Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 36622 Porsche Carrera GT Metallic Grey,.Burago 1 18 Scale 18-18001R - Mercedes F1 W07 Hybrid - Nico Rosberg,.Alfa Romeo Spider 3 Series 2 1 18 neuve en boîte KK-scale,.Mercedes G-Class G650 V12 Landaulet Open Maybach 2017 SCHUCO 1 43 450900500 Mode,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps Ducati Desmosedici Loris Capiro 1 12 123110065,.Solido 1 18 Scale Model Car S1850022 - Citroen 2CV Dolly - Grey Red,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.REVELL 08430 OPEL KADETT LS COUPE - orange OCRE 1 18 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 Nr. 29750 FERRARI F333 SP POST RACE DIRTY VERSION in OVP (A704),. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Matrix 1 43 JAGUAR D TYPE MICHELOTTI Le Mans....Red Limited Edition NEW,.Porsche 911 GT3 R no. 53 Class Winner 24 H Spa 2010,.Opel Kadett B mit Knaus Schwalbennest blue 1 43 Schuco Modellauto, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92729 1961 ASTON MARTIN DB4 ZAGATO RED,.Wiking pinknbauerPanther FLF 6x6 Airport tender with extending arm Ref 0430,.Spark Model S5110 LIGIER JS P2 N.25 17th LM 2016 M.MUNEMANN-C.HOY-A.PIZZITOLA 1 ,.MINIMAX SPARK PORSCHE 911 GT3 R FINAL EDITION 2014 FAREWELL GENERATION 997 N° 4,.
Vintage modelo Ferrari F40 1 24 Sports Car Series No.77 TAMIYA,.Walldorf Miniaturen - Mercedes-Benz 170 V 1939-1949 - white metal handbuilt 1 43,.PTH 1-W Western 1 43 Chevrolet Corvette L-82 White Metal Handmade Model Car,.1 43 Schuco Mercedes Maybach G650 Landaulet 2017 blueemetallic,.1 43 MATRIX Bentley 4.25 litre Vanden Plas Tourer H.H. Maharadja Darbhanga 1938,.
1932 CADILLAC - V-16 - SPORT PHAETON - DIECAST - DANBURY MINT - NEW - VINTAGE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A. AUTOART AUTO ART 53782 JAGUAR E-TYPE COUPE SERIES III V12 GREEN MINT BOXED,.Saab 95 GL Estate (1979) Resin Model Car 43767,.Vintage Dinky Toys Chevrolet El Camino 1 48 Scale EXC Original,FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA SWB LM 1969 WHITE 18 ELITE CAR BY HOTWHEELS T6931,.Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 (yellow midas pearl effect yellow pearl) 2014,.
FORD Eifel Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44545,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3375 Dodge Viper GTS Coupe 1997 White bluee,.Lincoln Premiere 1956 Cabrio summit green 1 18 Sun Star neu & OVP 4643,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Ebbro P4 1 43 Pennzoil Zexel Skyline GT-R R34 JGTC 2001 E. Comas M.Kageyama,.
1 43 Spark Porsche911 GT1 car Hours of LeMans S4180,. We agree in part.
Minichamps Williams FW22 2000 1 18 Jenson Button (GBR),.Hobby Japan MARK43 1 43 Toyota Mark II hardtop 3.0 Grande G pearl stream toning,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera greymetallic 74583,.Hot Wheels Williams BMW Launch car 2000 1 18 Ralf Schumacher (GER),.Spark Werbemodell Porsche 911(991) GT3 Cup No.8 Porsche Sports Cup 2016 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Spark Model S4186 PORSCHE 991 GT3 N.2 SUPERCUP CHAMPION 2013 N.THIIM 1 43 Modell,.Autocult 1 43 09002 Martin Walter - Commer Dormobile Coaster von 1960,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Dealer Model 1 43 Porsche Cayman,; Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK36 001 - 1952 Hudson Hornet Congreenible Green,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Saab 900 Gli 1981 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.RARE MAJORETTE X4 JEEP CHEROKEE IN blueE CAMEL MADE IN FRANCE NM LOOSE,1963 Ford Falcon Futura Open Congreenible Chestnut Poly 1 18 Sun Star 4534,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.MINICHAMPS 1 43 PORSCHE 911 991-2 GT3 RS COUPÈ 2018 ART.WAX02020085,.
Marks N - Krupp Titan Hängerzug „Schloss Wachen Art.-Nr. 6010 BB 992,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 18 Sun Star Mercedes 350SL 1977,.Autocult 1 43 Audi Asso di Picche Italdesign, silver, Germany 1973,.Art Model AM0244 FERRARI 340 MEXICO N.12 2nd OFFUTT 1953 SHELBY-MC AFEE 1 43 Mod,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Spark Model S3512 COOPER T53 R.PENSKE 1961 N.6 8th US GP 1 43 Modellino,; 1 43 True Scale Models TSM Bentley Continental GT3 Concept TSM134301,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1987 Pontiac Trans AM GTA Pace Car sizedega 500 red 1 18 Greenlight 12859,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Herpa Eigenbau MAN TGA LX 7achs 20 ft. Container Hängerzug KLOIBER,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Jada 1 24 Scale 30457 - Batgirl & 1957 Chevy Corvette - DC Comics Bombshells,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
FERRARI Le Mans 1963 250 GTO 1 18 RED RACE CHASSIS 4293 HOTWHEELS TUBULAR,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
DINKY TOYS DUBLO 064 AUSTIN LORRY - GREEN - NEAR MINT IN BOX,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.AM 71.CREATIONS ALFA ROMEO 2 ASSISTANCE SERVICE COURSE + PLATEAU 1 43.,.IVECO EUROSTAR LD con CISTERNA DECORATA OLD CARS OLC00516,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.BMW LS LUXUS 1962 RED ROAD SIGNATURES 18125 1 18,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Schuco 1 66 Nr. 311 901 Büssing Lastwagen Heineken Bier OVP,.
UNION MODEL MC05 KIT (unbuilt) VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - WHITE 1 25 - GOOD IN BOX,.Porsche 911 Carrera 1993, bluee Metallic, Norev 1 18,.1 18 AUTOART VW VOLKSWAGEN DUNE BEETLE IN BRILLIANT SUN YELLOW MEGA RARE,.Best Model BT9482 PORSCHE 908 2 N.272 4th TARGA FLORIO 1969 KAUHSEN-VON WENDT 1 ,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Mercedes-Benz MB GLE Coupé 2015 White 1 18 Norev,.
VERY RARE ISRAEL POLICE car model kia picanto Scale 1 34 toy BEST GIFT,.1960's Corgi Toys Austin Mini Van with Original Box,.Mint In Box Corgi Toys 312 Jaguar E-Type Competition Model Plated Finish,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Vintage MODELHOB Kit bois Biplan NIEUPORT 11 c.1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ferrari 308 GTS Rosberg Car Best 1 43 BE200303,.Micro Models G 31 Bedford Bus,.GREENLIGHT COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - FORD F 100 - THE WALKING DEAD 1973 - 12956,.MX32105-051 - VW THING LIMOUSINE 1979 PESCACCIA WHITE LIM.400 PCS 1 43 MODELLINO,.1967 Mazda Cosmo Sport White 1 18 Triple-9 1800187,.
DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS SK-98 FORSTAMT FORESTRY UNIMOG TRACTOR W TRAILER, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark Model S1484 ZYTEK 07 S 2 N.41 LM 2008 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 Spark Audi R8 LMS Ultra Car Hours of Nurburgring 2014 SG137,. The Partridge1 18 Cadillac FLEETWOOD SERIES 60 SPECIAL año 1955 Greenlight 12937 yellow Met,.Hi Story 1 43 NISSAN SUNNY Coupe GL 1969 Sunshine White Painted Model Japan,.Spark 1 43 Suzuki Ignis S1600 Rally Monte Carlo 2005 from Japan,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren Roadster 2007 1 18 Red (JS), although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Spark 1 43 Scale S4211 - Morgan Nissan G-Drive Racing Le Mans 2014,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1987 PORSCHE 911 TURBO CABRIOLET IVORY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 187661,.ERTL 1 18 - 7480 1957 CHEVY BEL AIR CONgreenIBLE - LIGHT blueE,PartridgeSpark 1 43 Chevrolet Corvette C1 Le Mans 1962 Settembe Turner,.Matchbox SF Nr. 75B Alfa Carabo pink Streaker auf Streaker Blisterkarte,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Vtg Matchbox Land Rover Series II Lesney Made In England Toy Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vanguards 1 43 Scale Diecast VA10103 - Triumph Stag - Java Green,; FORD Capri 3 III 3.0 24h Nürburgring Winner 1982 Gilden Eichberg Minichamps 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 2011 LOTUS EVORA S CARABINIERI 1 43 S2195 SPARK MODEL, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Solido Candy Apple Red Mercedes 220SE, 1 43 Scale Diecast, Made in France, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSomerville Models Minimarque 1 43 Scale 100A - Austin FX4 Taxi - Navy,.
Budgie Routemast bus go esso buy esso drive esso in box,.1934 Ford blueE HTF coupe 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 7277, Clarke's negligent act.VW VOLKSWAGEN Schult Beetle Congreenible Red Metallic 1 43 NEO 46140 NEW,.Norev Citroën SM 1971 1 18 metallic green,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S0648 - Mazda 787 B th LM 1991,.
NOREV - 1 43 - IVECO BUS MAGELYS EURO VI - 2014 - 530238,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Matchbox SF Nr.55B Mercury Police Car white Police & Shield top in I Box,Dodge Monaco 1974 New York State Police blue yellow, Modellauto 1 43 Auto World,. In Noska,NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ 300 CE 24 CABRIOLET - 1990 - 183567,.ERTL - AMERICAN MUSCLE - 10 YEARS - 1971 DODGE CHALLENGER R T - 1 18 DIECAST,.Corgi 1 72 Scale AA27606 Hawker Hurricane Mk1 N2359 YB-J - LW.Stevens RAF Sq.,.Mercury Marquis 2-Door Hard-Top Coupe 1976 NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46950 Model, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 43 IXO Citroen DS3 R5 Spa Rally 2015 Grooten RRS263,.RARE - Maisto 1970 Plymouth GTX LIME GREEN 1 24 Scale - Mint Condition Boxed,.Chevrolet Corvette Roadster Hardtop (1967) 1 18 Auto World AMM1099,.Best Model BT9461 PORSCHE 908 3 N.12 DNF 1000 KM SPA 1974 TORREDEMER-PLA 1 43 Mo,. Id., p 923.
1 64 Blind Toy Die Cast Minicar Glashan Collection BEST 2 12 pieces BOX,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, LESNEY MATCHBOX 1-75 10C SUGAR CONTAINER LORRY - EXCELLENT in original D BOX,Corgi Modern Heavy CC13746 Scania R Walking Floor Williams 1 50,.Diecast Car Model LCD Models Range Rover 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.AUTOWORLD 1972 FORD MUSTANG CHA-CHA MULDOWNEY NHRA FUNNY CAR 1 18 DIECAST ROD,.Maisto 1 18 1965 Pontiac GTO Hurst Edition Display Miniature Car,.Schuco 1 43 Hanomag L28 Dachser Spedition 138406,.Schuco 09028 - Traktor Lamborghini Trattori 2241 R in blue - orange 1 43 NEU,.1 43 SSM KAMAZ 5490 S5 SSM1275,. The parties Detail Cars 1 43 Scale Diecast ART427 - 1969 MG Midget MkIV,.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 882009 - BMW M3 DTM Avus 1988 H.Grohs,.Dinky Toys GB n° 465 Morris van CAPSTAN,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Land Rover Defender 1 43,; FORD FIESTA WRC RS N 3 WINNER WALES 2012 Latvala 151120803 Minichamps 1 18 New, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Corgi 374 Jaguar V12 E Type - Mint Boxed,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPIDER-MAN CORGI 436 SPIDERVAN 1979 IN ORIGINAL BOX,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)TENARIV KIT (built) ALFA ROMEO 179 1979 - DEPAILLER F1 RED 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,.Hot Wheels HWX5505 FERRARI 458 ITALIA CHALLENGE WHITE 1 43,.CORGI Scania R Topline Feldbinder, McCann Haulage, County Tyrone, CC13760,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MATCHBOX LESNEY MODEL No.38b VAUXHALL VICTOR ESTATE VN MIB,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Saure 281 Wiking 1 87 Mercedes Benz 220 Polizei olivgreen unverglast 512243,.RARE SCHABAK MODELL MERCEDES 600 SEL 4DR 1 24,.Ebro 1 43 MOTUL AUTECH GT-R SUPER GT GT500 2016 Rd.4 Sugo No.1 finished product,.Spark Model S3980 FOOTWORK FA12 M.ALBORETO 1991 N.9 RETIRED MONACO GP 1 43 Model,.DE LOREAN DMC 12 COUPE 1981 gold Steel Finish - 1 18 Sunstar 2702 NEW,. The ScottsdaleDaf 3300 spacecab-GERLACH- SEHR SELTEN- MIT ORGINAL BOX 1 50,Dinky GB n° 28 Austin 1800 taxi 1 43 en boîte inbox NMIB,.Go - Welly BMW 5er (F10) - metallic-gold (GTA Edition) - 1 18,. Id.,1 18 UT Models Minichamps Mercedes C-Klasse TEAM AMG A. GROU DTM OVP,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GAMA Mini-Mod 1 47 Nr. 9350 Mercedes Benz 220 S Limousine silver OVP,; Spark S4198 1 43 Resin 2013 Porsche 918 Spyder with LHD, Light Yellow,Original Audi A4 B9 Avant Miniature 1 43 Glacier White,.Rare Corgi Classic Toys No. 9032, 1910 Renault Primpink, - Superb,. The ScottsdaleAUTOart™ AA71014 by AUTOART CALLAWAY C12 ARTCAR MUKO 1 18 M BOX RARE ,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Mint Ebro 1 43 Toyota Prius Super Gt Okayama 2015,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1960s.Matchbox.Lesney.36,OPEL,Vauxhall Diplomat BPW.Mint in box.Original,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky Toys 923 Big Bedford Heinz 57 Varieties excellent condition,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Steyr 220 Gleaser Sport Spider 1938 Ivory Red MATRIX 1 43 MX41806-011,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, KESS MODEL 1 43 Chevrolet Biscayne San Carlos Police Dept. 1963 Art. KE43027011,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - PORSCHE B32 VW T3 - 1984 - 180222BL, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 1X 1938 MERCEDES BENZ TYPE 540K SPECIAL ROADSTER GREY, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, JOHNNY LIGHTNING TOY FAIR 2001 MOPAR SET,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSAAB 9000 CDE 1995 METAL DARK RED NEO 44596 1 43 red FONCE LIMITED EDITION 300,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mercedes Benz S-Class 450Sel 6.9 (W116) 1976 Copper Met NOREV 1 18 NV183459 Mini,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSUN STAR - 1961 CHEVROLET IMPALA SPORT COUPE (ARBOR GREEN) - 1 18 DIECAST (READ),State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MINICHAMPS 1 43 INFINITY RED BULL RACING RENAULT RB11 D.KVYAT 2015 - 417150026,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 24 ACTION NASCAR 2002 MONTE CARLO JEFF GREEN AOL LOONEY TUNES REMATCH,FERRARI F50 d 1995 color Champagne 1 18 BURAGO voiture miniature de collection,.Mint Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 R 991 2016 bluee,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes WR230 SL500 H.Top Op Roof 2001 gold 1 43 Minichamps,. The HuygheCitroen Gs Basalte 1978 black 1 18 Norev 181626 Grande Serie Gsa,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe[FFSMC Productions] Decals 1 8 Berlinette Alpine A110 1800 Tour de Corse 1973,.
Matrix Armstrong Sidderley 346 Sapphire 1 43 MX40107-012,.(WW) tekno FORD TAUNUS TRANSIT - 419,.
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Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeNorev NV181498 CITROEN 2CV 6 1976 BASKET 1 18 Modellino,.Immediate Maisto Harley Spotta Iron 883 Diecast,.
For example, in Partridge,NEO Mercedes 450 SLC AMG Gr.2 43 45219,. In Jorgensen, supra,MATCHBOX LESNEY 1-75 NO 42 EVENING NEWS VAN,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1936 Ford Deluxe Cabriolet Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast Green,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Nex 1 18 Scale 18041 Lamborghini Aventador LP 700-4 orange Diecast Model Car,. That is the same situation in this case.Hpi-racing 1 43 Jaguar R XJR-9 Plain color White w Shizuoka Hobby Show Plate,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.SIKU 3286 Steyr 6240 CVT Municipal Diecast Model Toy,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Maisto 1 18 00012 BMW 327 Cabrio OVP (V9285),.Spark 1 43 Scale S3343 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC th Monte Carlo 2012,.Solido 100 serie no 135 Lolo V8 Climax F1 Racing car mint in box Superb,.
KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO SPIDER 4 - 1990 - 180181R,.