINT,.

Spark Models 1 43 Scale - S0240 Lola B06 10 Chamberlain Synergy LM 2007,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, EBBRO 1 20 KIT DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 88B 1981 ART 010 6800,SPECCAST YELLOW PETE 385 SEMI CAR TRANSPORT TRANSPORTER CARRIER TRAILER 1 64 MTB,. In Noska,SIKU 2519 UNIMOG WITH BUILDER'S HUT - HEITKAMP - 1 55 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS,.DCP Giant Food Stores International Cab w Reefer Trailer 1 64th Scale,.Corgi Toys No. 900, 1927 Bentley, - Superb, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.RC2 Brands Inc JoyRide Austin Powers Mini Cooper No.33593 NIB,.Corgi CC11502 AEC MkV Mammoth Major Tanker Shell & BP in 1 50, N E U & O V P,.Ford Country Squire cream 1 43 Premium X,.Dodge Ramcharger 1974 Amarant White 1 43 Neoscale NEO44785 Model,. Id., p 923.

EBBRO 1 20 KIT DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 88B 1981 ART 010 6800,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1280 - Peugeot 908 HDI FAP Team Peugeot th LM 2008,Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1280 - Peugeot 908 HDI FAP Team Peugeot th LM 2008,.1 43 True Scale Models TSM Chaparral 2F Targa Floria P.Hill TSM124317,.NEO MODELS Bentley SIII Continental 1 43 44162 1 43 1 43,.CITROEN TRACTION 15 POMPIERS LANNEPAX ELYSEE 558 1 43,.Giocher FM01BIS FIAT MAREA POLIZIA BERLINA LAMP.LUNG,.Tron Kit Assembled SB 1 43 - Fiat Abarth 2000 Sport Cuneo,.1961 Lincoln X-100 Kennedy Car Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24048,. The parties Schuco Modellauto Neu Lamborghini 2241 R 1 43 - 450902800,.

Brumm A006 SET 2 PCS. FIAT NUOVA 500 OPEN 1 43,.Porsche 911 (964) Speedster Nuevo Gt Spirit Gt008cs 1 18,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 True Scale Models TSM Chaparral 2F Targa Floria P.Hill TSM124317,; Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture 2018 B Case - Team Transport, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 43 Spark Porsche 911 997 GT3 R Car Hours of Spa 2011 SB025,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Action 1 24 Top Fuel Dragster Shirley Muldowney Go Racing . Revell,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Schuco 1 43 VW Käfer 1600-S, red 450903900,.8 JOHNNY LIGHTNING CARS POKER SERIES I PONTIAC, CHEVY, FORD & MORE VERY RARE,.B38-212 JOUEF RECOED 64 CIRCUIT VOITURES GT,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Joustra Peugeot J7 Ambulance vintage années 60 tin toy made in France,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Art Model AM0239 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.12 29th SCCA 1957 L.KATSKEE 1 43 Modellino,.Scale model 1 18 1966 Lotus Elan SE Roadster (Royal bluee),.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12934 - Scania Topline Fridge Trailer - Anderson,.1 18 HIGHWAY 61 ORIGINS OF SPEED 1929 FORD MODEL A ROADSTER 44 50156 2002,.Tenariv - 1 43 Factory Built White Metal - FORD C 100 - Maquette Bensignor,. The ScottsdaleLada Samara 1984 Creme KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180215,VW VOLKSWAGEN Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 weiss Typ 14 Metall NEU Minichamps 1 18,.Aston Martin DB4 Gt Bertone Jet 1961 Metallic Grey 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. Id.,Dinky Toys 1450 Simca 1100 Police Perfect mint in box difficult to find a beauty,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco Piccolo Merry Christmas 2012 Pin Studio I und VW Käfer Cabriolet SO,; NEO MODELS Bentley SIII Continental 1 43 44162 1 43 1 43,1965 Pontiac GTO Danbury Mint 1 24 Diecast Original Box & Papers,.Hpi-racing 1 43 Nissan Skyline R32 Gr.A Yellow from Japan,. The ScottsdaleRARE MODEL 1961 Jaguar E Type S1 Coupe in 1 43 scale by Spark,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Guiloy 1 18 Scale Diecast 67007 - Aston Martin DB7 - Metallic bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CITROEN TRACTION 15 POMPIERS LANNEPAX ELYSEE 558 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Giocher FM01BIS FIAT MAREA POLIZIA BERLINA LAMP.LUNG,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MARK43 PM4348BL 1 43 Honda Civic Type R (FK2) Brilliant Sporty bluee Metallic,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Neo 43470 1 43 1979 BMW M535i E12 Resin Model Car,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Motormax 1 18 Scale Model Car 73181 - Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera - Yellow, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Solido 1 18 scale Diecast - 8082 Chevrolet Corvette 1953 Congreenable White, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Spark Model S0642 MAZDA 767 N.202 LM 1988 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeWESTERN MODELS 1 43 MG TF 1953 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mercedes Amg Gt3 2016 1 18 Model NOREV,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 Greenlight Ford Bronco Police Pursuit NYPD 1967 green white,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S 1951 green, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Best Model BT9423 PORSCHE 908 4 N.1 PRESENTAZ1ONE 1970 MARTINI 1 43 Modellino,Redline Hotwheels Light Green 1975 Sand Drifter oc14341,.GREENLIGHT 1978 Ford Mustang II King Cobra White 1 18 Diecast 13508,.DINKY TOYS 162 FORD ZEPHYR SALOON blueE SPOT ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX VERY NEAR MINT,. The HuygheSpark Models 1 43 Scale - S0240 Lola B06 10 Chamberlain Synergy LM 2007,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSPECCAST YELLOW PETE 385 SEMI CAR TRANSPORT TRANSPORTER CARRIER TRAILER 1 64 MTB,.

SIKU 2519 UNIMOG WITH BUILDER'S HUT - HEITKAMP - 1 55 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Brabus 850 AMG S63 Cabriolet 2016 bluee 1 43 - 437034231 MINICHAMPS,.

DCP Giant Food Stores International Cab w Reefer Trailer 1 64th Scale,.Corgi Toys No. 900, 1927 Bentley, - Superb,. Nonetheless, on the facts of RC2 Brands Inc JoyRide Austin Powers Mini Cooper No.33593 NIB,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCorgi CC11502 AEC MkV Mammoth Major Tanker Shell & BP in 1 50, N E U & O V P,.Ford Country Squire cream 1 43 Premium X,.

For example, in Partridge,Dodge Ramcharger 1974 Amarant White 1 43 Neoscale NEO44785 Model,. In Jorgensen, supra,EBBRO 1 20 KIT DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 88B 1981 ART 010 6800,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1280 - Peugeot 908 HDI FAP Team Peugeot th LM 2008,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 True Scale Models TSM Chaparral 2F Targa Floria P.Hill TSM124317,. That is the same situation in this case.NEO MODELS Bentley SIII Continental 1 43 44162 1 43 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.CITROEN TRACTION 15 POMPIERS LANNEPAX ELYSEE 558 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Giocher FM01BIS FIAT MAREA POLIZIA BERLINA LAMP.LUNG,.Tron Kit Assembled SB 1 43 - Fiat Abarth 2000 Sport Cuneo,.1961 Lincoln X-100 Kennedy Car Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24048,.

Schuco Modellauto Neu Lamborghini 2241 R 1 43 - 450902800,.