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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Original Audi A8L A8 4H Modellauto 1 18 Mythosblack Mythos Mythos Mythos black 5011708051 d5d8e3
Weise-Toys 1001 Fendt Favorit 514c 1 3 2,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals RARE MERCURY 305 BIZZARRINI MANTA Ital Design 1.43 NB,.Ford Mustang Gt390 Coupe 1968 Bullit Steve Mcqueen GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN13523 Mo,.Bburago BU18002V RED BULL RB13 M.VERSTAPPEN 2017 N.33 1 18 Modellino,.Herpa Ziegler Z8 XXL Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug Feuerwehr Flughafen Frankfurt 092135,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Spark Model S3345 FORD FIESTA RS N.10 13th MONTE CARLO 2012 SOLBERG-MINOR 1 43 M,.New 1 43 Redline Car Model Ferrari F430 GT N31 12 Hours Of Sebring 2007 RL131,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Norev 182754. Coche de colección. Ac Cobra 289 1963 black. Escala 1 18,.Highway 61 Plymouth Cuda 2009 Plum Crazy 1 18 50839,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Solido Opel Get Rallye Car Tram,.Lot of 11 Mattel Hot Wheels 1 64 scale from 1997 First Editions Series MIB,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING COLLECTION ALL 6 , Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Schuco 7524 AUDI R8 SPYDER 1 43,.Matchbox B VOLKSWAGON 1600TL Resto-Mod Purple & Red Transition SF RESTO-MOD,.Universal Hobbies UH5242 VALTRA S394 WITH DUAL WHEELS 1 32 Modellino,.Red Ferrari California T Maisto 1 18 Special Edition Diecast Car Rare Last One,.

1 18 Autoworld ERTL - 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS green,.1 24 ACTION Joey Logano AAA Insurance '17 Fusion 1 of 505,.Ertl American Muscle (1969) Chevy Camaro King of the Street 1 18 OVP ,.Mattell Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 J2922 Ferrari Superamerica blue OVP (JS5305),.Jordan EJ12 Honda Takuma Sato Hot Wheels 1 18 with box,.

Chevrolet Bel Air Police 1 18 barn find handwork modellich unrestored Oldtimer,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps Williams BMW FW24 2002 1 18 Ralf Schumacher (GER),.UNBOXED KITBUILT AND CONgreenED BUS,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK31B - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery - Sunoco,Corgi 270 James Bond Aston Martin DB5 VnrMint w baddie original ,.Neo Ford Bronco Roadster 1966 Red 1 43 47210,.

Ford JMC transit van 1 18 model car,.Neo Sclae Models Ferrari 375MM 1 43,.Corgi 1 50 Scale diecast 75806 MAN Curtainside W.H Malcolm Ltd,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 43 MINICHAMPS BMW 328 CI COUPE 1999 GREEN MINT BOXED,.

ZC500 Provence Moulage K532 Resine Vehicule 1 43 Lotus XI N° 87 1957 Laguna Seca,. We agree in part.

Ebbro His Advan Kondo Gt-R Super Gt 500 143 Scale Car,.Maisto 1 18 2007 LAMBORGHINI Murcielago LP640 orange Display Miniature Car,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Porsche 911 T von Märklin im Maßstab 1 43 Modellauto,.1 43 Spark Abarth Simca 1300 Car Hours of LeMans 1962 S1304,.Minichamps Jordan Peugeot 197 1997 1 18 Giancarlo Fisichella (ITA) (F1NB),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; TONKIN 1 53 SCALE KENWORTH T680 DAY CAB MODEL BN 500043,.Spark Model S2536 ASTON MARTIN AMR-ONE N.007 LM 2011 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, SUNSTAR - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ 220 SE CABRIOLET - 1958 - 3557,; Mercedes-Benz 208 D Bus Baujahr 1988 white 1 18 KK-Scale,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Porsche 966 Sunoco 500 Km Road America 1993 True Scale 1 43 Tsm124362 Miniature,.1 72 BUS Fiat 306 Henschel Leyland Saurer Setra lot of 5 models,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Maybach DS8 Zeppelin Cabriolet 1932 Brown 1 43 Minichamps-855,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.BURAGO 1 18 3014 ALFA ROMEO 8C MONZA 1931 RED,.

VW Combi Coca-Cola Delivery Van 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast 74001 - Citroen Type 55 Militaire Bache,.FORD TAUNUS 17 M REVELL 088181 blue 1 18 NEW,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31111 BMW 645 Ci Congreenible Dark bluee,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Minichamps 437023001 1 43 BMW 2000A 1962 GREEN,; Ultra Rare Minichamps 1 43 Bmw 320i cabriolet congreenible E30 3-serie 1988 red,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 24 ACTION Austin Dillon American Ethanol 2017 Chevy SS 1 of 505,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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DINKY TOYS MONTEVERDI 375L METALLIC MAROON RED NEAR-MINT SCALE 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 43 Minichamps Ford Mustang 1964 1 2 Congreenible G40-120,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

HOT WHEELS COLLECTIBLES 1969 CORVETTE ZL1 WHITE 1 18 SCALE DIE CAST ,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Corgi Constructor Set GS 24 Comer 3 4 ton chassis,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3013 MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL 1954 - RED,.Corgi 1 50 CC12816 Scania T Topline Skeletal Trailer & Cont Bulmers Untouched,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Chevrolet Impala El Camino bluee White 1959 (Spark 1 43 S2906),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Jaguar XJ40 Shooting Brake 1989 Metallic Dark bluee 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.

1 43 IXO Citroen DS3 R3T Redbull ADAC Rally Deutschland 2014 Lefebvre RRS185,.1976 Ford Mustang II Cobra II [Greenlight 12880] Drei Engel für Charlie , 1 18,.Neo Citroen XM Break Metallic dar red 1 43 44927,.Autoart 59751 Vw Beetlt Cabrio Management No.845,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Universal Hobbies UH8127 KOMATSU WA600-8 1 50 Modellino,.

Matchbox Lesney Grey Wheels Volkswagen Sedan No. 8 oc16517,.MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ MB 300 CE-24 CABRIOLET W124 MITTERNACHTSblue,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - 24521 Williams F1 Alessandro Zanardi,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Weise-toys 1055 Schlüter Super 1250 V with Cabin 1 3 2 Tractor,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA SWB LM 1969 WHITE 18 ELITE CAR BY HOTWHEELS T6931,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3056 - F1 Mercedes W04 Australian GP 2013,.BURAGO 1 18 - 18-12062 BUGATTI TYPE 59 - blueE,.B38-161 DINKY TOYS ATLAS COFFRET LES PredOTYPES DE 1958,.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-114 MOBILE CRANE,.

Solido Candy Apple Red Mercedes 220SE, 1 43 Scale Diecast, Made in France, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.2019 Hot Wheels '69 FORD TORINO sizeDEGA HW Flames 4 10 lot of 30 Box,.EAGLES RACE 1 18 - 43540 1941 CHEVROLET DELUXE CONgreenIBLE WITH SOFT TOP,. The PartridgeEbbro S Road Gt-R Super Gt500 1 43 Minicar,.Corgi Toys 218 Aston Martin DB4 yellow with cast wheels (1),.Mint Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 R 991 2016 bluee,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Schuco Ford GT 40 Le Mans Kamerawagen (08996) - 1 43, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Innocenti 950-S Spider Yellow 1962 (Matrix 1 43 MX30902-012),Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Dinky Kit 1038 Scorpion Tank Unopened,.Dinky toys no. 195 Jaguar 3,4 Litre Saloon,PartridgeNOREV COLLECTORS 1 18 AUTO PORSCHE 911 T 1969 DARK RED red ART 187630,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK34A 001 - 1954 Nash Ambassador Coupe Yellow White,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi Toys 259 Chapron Le Dandy coupé Citroën DS 19 en boite, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Volkswagen Karmann Ghia Coupé 1970 - 1 18 - Minichamps,; Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 750009 - F1 March Ford 751,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Norev 1 18 1960 Simca Vedette Chambord Diecast Car Model 185727, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1998 Matchbox Premiere Police Collection Wyoming ND Missouri RI Nebraska Cars, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVintage - Ford Osi 20 MTS - 1 43 Marklin 1803 Mint in Box,.

Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V (1987) Green - Sun Star - 1 18 - SU6152GR,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE HERITAGE EX72012 - BERNARD TYPE 110 FOURGON - DELICES, Clarke's negligent act.Spark Model S0403 BMW 320 I RKBLOM ETCC 2002 1 43,.Matrix Chrysler Dual Ghia Congreenible 1 43 MX20303-081,.BMW 520i E12 1974 1 43 MINICHAMPS 431023000,.

Matchbox MoY C2 YFW Bedford Feuerwehr Nürnberg 2002 sehr selten OVP Bilder K09,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, FERRARI 250GTO (Late Red), pottery model car Ms. Yasuomi Inoue workpiece,Nissan Fairlady Z High Way Patrol 1969 1 43 Model EBBRO,. In Noska,\ CORGI TOYS 154 FERRARI SHARK NOSE F1 GRAND PRIX RACING CAR VN MINT BOXED,.Century Dragon military Jiefang CA10B 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes 190 E Evo 2 DTM 1991 Lohr East ,.KS43000241 - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SPRINT GT VELOCE 1.6 1966 GREY MET.ED.LIM.PCS 250, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark 1 43 Scale S3789 - Citroen DS3 WRC th Monte Carlo 2014,.Maisto 1 18 Nissan Nismo 350 Z S-Tune,.Baymo 1 43 BMW M3 GTR E36 GT-Cup 1993 Team Isert Handmade Resin Model Car Kit,.Chevrolet Impala 2 Door Coupe’ bluee 1967 True Scale 1 43 Tsm134313 Model,. Id., p 923.

Fast & Furious Tokyo Drift 2003 Nissan 350Z 1 18 Diecast Model Car,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ebbro 1 43 Courage Mugen LC70 Courage Le Mans 24h 2006 from Japan,En voiture Tintin le taxi de new delhi 1 24 NEUF JAMAIS OUgreen moulinsart,.BROOKLIN BRK 17a 1952 STUDEBAKER COMMANDER CONgreenIBLE 1 43,.Gesha Modell Mercedes Benz MB TRAC 1300 Tractor made in West Germany MIB rare,.Mercury Parklane Congreenible 1959 Red, Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.NITTO 740-500 KIT (unbuilt) NISSAN GAZELLE 2000 XE-II - GREEN 1 28 - EXCELLENT,.Solido Diecast No 125 Alfa Romeo 2600 Bertone 1 43 Within Its Original Box,.Lotus Cortina Mk1 - Revell Model Racing Monogram 2005 - 1 32 Slot Racing Car,. The parties World Cup 32004 Unimog 411 1 3 2 New Boxed,.

NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES - BENZ AMG GT S - 2018 - 183497,.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 11 A Road Tanker yellow MTW Lesney,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Mercury italie art 39 Ferrari 250 Le Mans en boîte 1 43,; Matchbox School Ghoul Bus Dream Halloween 2010 Ball USA Issue Rare, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

V594 Champion 73mm rare camion saviem SM 300 SEV Marchal production 1973,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Wiking , Brekina 1 87 LKW 24 x Feuerwehr überwiegend Wiking (68287),; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Batmobile Batmobile with Batman & Robin 1966 1 18 - 98625 JADA TOYS,.BMW 2002 (E10) Baur Yellow 1974 (Neo Scale 1 43 43284),.NORSCOT 1 50 CATERPILLAR CAT 836H LANDFILL COMPACTOR,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ebbro 44387 Honda RA273 1967 German GP No.7 ( White ) 1 43 scale,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.TSM 1 43 Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 3 Brands Hatch Winner 1971 Adamich Pescarolo,.MODELLINO 1 43 BMW M3 DTM TEAM BMW SCHNITZER DIRK WERNER DTM 2013 IN METALLO MIN,.CORGI 1 43 SCALE COLLECTION HERITAGE EX07402 LAND ROVER POMPIERS DE MARSEILLE,.1988 Matchbox Super color Changers 6 Car Set RARE items, pink 57 chevy,.CORGI TOYS 339 MINI COOPER S MONTE CARLO RALLYE 67 VERY NICE L@@K,. The ScottsdaleChevrolet Impala Ss Congreenible Plum 1967 True Scale 1 43 Tsm134312 Model,MAISTO 1 18 31656 MINI COOPER (SUN ROOF) - RED,.Avenue43 Porsche Sauter Bergspyder - red - 1 43,. Id.,CCCF 21 WHITE METAL Citroen DS Chapron Cabrio Croisette 1958 n. mint no box RARE,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Yonezawa Toys Diapet Honda Accord CVCC EX in gold on 1 40 in Box,; Schuco Fortschritt RS09-GT 124 (07829) - 1 32,Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Nart Spyder with Softtop Aluminium Rims Red 1967 1 18 Kk,.YY GT Spirit ZM036 BMW 1M Coupe E82 green metallic 1 18 NEU in OVP YY,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps Brabus Mercedes 190E 3.6S 1 43 437032604,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, DINKY TOYS - 191 DODGE ROYAL SEDAN 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 43 Spark Porsche 911 T Car winner 1970 Monte Carlo Rally S4023,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi gift set gs 24 constructor set vintage boxed 1963,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 439 154090 - Hanomag Kurier Feuerwehr Dortmund,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Tekno Scania 4-series - Minnaard Transport. Mint Boxed,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark 1 43 Scale S5617 - Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid 2nd Paris Dakar 1989, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Spark 1 43 BR01 Nissan LMP2 - LeMans 2016 - Minassian Mediani Aleshin, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 24 DANBURY MINT 1969 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS CONgreenIBLE WHITE with orange STRIPES,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHonda S800 Spider Soft-Top Open 1966 Yellow TRIPLE9 1 18 T9-1800191 Model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Hi-Story HS148RE 1 43 Nissan SUNNY Coupe GL (1969) Sunrise Red,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheGuisval Spain Rola Comics 353 Payaso Clown in O-Box,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.NIP RARE JOHNNY LIGHTNING WL WHITE 1966 CHEVELLE MALIBU 2004 CONVENTION 1 64,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1999 Liberty Classics Haworth Peterbilt Tractor Trailer Holiday Limited Edition,PORSCHE 911 959 Gr.B Rallye Raid Dakar 1986 Kussmaul UMBAU Minichamps 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 2050 - BMW M3 Team Isert - V.Bayern,.Japanese famous car collection vol.25 DAIHATSU Compagho Spider Magazine,. The HuygheSiku Plastik V43 Abschleppwagen mit Seilwinde Henschel Sattelschlepper ,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMega RARE Mercedes S Class Police Milicya Russian 1 43 Lim 7 of 20,.

Ferrari Challenge Stradale Hot Wheels 1 18 with box,.Matchbox SF Nr. 49A Unimog bluemetallic & red große Ballonräder top in Box,.

Kit DB8 Grand Sport Coupé 1949 - Esdo Models kit 1 43,.Dodge Cgoldnet R T red - Leather Series 1970 Yat Ming 1 18,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Mitsubishi Eclipse Fast & Furious 1995 1 18 - 19039 GREENLIGHT,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMINICHAMPS 1 43 1965 PORSCHE 356 C CABRIO - VINTAGE 430 062336 - MINT BOXED,.Matrix 2014 Aston Martin Virage Shooting Brake Zagato Centennial 1 43 Limited,.

For example, in Partridge,SMTS CL4 1 43 1982 Lamborghini Countach LP500S White Metal Handmade Model Car,. In Jorgensen, supra,Corgi 56204 Diamond T620 Semi Skirted Texaco Tanker Ltd Ed. No 0003 of 2900,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Corgi 309 Aston Martin Competition Model Boxed original,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Honda Civic EF-3 Si 1987 White T9-1800104 Scale 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.1 20 Team Lotus Type 49B 1969 Model Car 20005,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.NEO MODELS NEO46155 1 43 PUMA GT COUPE RED 1969,. Detroit Edison, supra.

DINKY TOYS SPAIN 1450 SIMCA 1100 POLICE AVEC BOITE,.KESS 43033900 Momo Mirage V8 Coupe Baujahr 1971 in silver-metallic 1 43,.Minichamps 540834311 Ralt Toyota RT3 A. Senna 1983 British F3 Champion 1 43,.

Tiny Hong Kong Fire Department Firefighting Motorcycle,.