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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Ebro Porsche 911 911 911 Gt3 Rsr 2005 Man 5a9acf
NEW Hobby Japan MARK43 1 43 Honda S2000 (AP1),
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals RARE KIT METAL GRAND PRIX MODELS SERIE 77 BRAVE KREMER SEKURIT PORSCHE 935 77,.Best Model BT9651 PORSCHE 908 03 N.1 5th 1000 KM DE BARCELONA 1971 J.FERNANDEZ 1,.Maserati 3500 Gt Frua Coupe' 1961 Metallic bluee 1 43 Kess Model KS43014050 Minia,.Universal Hobbies UH4921 NEW HOLLAND T6.175 1 32 Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W215 C215 CL500 1999 Azure m 1 43 Minichamps-300,560,.BMW 1800 1963 green SoMo Auto - Bild von Minichamps 1 43 in NVP,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Ebro 45400 1 43 Forum Engineering ADVAN GT-R SUPER GT500 2016 Rd.2 Fuji No.24,.Corgi US55703 Kenworth W925 Texaco Semi Tanker Ltd Edition No. 3152 of 6300,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Solido Frrance Ref 161 Lamborghini P400 Miura 1 43 Very good condition 1970s,.Lancia Stratos Stradale 1975 Red SUNSTAR 1 18 SS4521 Model,.1 43 Spark Porsche 935 K2 1981 Le Mans Japan Import, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Dinky Toys 268 Range Rover Ambulance made in England 1 43 scale MIB,.Hi-Story 1 43 Hand Made Resin Model Car - Toyota Supra RZ 1995 White,.Rio 4358 MERCEDES 190 SL 1955 RED 1 43,.Lincoln Zephyr Coupe 1937 hellblue metallic Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.

Mercedes Benz B6 696 0360 1 43 Scale Car,.Rare Polistil Purple Renault 5 L RJ 23 Scale 1 64 Metal Toy Car 1970's+BOX,.MDS 1 43 LANCIA MARTINI LC1 GR6 PRESENTAZIONE 1982 ART. R24,.CAT CATERPILLAR 140M MOTOR GRADER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85236,.1 43 Frontiart SophiArt Model Koenigsegg Regera White Carbon SA007-02 NEW ,.

PQe 1 planche 14 ex étiquette autocollant Porsche 917 LH 1969 gulf Wyer Heco,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Fiat 238 Ambulanza 1973 Croce white Milano 1 43 RIO 4475,.1983 Cadillac Presidential Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24098,.CORGI 1 50 HERITAGE EX70208 BERLIET GLR GRAND ECHELLE VILLE D'AVIGNON,IXO - 1 43 - MANN F7 - CAR TRANSPORT - 1970 - TTRX007,.1966 MERCEDES BENZ 200 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 183577,.

Wiking 077838 Zürn DIREKTSCHNEIDWERK PROFICUT 700 Scale 1 32 NEU OVP,.ANSON 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST FERRARI DINO 246 GT white 3° GIRO D' ITALIA 30358,.1 18 ERTL PENN STATE 1932 FORD STREET ROD SPORTING with TEAM MASCOT od,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Frog remake 1 16 motorised model Vauxhall Victor Estate. Donetsk factory made.,.

1 Renault 5 maxi turbo 33 export Auriol Tour de Corse 1985,. We agree in part.

KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T3 BUS WHITESTAR - 1990 - 180201W,.Hot Wheels TNT Bird - Green - BEAUTIFUL - Vintage Redline,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ertl 1 18 1957 Chevy Bel Air American Flag Item 33987,.Vintage Corgi Major 1127 Bedford Simon Snorkel Fire Engine and Original Box,.Spark Model S0867 HUMMER H 3 T 2008 BRONZE 1 43 Modellino,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps Audi Sport Quattro 1985 1 43 Blomqvist Cederberg Acropolis Rally,.Ebbro Ebro Honda Civic Type R Euro 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Spark 1 43 Scale Model PP006 - Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 2nd Pikes Peak 1988,; Corgi 1 50 Scale 76601 - Scania Refridgerated Box Trailer - H.E. Payne Transport,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Audi R8 LMS 24 Hours of Spa 2017 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Schuco 1 32 Belarus MTS-50 red Tractor 450903200,PEUGEOT 404 BREAK SCOTCH 1966 AUTORECLAME 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Rare Minichamps Porsche 918 Spyder 2016 Ltd edition 1 43,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.ZC493 Provence Moulage K376 Vehicule 1 43 Volkswagen Cox Cabriolet Muller 1949,.Neo Cadillac Fleetwood Formal Stretch Limousine - black - 1980 - 1 43,.1969 Dodge Charger R T Movie Dirty Mary Crazy Larry Lemon Green 1 18,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Best Model 9557 PORSCHE 908 04 NURBURGRING 81 1 43,; MARK43 PM4360RW 1 43 Suzuki Alto turbo RS HA36S Pearl White,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Vaz 2105 Lada 1 43 USSR,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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POLISTIL ART RJ.18 RJ18 FORD CAPRI II -COPPER - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX - CLUB 33,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Kyosho 1 43 Toyota 86 Gt Limited 2016 bluee,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Dinky toys no. 475 Ford Model T 1908 ovp,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3345 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC Monte Carlo 2012,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Autocult SFM Smyk B30 - blue-white - 1 43,.AUTOart 1 18 75302 Die Cast Modell Lotus Esprit Type green in OVP (NL8045),. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark B66040589 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 320 Cabriolet D Resin Model Car,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Solido Opel Get Rallye Car Tram,.

CITROËN Eole of 1985 Voiture de Collection 1 43 Series Limited to 300 PCS,.Bburago Ferrari GTO (1984) Die Cast Metal no. 3027 1 18 Boxed,.Bohemia 1 43 1939 Praga golden Limousine Vintage Handmade Resin Model Car,.Looksmart Ferrari F430 Challenge LS153,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Vintage - LOTUS CLIMAX F1 - Corgi Toys 158 MIB,.


The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Porsche 917 K Nr. 23 Winner Le Mans 1970 1 43 R. Attwood - H. Herrman 43LM70,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Trofeu (Tgoldfuyu) [1 43] Bmw 2002 Ti 1St Austrianalpinerally 73 A.Warmbo New F S,.Spark Edsel Citation Congreenible 1958 1 43 Mint in Plastic Case,.Action 1 24 Jeff Gordon M 2015 Chevy SS RAW 1 of 168,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 36854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy,.GERMANY USA PLASTIC VINTAGE VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER - GREEN L19.0cm - GOOD,.

Vintage Meccano Ltd. Dinky Toy E-G Tipping Wagon. restored EXCELLENT , the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Marklin 1810 Porsche 910 made in Germany 1 43 scale rare 18 decal mint condition,.Diecast Car Model Almost Real Mercedes-Maybach 1 43 (bluee) + GIFT ,. The PartridgeMERCEDES O 3500 BUS FERNREISEN MINICHAMPS 1 43,.Art Model AM0090 FERRARI DINO 196SP N.90 15th (2nd CLASS) NASSAU 1963 B.GROSSMA,.Hot Wheels Williams BMW Launch car 2000 1 18 Ralf Schumacher (GER),

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AutoCult 1 43 Fiat 2100 Berlina Speciale 1959 NEW , although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Corgi CC12502 Atkinson Borderer Flatbed Eddie Stobart Ltd Ed No. 2281 of 6200,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Lincoln Premiere closed Congreenible 1956 purplet 1 18 Sun Star Platinum Coll.,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4455 - Peugeot DKR Dakar Rally 2015,PartridgeBD432-3x H0 1 87 LKW-Werbemodell Veltins+Paulaner etc (Grell+Hümmer etc),.1 18 UH Renault R202 Jarno Trulli Mild Seven Renault Promo 2002,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Spark F1 Formula 1 Tyrrell 007 Car Dutch GP A.P.Rossi Ro S1648, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Matrix Scale Models 1979 VW Typ 181 Safari Volkswagen The Thing HAWAI 1 43,; Norev 183497 Mercedes-Benz AMG GT S 2018 black metallic 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Dodge Dart Phoenix 1961 Light bluee NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46826, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 64 DCP RED KENWORTH T800 W 72 SLEEPER & 50' WILSON TRI AXLE BELT TRAILER, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFORD Mustang GT Coupe 1968 Steve McQueen BULLITT green green Greenlight 1 18,.

NEO Mercedes 450 SLC AMG Gr.2 43 45219,.Spark Model S0059 DOME S 101 H MUGHEN N.5 LM 2005 1 43 Modellino, Clarke's negligent act.Yonezawa Toys Diapet Mazda Cosmo AP Limited in Red on 1 40 in Box,.1 43 HAND MADE TATRA USSR MODEL NEED TO REPAIR RARO SELTEN ,.Western Models - 1935 Campbell Rolls Royce blueebird Land Speed,.

Subaru Brz 2012 Satin White Pearl 1 43 Model 44802 EBBRO,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Vintage - CITROEN SM - 1 43 Solido 184 serie 100,Otto-Models OT126 BMW M1 Gr. B TOUR DE CORSE 1983 Motul 1983 Bernard Béguin,. In Noska,Guiloy 1 18 scale Diecast - 67550 Aston Martin DB7 Light bluee,.Alfa Spider 2003 bluee Metallic Minichamps 120334 1 43,.Bourbon France Peugeot J7 CJN Rodez motorisé RARE 11 cm,.AUDI SPORT R8 LMS PRESENTATION CAR 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY PARAGON 88101, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ford Focus RS WRC08 Rally Bulgaria 2010 - 1 18 - Sun Star,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3346 Ferrari 456GT Bright Red Model Car,.VW Volkswagen Beete Hebmuller 1949 - AMR Century France 1 43 35084,.BIZARRE WM P79 80 PEUGEOT TURBO LE MANS 1980 1 43,. Id., p 923.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 33772 BMW Z8 Red Roadster Model Car,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, KESS MODEL 1 43 Cizeta V16T 6,4 16cil 64v 1991 Red Art. KE43048000,Jada Mazda RX8 BORLA1 24 scale Import Racer NO LONGER MADE SUPER HTF ,.Cadillac Eldorado Brougham 1957 1 18 Sun Star Green,.Ebbro 360 Nissan Skyline Gt-R Jono Nismo Jgtc 1995,.EMEK 71405 Scania T Holz-Haengerzug 1 25,.SOLIDO SERIE 100 118 LOTUS F1 RACING CAR VN MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN ,.Toyota vios yaris L 1 18 model car white,.1954 Dinky Pullmore 582 Car Transporter,. The parties 1 24 Domestic Specialties Collection (6) Fairlady Z 240 Z (1971),.

DINKY TOYS 224 MERCEDES BENZ CIII.100% Authentic.Original Boxed.Meccano.ENGLAND ,.Spark Model S1322 ABARTH FIAT 700 S N.52 LM 1962 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1969 Hot Wheels Redline Classic Ford 31 Woody MEDIUM blueE PRETTY ORIGINAL SC,; VW T1 COCA COLA Samba 1962 1 18 T 1 Volkswagen Motorcity Classics 397471 COKE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 58 - Lancia D50 G.P. 1955 -,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Art Model AM0245 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA STRADALE USA 1959 W CAPOTE WHITE RED MET,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Porsche 911 GT3 RS 4.0 (997) white Porsche Dealer-Box PMA-Minichamps 1 43 OVP,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3007 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa 1957 Red,.( GO ) 1 18 Sunstar 65 Ford F100 NEU OVP,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 18 Norev Lamborghini LP 640 grey - RARITÄT neu ovp §,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Jingshang Theater Edition Initial D Mazda Rx-7,.RENAULT F1 RS18 version de lancement 1 18,.Prodrive 1 43 - Coffret 3 Subaru Impreza WRC Rallye 2003 Chypre - Finland - Germ,.Joustra n° 467 tracteur avec remorque surbaissé boîte seule box only,.KK SCALE KKDC180121 BMW 2000 CS 1965 CREAM LIM.1000 PCS 1 18,. The Scottsdale1951 Citroen 2CV - Franklin Mint 1 24 36509,Spark MGC GT 1967 Grey Resin chrome bumpers 1 43 S4144,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3341 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC - th Monte Carlo 2012,. Id.,TONKA GAS TURBINE SEMI,WITH TRAILER,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 356 Cabriolet, Revell Auto Bausatz 1 16, Art. 07043,; BBR BUILT F1 LARROUSSE FORD BERETTA SPAGNA GP 1994 43,MotorArt MTR13387 DYNAPAC ASPHALT ROLLER W ROPS CC424HF 1 50 Modellino,.LOTUS 19 ST NASSAU RACE 1962 SPARK S0258 1 43 WINNER EN RESINE RESIN WIN,. The ScottsdaleIxo 1 43 Audi 8 Lm 2001 Products,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 - Coffret LRV Moon Car 1971,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mercedes-Benz 1963 W113 50 Jahre MB Norev 1 18 NEU OVP,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Brabham BT11 Jochen 1 43 S4335,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky Toys F 70 remorque bâchée jamais joué en boîte neuf MIB,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Alfa Romeo 1900 Ss Ghia Coupe 1954 Yellow 1 43 Kess Model KS43000211 Miniature,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark WAP0209070J - Porsche 911 (991) Turbo S Exclusive dunkelgrey 1 43 NEU, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DINKY SUPERTOYS G SHELL A.E.C. MONARCH THOMPSON TANKER RESTORED EXCELLENT., (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Best Model BT9379 LOLA T 70 COUPE' N.8 RETIRED 12H SEBRING 1968 MOTSCHENBACHER-L,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCORGI 1 50 SCALE HERITAGE EX70516 - RENAULT 1000Kg - BAROCLEM,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, NEO MODELS Chrysler D Elegance 1953 (metallic red) NEO-44828,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMercedes-Benz E500 Cabriolet • NEU • Norev • 1 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.TSM 1 43 Scale TSM134326 - 1995 McLaren F1 High Mirrors - Papaya orange,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,MAISTO 1 18 31824 SPECIAL EDITION MERCEDES-BENZ 190SL RED,Spark 1 43 Renault 4CV-1063 Le Mans 1951 - Vernet Pairard,.FORD T VAN CARGO COCA COLA 1 18,.Western 1 43 Scale White metal M43001023 Mercedes 300S Cabrio dark red,. The HuygheMinichamps 1 43 Scale - 430 074122 Ferrari 512M 1994 red,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHOT WHEELS COLLECTIBLES 1969 CORVETTE ZL1 WHITE 1 18 SCALE DIE CAST ,.

1 18 Ferrari F360 360 Modena Challenge Stradale- Hot Wheels - 3L 050,.( GO ) 1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari 458 challenge NEU OVP,.

Motor Max 1 18 Scale Diecast 30IE0030 - Pagani Zonda C12 - Red,.UH Universal Hobbies 1 50 Komatsu WA600-8 Wheel Loader DieCast Model UH8127,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Motormax 1 18 Scale Diecast - 73118 Chrysler Howler Metallic orange,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 Spark Porsche 911 996 GT3 RS car Hours of LeMans S4760,.Hot Wheels 1967 REDLINE Shell Exclusive Ford J-CAR All original USA,.

For example, in Partridge,Neo Scale Models NEO45653 MASERATI MEXICO RED 1 43 Modellino,. In Jorgensen, supra,1956 Lincoln Premiere Hard Top Turquoise-Green 1 18 Sun Star 4652,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Mercedes-Benz 560 SEL W126 Baujahr 1987 red 1 18 Norev,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Somerville 1 43 Scale Metal Model - 152K Vauxhall IO H-Type 1939,. That is the same situation in this case.TSM 1 43 McLaren MP4-12C Spider RHD orange 2013 TSM134337,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MERCEDES 280 CE GR3 HOLGER BOHNE MONTE CARLO 1980 NEO 46670 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SUZUKI VITARA 1.6 JLX CABRIOLET RED 1995 NEO 44983 1 43 ROADSTER red red red,.Matchbox RW 70B Grit Spreader blacke Klappe in E1 Box,.Mint 1 43 Minicar C-West Doshin Advan Z 2004,.

Schuco Modellauto Neu Hürlimann D-200 S, red 1 32 - 450904300,.