Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals CORGI camion DAF 85 TANKER CITERNE Q8 en boite réf 75301 éch 1 43,.Minichamps 436128220 1 43 1968 Iso Grifo 7L Diecast Model Car,.NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO44611 - MG TD Arnolt Continental Sports - Cream,.1 43 Ace Models Ford AU XR8 1 Tonner Ute - Ocean bluee Limited Edition 250pcs,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 Eagles Race 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7L orange RARE MINT condition,.Ertl 1 18 1977 Pontiac Firebird Formula Item 36673,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps 155132031 Triumph TR6 – 1969 – red (RHD) L.E. 500 pcs,.Hot Wheels Redlines Python bluee 1968 Mattel White Interior USA Original,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 Spark Porsche 919 Hybrid car Hours of LeMans S4208,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12111 - Renault Premium Step Frame Box Trailer TNT,.Ferrari 275 GTS 4 Nart Spyder Con, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1938 Cadillac V16 Fleetwood by Signature Models (Red) 1 18 Scale NEW,.Ferrari 458 Italia GT2 (red) 2011,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO MONTREAL Bertone - 1 43 Mercury Art. 304,.1965 Barkas B 1000 Mini Bus Policía Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18097,.
Kyosho Sankus 1 64 Mercedes- Benz Typ 280 Sl,.Best Model BT9172 LOLA T70 COUPE' N.11 DNF 12H SEBRING 1968 DE UDY-DIBLEY 1 43 M,.Schuco 07135 Iveco Magirus Superdragon X8,.Minichamps 437032131 MERCEDES-BENZ 300 CONgreenIBLE (W186) - 1 43 in ,.VW Volkswagen Käfer Beetle 1200 1983 yellow Deutsche Post DBP Minichamps 1 18,.
RARE Mercedes Benz Lo 2750 Pritschenwagen Premium ClassiXXs 12600 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46087 PLYMOUTH FURY HARD TOP 1958 RED WHITE 1 43,.Juke Steel bluee 1 43,.Signature 1 43 Scale - PM43710 Mercedes Benz G4 6 wheel white,Dodge Polara Police California Highway Patrol 1972 NeoScale 1 43 NEO46726 Model,.28 Super wheel Walgreens 100th anniversary 18 Motor max New Lot PT Cruisers +,.
Minichamps Honda RC211V 2002 1 12 Valentino Rossi (ITA) Pre-season Test Bike,.BMW Z4 GT3, No.20, BMW Sports Trophy Team Schubert, 24h Nürburgring, 1 43,.VINTAGE OLD TOY CAR MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 1972 SOOPA COOPA blueE CABRIO,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
NEO MODELS Mercury Turnpike Cruiser Congreenible 1 43 45877,.
SIKU 3273 New Holland T8. 390 1 32 Diecast Model Toy,. We agree in part.
Mitsubishi Lancer X Russian Police DPS Moscow Militia 2010 Vitesse 1 43 29257,.RENAULT DAUPHINE 1958 ASH GREEN 1 18 NOREV 185167,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.SUNSTAR 1 18 5091 1951 KAISER HENRY J ARENA YELLOW,.CORGI 80112 VINTAGE CLORY FOWLER B6 MARSTONS ROAD CRANE ENGINE 1 50 NEW (C430),.Trofeu TFRRUK04 TOYOTA CELICA GT-FOUR N.5 WINN.R.A.C. RALLY 1996 SCHWARTZ-GIRAUD,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; KK-Scale Lada Samara - hellbrown - 1984 - 1 18,.KIT LANCIA STRATOS CONCESSIONARI WINNER RALLY SANREMO 1979 1 43 RACING 43 FK003,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Minichamps MB SLS AMG GT3 Street 2011 gold 151 113106,; 1967 Praga V3S, Tanker Honeywagon − City of Prague Service − ABREX 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
DINKY 480 KODAK BEDFORD 10-CWT VAN,.Neo Models 1 43 Scale NEO44215 - Bentley Continental Flying Star By Touring 2010,Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 42 A Bedford Evening News darkyellow GPW Lesney,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Hot wheels rlc datsun 510,.
Faller 161471 Car System Umbau-Chassis Dreiachser LKW,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 24 KIT FUJIMI -- NISSAN SKILINE GT-R Gr.A +DECALS 1 24 [CASTROL],.Dinky Suoertoys 999 - D.H. Comet Airliner - Repaint,.TEKNO DENMARK 824 153 MG A COUPE 1959 COLOUR CREAM-WHITE SCALE 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Siku 3730 Liebherr Autokran (Werbemodell - Nederhoff) OVP - 3004-174,; Minichamps 1 43 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV 1976 Red Modell Nr 400 120120,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 2014 HOT WHEELS RACING 1 18 FERRARI F1 F-14 FERNANDO ALONSO,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
RAI'S Nissan 1 43 Fairlady Z NISMO Z34 2016 Japan Police Car Limited 1000 units,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
SRC Models kit Ferrari Dino 246 1958 1 43 Mike Hawthorn (GBR) WC (JO),
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK56 001 - 1964 Ford Mustang Indy Pace Car 1964 1 Of 2000,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Hot Wheels RLC Exclusive Datsun blueebird 510 Bre Race Day Car Culture 2017 2018,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Spark Model S3600 FORD GALAXY N.21 WINNER DAYTONA 1963 T.LUND 1 43,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX TRANS SUPERFAST 67 VW MEDIUM PURPLE BODY, IN CORRECT BOX,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 18 Ferrari CALIFORNIA T OPEN TOP año 2014 Bburago 16904w whiteo,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VINTAGE TIN TOY GEOBRA GERMANY MONEY BOX - H11.0cm RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.
CORGI TOYS 107 Batboat very very near mint boat,.1 24 Action TY Dillon SpongeBob 2015 Chevy SS 1 of 361,.Spark 1 43 Scale S5611 - Peugeot 3008 DKR Winner Dakar 2017,.First Gear- SOHIO 1959 International RF-200 Tractor W 35' Trlr 1 34,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.TEK-Hoby Saurer 3CT1D Feuerwehr Zurich TH5322,.
Lada Samara 1984 Creme KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180215,.Neo Kenworth 521 Bull Nose - hellyellow - 1950 - 1 64,.HERPA 3x Willi Betz 1 87 (2),.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Hot wheel redline vintage lot of two 69 chaparral 2G with metal button,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Opel Kadett Frua Congreenible 1964 Matrix 1 43 MX31502-011,.Lancia Rally 037 Portugal 1985 Kyosho 1 43,.1 64 ACE Mad Max NIGHTRIDER MONARO MFP & HJ PANEL VAN FREE POST,.NOREV MERCEDES BENZ SLS AMG ROADSTER dans sa boite 1 18 ré 183491,.Spark Ford Fiesta WRC Tanak Rally 2017 1 43 S5167,.
FERRARI ENZO FXX ELITE EDITION WHITE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS L7128, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Revell 1 18 Scale Diecast - 48821 Ferrari 250 GTO 1964 Red,.Ebbro 1 43 Weds Sports Is350 Super Gt 2009,. The Partridge1 43 1929 MERCEDES BENZ L.1000 (W37) Torpedo touring bus open ivory,.CCC F24 1 43 1935 Peugeot 401DL Taxi Handmade Resin Model Car,.1 18 Hot Wheels Elite Ferrari Mondial 8 60 YEARS red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Dinky Toys 142 Jaguar Mark X very very near mint in a near mint box all original, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Sun Star Platinum Lincoln Premiere Congreenible 1956,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Saab 9000 Cs 1991 Grey Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43669 Model,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 43 - Connaught B Type STRM 1955 Green,PartridgeProdrive 1 43 - Coffret 3 Subaru Impreza WRC Rallye 2003 Chypre - Finland - Germ,.Ebbro 1 43 Forum Engineering Team Le Mans F Nippon 2007 from Japan,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Fiat 500 1 18 - built - (NO Tamiya - Hasegawa Revell), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Bus poster ROMA ATAC BredaMenarini 321 LU U1 - foto su pannello forex 69x49,; Ferrari F12 Berlinetta 2012 yellow Modena 1 43 TRUESCALE FJM1343013,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, TTC (Tgoldnto) New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 751003 Deluxe (2017), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Dinky toys 691 Striker Tank on Base - Original Good Condition, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHummer 1 18 Scale Maisto Diecast + Bonus case display,.
NOREV 1 43 - J7V PEUGEOT J7 1966 POLICE VAN,.Ferrari 166 MM 212 Export UOVO3 kit Monté TRON 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi 1 72 Scale AA27606 Hawker Hurricane Mk1 N2359 YB-J - LW.Stevens RAF Sq.,.1 50 CAT 836H Landfill Compactor Norscot 55205 Diecast Model,.Winross The First Winross Tanker Tractor Trailer White 7000 Cab 1 64 1973,.
Best Model BT9392 FERRARI 512 BB TEST FIORANO 1978 1 43 Modellino,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Road Signature 1 18 scale Diecast - 92079 1967 Volkswagen Beetle Flower Power,Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes 190SL A Flash of Car ,. In Noska,GAMA Mini-Mod 922 Faun LKW mit Greiferbagger OVP,.Lincoln Continental Mark VII Lsc 1984 Dark Red NEO45501 1 43,.LOT DE 3 VOITURES MINIATURE FORD VEDETTE DEPANNEUSE N°34 JOUET NOREV AU 1 43éme,.+ NACORAL 3808 MERCEDES BENZ 1905 METALLIC GREEN MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ebbro 1 43 Honda S660 2014 White New F S,.Handmade Hot Wheels 1 64 scale diecast display shelf. Holds 133+- loose cars.,.Original Audi Q7 4M Modellauto 1 18 Argusbrown Argus brown 5011407615,.KAWAI KIT KVW 6-300 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER 1303 LADY BIRD MINT BOXED,. Id., p 923.
Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast 26743 Jordan EJ-10 Heinz Harald Frentzen,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Lagonda 3-litre DHC Green 1956 (Neo Scale 1 43 46370),Schuco Hanomag L28 Box Kreidler with Motorcycle + Driver Figure, 1 43,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera S Targa 1975 G-Modell weiss white NEU Res Pro R Schuco 1 43,.Ford Capri II 2.8 Injection 1982 1 18 Norev 182717 2.8i,.HOT WHEELS 32nd Convention 50th Anniversary Datsun 510 Wagon MOMC 1 Of 6k Made,.ERTL 1955 CHEVROLET Bel Air Hardtop Harvest gold Indiana Ivory 1 18 Diecast Car,.BMW M4 DTM 2015 DA COSTA F82 MINICHAMPS 80422405596 1 43 FELIX RED BULL,.Siku 3424 MAN Container-LKW (Werbemodell - SSC 2002) OVP - 2410-166,. The parties Dinky Toys 669 USA Army Jeep made in England 1 43 scale VGC-EXC,.
CREATIVE MASTERS 1969 Chevrolet Z 28 Camaro in bluee,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 108X 1983 CHEVROLET CORVETTE WHT,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, GunsModify Stainless ThreadBarrel (KKM) for Marui G17 18C GBB-Nitride gold,; Hot Wheels 2010 Liberty Promotions Halloween Ghost Flames VW DRAG BUS, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Audi TT RS Coupe,Catalunya Red,1 43 5011610431,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Volkswagen Passat B3 Vr6 Variant 1988 bluee Met KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180073 Model,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Dinky Toys 199 Austin Se7en Countryman mint in box all original condition,.LA MINI MINIERA LANCIA STRATOS BERTONE - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT 4,.1971 Hot Wheels Redline Sugar Caddy bluee 1969 USA Base Solid EX+ C-8,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,LAMBORGHINI 350 GT METAL. POLITOYS M. SCALE 1 43. REFERENCE 539.,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Plymouth Fury Us Army Military Police 1977 A-Team GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN19053,.Jensen Healey MkII Green 1972 (NEO 1 43 44391),.Bub Mercedes 1 87 Bus Die-Cast,.1 64 Kyosho McLaren MP4 5 1989 Honda Diecast Model Car,.Danbury Mint 1968 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible British Green,. The Scottsdale1 43 IXO Peugeot 208 T16 R5 TAC Rally 2016 Princen RRS221,MINICHAMPS Porsche 908 02 Spyder Lins Attwood 1000 km Nurburgring 1969 437692,.CORGI CP96211 DR DOCTOR WHO TV SERIES DALEK + DAVROS METAL CHARACTER FIGURE SET,. Id.,Vitesse Skid SKC020 1 43 Peugeot 205 T16 Darniche Belga Ieper Rally 1985 MiB,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180246,; Vintage Diecast Saico Morris Van 1 26 Ex-shop counter top display Morris Vans,CORGI VANGUARDS VA06517 ROVER 3500 P6 V8S PAPRIKA 1 43 2009 NEUF EN BOITE NEUVE,.Schuco 1662 PICCOLO LIBRO 99 MERCEDES. 170V,. The ScottsdaleMaserati 5000 GT (1962) Resin Model Car 45655,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 16 ITALERI 614 COUPE CABRIOLET MERCEDES-BENZ 300 SL RARE COLLECTOR ROADSTER,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - FERRARI 365 GTC4 - 1971 - 180283S,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Best Model BT9325 FERRARI 208 GTB TURBO 1982 RED 1 43 Modellino,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes Benz 208D Minibus 1988 bluee KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180293,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Vinyl line ca 1 24 Porsche 356 Cabrio green Gummi Vinyl Rubber im Polybeutel,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, JENSEN Interceptor SIII Neo scale models 1 43 NEO43392, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, bluee Bloods Jamie Reagan Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor Greenlight 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, DCP 1 64 blueE KENWORTH T680 WITH 52'' SLEEPER AND PEWTER WILSON GRAIN TRAILER,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKYOSHO 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ CLK AMG-DTM Cabrio A209 silver DEALER RARE,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mercedes Benz SLK in green Metallic Bj 2004 1 43 Minichamps 400033130 NEU & OVP,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMatchbox Lesney M2 B5 Bedford Tractor & York Trailer w Original Box,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Matrix Scale Models Bristol 405 DHC Abbot bluee,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Norev Citroën DS 19 Chapron Le Dandy 1964 red 1 18 - 18001B mit Licht,Norev Mercedes Benz 450 SEL 6.9 1976 Green M 1 18 183455,.1968 MERCEDES BENZ 280 SE IVORY 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY NOREV 183569 NEW,.CREATIVE MASTERS 1 20 - 08672 DODGE VIPER RT 10 RED,. The HuygheSIKU 3279 Fendt 939 Diecast Model Toy,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAlezan 242 1 43 1999 Alfa Romeo 145 Quadrifoglio Resin Handmade Model Car Kit,.
BERLIET TLR SEMI REMORQUE BACHÉ LU CORGI HÉRITAGE 1 50 NEUF EN BOITE,.NSU Autounion Audi RO80 Ro 80 Wankel Limousine 1972 red red Minichamps 1 18,.
Trofeu 2505 FORD E.RS1800 TARMAC RALLY MADEIRA Modellino,.Langley Miniatures Kits 1 76 OO Scale White metal G46 Morris Commercial LC3,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Honda S800 Spider Soft-Top Open 1966 Yellow TRIPLE9 1 18 T9-1800191 Model,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMG Motor 16 Scale Diecast - MG3 bluee,.HAND BUILD VECTOR KIT GAZ 21 RUSSIAN CAR USSR VOLGA blueE WHITE NMINT BOXED,.
For example, in Partridge,CURSOR-Modell Mercedes Benz S-Klasse W116 (280SE, 450 SE), silver, 1 35, mint,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ford Capri III Turbo White - Ford Motor Sport 1981 (Neo Scale 1 43 43329),. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Renault colorale Van Wagon 1953 Car Miniature 1 18 Collection Solido1850009,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Siku Plastik F9B Douglas DC-7 Seven Seas ( KLM ) ovp,. That is the same situation in this case.Joustra Peugeot J7 Ambulance vintage années 60 tin toy made in France,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Volkner mobil performance mobile home toy car 1 50 siku 1943 free shipping,. Detroit Edison, supra.
KESS MODEL Chrysler New Yorker Sedan 4-Door 1 1 43 KE43032021,.Norev VW Polo R WRC 2013 1 18 Ogier Ingrassia Rallye de France (JvdM),.1 32 Scale 85239 Yellow Caterpillar 308E2 CR SB Mini Hydraulic Vehicles Model,.
Norev 1 18 Mercedes-Benz X-Klasse 2017 silver 183420,.