Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BMW 2002GRUPPE 5 POLE POSITION 1000 KM KYALAMI 1977 K. LUDWIG 1 43 SPARK NEU,.Volkswagen VW Bulli T3 Multivan Last Edition 1992 blue Metallizzato 1 18,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast CC13403 - MAN TGA Curtainside - Ken Thomas Ltd,.Minichamps AMG Mercedes C-Class DTM 1995 1 43 Kurt Thiim 95 (JS),.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 Citroën CX 2200 Super Break Serie I año 1976 MC Group 18086 Granate,.Toyota Land Cruiser LJ70 Metal bluee 1986 NEO43999 for VVM 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Scala 43 Trofeu 85-JA-04 1 43 Audi Quattro Handmade Conversion Diecast Model Car,.PRECISION MINIATURES 1 43 WHITE METAL - 1964 FERRARI 250 GT BERLINETTA LUSSO,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3343 Mercedes Benz 300SL Touring 1957 D Brown Case,.Tamiya 1 24 Sports Car Series No.347 La Ferrari yellow version Model Car 24 JP,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3065 Dodge Viper RT 10 Yellow Model Car, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Spark Porsche 93678 H. Pescarolo 1 43 S4432,.Majorette RACING WRC RALLY Car Diecast Car Set On Card,.Corgi 261 James Bond Aston Martin DB5 NrMint w baddie original,.Hot Wheels P-911, Firebird Funny, T-Bird, Thundestreak Racers 4Pk NRFP '85,.
SOLIDO 1 18 - 9021 CITROEN XSARA T4 WRC RALLY COSTA BRAVA - BUGALSKI,.Eligor 1 43 Scale Model Car 1135 - Triumph TR5 1968 Coupe Des Alpes - orange,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T4 BUS CARAVELLE - 1992 - 180264S,.Spark Model S4336 BRABHAM BT11 J.TAYLOR 1966 N.44 6th FRENCH GP 1 43 Modellino,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 005A - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery Gulf orange,.
Dinky Toys, d Austin 7 Congreenible, bluee with Wire Windshield, Original,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.VI Voiture Jaguuar XJ 220C N°50 Le mans Braham Nielsen 1 43 Heco miniautres,.NZG777 01 - MAN TGX 4x2 CHROME - 1 50,.TAMEO BUILT F1 IMPERIAL LOTUS 78 NILSSON JAPAN 1977 43,Hot Wheels JJ2983 Renault R26 G. Fisichella 1 18,.Corgi 1 43 Scale VA11300 - Talbot Sunbeam ti 1600cc - Colin McRae,.
Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3013 Mercedes Benz 300SL 1954 Dark Red,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK32 - 1953 Studebaker Starliner - Unboxed,.Tin Wizard 1 43 Scale White metal 000106 Mercedes Benz 180 1952 bluee,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
SOMERVILLE HILLMAN MINX 1951 RHD CONgreenIBLE - blueE GREY 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 1,.
AutoArt Citroën Xsara WRC 2004 1 18 Loeb Elena Tour de Corse,. We agree in part.
WC Toys (Hong Kong) Yellow Porsche Carrera 6 (906) Plastic Friction 134-mm,.(36) Hot Wheels JDM Lot Mixed Years New Free Shipping No Duplicates HW7,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.New 1 43 Redline Car Model Ferrari 550 Maranello BMS Scuderia Italia N52 RL052,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 019 - 1935 Dodge Van Classic & Sportscar 1 Of 200,.1 43 Spark Street 2008 BMW Alpina B6 S Coupe in Metallic bluee S0740,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 43 Minichamps Bentley Blower 4½ Litres Supercharged,.LESNEY MODEL OF YESTERYEAR NO.9 BIG LION FOWLER SHOWMAN'S ENGINE 1924 MADE 1958,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, GREENLIGHT COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - DODGE CHARGER - SUPERNATURAL 1970 - 19046,; BBURAGO 1 24 - LANCIA STRATOS ALITALIA - IN ORGINAL BOX -IN GOOD CONDITION,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
BURAGO 1 18 - COD.3057 FERRARI GTO RALLY 1986 RED,.Ebbro 44259 Honda RA272 1965 Belgium GP No.10 1 43 scale,NEW Corgi CC15209 - MAN TGX Moving Floor Trailer - WH Malcolm, Renfrewshire.,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.EFE Lothian Driver Training Leyland Olympian and Renown set,.
Universal Hobbies UH5288 ZETOR CRYSTAL 8045 GEN.2 4WD 1 32 Modellino,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Opel Admiral Limousine 1938 bluee 1 43 NEO 43201 NEW,.VW T4 Bus Caravelle 1992 grey metallic Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.Greenlight 1 24 Scale Diecast - 84071 1958 Plymouth Fury Christine Chase car,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Pagani Huayra 2012 Red 1 43 Model 58208 AUTOART,; SUN18273 - Formule 1 LOTUS 72 n°3 du pilote Jochen Rindt du grand prix d'Espagne,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Red Chrome Boss Hoss Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Welly WE2521G MERCURY COUGAR XR 7 1970 gold 1 18 Modellino,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Schuco Pro.R 09039 - 1 43 VW Käfer 1600-S Super Bug - red - Neu,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
1 18 Ferrari Mondial 8 1982 1 18 • Hot Wheels L7119,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3509 Mercedes Benz SSK 1928 Brown with Plinth,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Best Model BT9614 LOLA T70 SPYDER N.11 WINNER MOSPORT 1965 J.SURTEES 1 43 Modell,.Same Fortis 190 Infinity 2013 1 32 Weise WEIS1034,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DINKY TOYS 581 EXPRESS HORSEBOX BRITISH RAILWAYS - L17.5cm - GOOD CONDITION,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 18 SUN STAR - FORD FOCUS WRC Latvala Winner Rally Finland 2010 NEW ,.
Soviet all terrain vehicle GAZ-47 GT-S, open, 1954,.Railton Fairmile 3 position drop head coupe top down 1936 bluee (1 43, Lansdowne),.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 58 - Lancia D50 G.P. 1955 -,.Welly NEX 1 18 2012 Benz SL500 White Display Miniature Car,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Redline Hotwheels Light bluee 1969 Splittin Image oc15388,.
BURAGO 1 18 34097 MASERATI GT SPYDER METALLIC DARK GREY,.1 43 SPARK RESIN MATRA MS120 WINNER silverINA GP 1971,.DINKY TOYS SPAIN 1541 FORD FIESTA - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 AUTOart Jaguar XK Cabriolet,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1959 Citroen DS 19 brown Glace 1 18 Norev 181481,.Skoda 130Rs Street Version 1976 Yellow SPARK 1 43 FOX43007 Model,.TNT Bird Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Special,.Hot Wheels Jordan Mugen Honda EJ10 2000 1 18 H-H Frentzen (GER) (F1NB),.NOREV 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.90 1992 blue MIAMI ART 184856,.
Caterpillar 1 50 Deicast Cat 996M Wheel Loader Vehicles 85928 High Line Series, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.BROOKLIN BRK172 LINCOLN LE BARON CONgreenIBLE SEDAN 1937 - 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 28,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3083 - F1 Scuderia STR9 Renault Australian GP 2014,. The PartridgeNorev NV183467 MERCEDES 300 SL 1986 INCA RED 1 18 Modellino,.MOTEUR V8 FORD 427 FE AC COBRA SHELBY 1 6,.1 43 Mark43 PM4319BL Honda Integra Type R (DC5) bluee,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, WSI COLLECTIBLES IVECO STRALIS HI-WAY 6X2 CAB UNIT TWIN STEER orange 04-1159, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Toyota TS010 () 1993 Le Mans -- HPI 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.KOMATSU D275AX-5 SIGMA DOZER W RIPPER 1 50 DIECAST MODEL BY FIRST GEAR 50-3341,.Corgi Toys 233, Heinkel Economy Car, Mint in Box ab2083,Partridge1971 Challenger R T Hemi-orange 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32940,.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 997 Clabots Tools n°52 Zolder 2007 1.43,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 IXO Citroen DS3 R5 Rally Ypres Ieper 2018 Lapouille RRS297, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Volkswagen Bus T4 Caravelle 1992 Red KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180261 Model,; Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3352 Ferrari F50 1995 Congreenible purple Model Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Best Porsche Abarth Strale Hahnl Targa 1 43 9425, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, B38-215 POLISTIL CIRCUIT VOITURES GRAND PRIX, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeDINKY 36C HUMBER VOGUE VINTAGE Post War - EXCELLENT CONDITION,.
1939 Lincoln Zephyr Congreenible Coupe black 1 18 Signature Models 18102,.Opel Admiral Hebmüller brown Ivoire 1938 Matrix 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Matrix 1 43 Mercedes-Benz W194 Transaxle Predotype 1953 MX51302-111,.Dinky Mercedes-Benz 600 - Red - B B,.Mercedes Benz CL500 Coupe von AUTOart in 1 18 OVP,.
1 18 1964 Ford Galaxie 500 , in the box,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, WSI 03-1109 FerrOplast Thermoking Reefer Trailer - 3 Axle 1 50 Refrigerated,CITROEN EOLE, voiture miniature FRANSTYLE 0004,. In Noska,Honda Civic EF3 13 Team Cabin Macau GP 1988 T9-1800107 Scale 1 18,.1 72 Cararama Chevrolet 3100 Very rare ,.Hot Wheels Redline Heavy Chevy Red Camaro 1969 Mattel Hong Kong,.POLISTIL S2100 FIAT REGATTA - GREY METALLIC - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.F.B. Model GTA CEA ALFA ROMEO 156 GTA BERLINA CEA 1 43 Modellino,.Universal Hobbies 1 32, Sondermodell Claas MATADOR Mähdrescher, saatengreen OVP,.1 18 PARAGON DIECAST CAR 1 18 SCALE BMW M4 CABRIOLET IN STUNNING GREY NEW. 9,.Fiat 127L 3P 1977 White Ed.Lim.Pcs 250 1 43 Kess Model KS43010070,. Id., p 923.
Politoys M-529 Alfa Romeo Giulia 1600 Canguro made in 1 43 scale NM+,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 KK-Scale BMW 2000 CS Coupe 1965 darkred,Chgold Q TAKARA HKS MITSUBISHI LANCER EVOLUTION VIII HYPERMAX EVO 8 Rare NEW F S,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE FLYING BUG ( 11) OVP RARITÄT,.RARE CORGI TOYS MORRIS MARINA 1.8 DIECAST CAR LIME GREEN WHIZZWHEELS,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3083 - F1 Scuderia STR9 Renault Australian GP 2014,.Batmobile 1966 1 43 Mattel Limited Edition Batman Adam West Burt Ward Sealed ,.Dinky c - Lagonda Tourer - Green - A NB,.Art Model AM0001 FERRARI 166 MM COUPE 1950 RED 1 43,. The parties Mercedes Sk 1844 Harding Tanker Car 1994 Red, Model Car 1 43 Ixo Models,.
1 64 Kyosho Beads Mazda Anfini Rx-7 Type-R Yellow,.Corgi Fishbowl Lionel City Transit Corp. Bus GM5301 54404 New in Box 1 50 scale,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Corgi Jaguar MkX - Sea Green - C B,; Renault Kerax Kipper white 1 43 Norev neu & OVP 518824, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Formule 1 Renault R25 Fernando Alonso - HotWheels,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark Model S2991 MARCH 83G N.57 WINNER IMSA 1984 R.LANIER-BILL.WHITTINGTON 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ebbro 680 R88C Car Tram,.Corgi 31007 Diamond T Ballast With Girder Trailer Loco Load - ANNIS & Co Ltd NEW,.Ixo Models 1 43 Scale Diecast LM1990 - Jaguar XJR-12 Winner Le Mans 1990,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MECCANO DINKY TOYS No. 978 Bedford Refuse Wagon Original, RARE, EXCELLENT ,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.WSI Scania R -CR20H Rigid Curtainsider- White,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 934 - Sebring Winner 1983 - Baker Mullen Nierop,.NOREV 1 43 Iveco Fiat Iribus Magelys Euro VI Autobus 2014 Art.530238,.MARK43 PM4351SG 1 43 Toyota Celica (TA22) sports wheel gold,.CIJ F n° 3.70 Tracteur Renault semi-remorque bâché en boîte,. The ScottsdaleRed Line 1 43 Ferrari F360 Modena GTC Presentation 2001 Yellow Art.RL019,Lamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 2014 Red Autoart 1 43 AA54604 Model,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK11 - 1956 Lincoln Continental MkII,. Id.,Minichamps 1 43 Williams F1 FW41 Mercedes Season 2018 L. Stroll 417180018,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NISMO 4 units set Kyosho minicar lottery,; Mercedes Benz 280 E (W123) AMG gold (Neo Scale 1 43 45537),WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 1X 1938 MERCEDES BENZ TYPE 540K SPECIAL ROADSTER GREY,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18-12034 2001 Mini Cooper Red White Model Car,. The ScottsdaleChevrolet Impala Sedan The A-Team 1967 Light bluee GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN19047,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3090 Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet 1994 Brown,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 50 Diecast International HX620 Day Cab Tridem Tractor in Metallic bluee 71010,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MARK43 PM4365BW 1 43 Honda Civic SIR II EG6 Frost White model cars,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bburago 16902 1 18 Ferrari California T (closed top) NEU OVP,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Cizeta V16T 6,4 16Cil 64V 1991 White KESS-MODEL 1 43 KE43048001 Miniature,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Neo Ford LTD Country Squire - metallic-hellblue Dekor - 1968 - 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Herpa Set 50 Jahre Spedition Anhalt - 1 87, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Mebetoys A-17 BMW 2000CS Sports Coupe made in 1 43 scale EXC,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDCP FIRST GEAR 1 64 orange PETE 389 PRIDENCLASS DAYCAB W T SPREAD AXLE FLATBED,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3021 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1962 Metallic Grey,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDinky Kit 1038 Scorpion Tank Unopened,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SUNSTAR SS3408 CHEVROLET IMPALA OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1961 ALMOND BEIGE 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Mercedes-benz 230SE revell 1 18,PARAGON MODELS 1 18 BMW 3 SERIES (F30) RED PA-97024,.Dodge Ramcharger 1974 Amarant White 1 43 Neoscale NEO44785 Model,.Maisto Modellino Audi R8 V10 plus Rossa 1 18 Exclusive,. The Huyghe1931 HUDSON GREATER EIGHT COUPE BOAT TAIL 1 43 HANDMADE BROOKLIN BRK 12,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMMP 1993 Rd.4 Fuji Champion Masami Kageyama EBBRO 1 43 CALSONIC SKYLINE GT-R,.
WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W107 C107 450SLC 1974 gold m 1 43 Minichamps-300,560,.1973 Lotus Type 72E Italian Grand Prix Winner 1 18 Quartzo 18292,.
DINKY SUPERTOYS G SHELL A.E.C. MONARCH THOMPSON TANKER RESTORED EXCELLENT.,.ABC 1 76 Scale Model 000111 - Leyland 1974 Rear Engined Hong Kong Jumbo Bus,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Citroen Aircross Salon de Shanghai 2015 Red Norev PM0102 1 43,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSunStar SS3152 LANCIA DELTA HF INTEGRALE 16 V 1989 METALLIC blueE 1 18 Modellino,.BMW M4 DTM 2014 DA COSTA RED BULL F82 MINICHAMPS 80422364863 1 43 FELIX,.
For example, in Partridge,1 43 Soviet RAF-33117 cargo. UdSSR, USSR,. In Jorgensen, supra,Vintage - Mercedes-Benz 250 Se - 1 43 Mebetoys A-19,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MINICHAMPS 1 43 - F1 INFINITI RED BULL RACING RB10 - S. VETTEL,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Vintage Original Dinky 166 Sunbeam Rapier Very Good Condition in Good Box,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark Model SCWR02 WR N.24 AUTOEXE LM 02 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Dinky toys no. 531 fiat 1200 grande vue ovp,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 18 Auto World 2017 Chevrolet Camaro SS Indy 500 Pace NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK42 008 - 1952 Ford F1 Ambulance Jasper County White,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3051 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1961 bluee Model Car,.
IXO 1 43 1954 Ferrari 375 Le Mans,.