Art Art Art Model AM0325 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 red SCURO 1 43 e76d81

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Art Art Art Model AM0325 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 red SCURO 1 43 e76d81
Audi 80 B4 green Clair Métallisé - 1992 Neo 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3360 Porsche 911 Carrera GT 1993 Yellow,.Spark S2117 1 43 Resin Jaguar XK120, 1950 LeMans, Johnson & Hadley,.Ferrari 500 Mondial Prova 1954 Red 1 43 Art Model ART320,.MAZ 6430 tractor unit with spoiler 1 43 Start Scale Models SSM1219,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Dinky 129 Volkswagen 1300 Sedan. Met. bluee. Speedwheels. Boxed. 1970's,.LAND ROVER DEFENDER 90 blue SCURO DARK blueE 1 18 UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 3888,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 750009 - F1 March Ford 751,.Kyosho Modellauto 1 18 Nissan Fairlady Z,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.FRANSTYLE 006 by Momaco - Citroen Xanthia Roadster Concept Car 1986 1 43 neu,.Mercedes Padane Z3 (Yaxon) Autobus 1 43 JUVENTUS CLUB RARE SELTEN ,.Ford Usa Bronco New York City Police Department 1967 GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN19036, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark 1 43 Scale S4514 - Ford Fiesta WRC th Monte Carlo 2015,.Hot Wheels 1970 Plymouth Superbird, 2015 Workshop Muscle Mania,.Minichamps Jordan Mugen Honda 198 1999 1 18 Ralf Schumacher (GER) (F1NB),.Bruder Tractor with Trailer Case IH Optum 300 CVX 1 16 Kids Toy Vehicle 03199,.

501 Politoys 1 43 Maserati 3500 GT Coupe greymetallic ohne Box 507998,.Wonderful modelcar DODGE ARIES K-CAR - 1983 - 1 43 - lim.ed.- green metallic,.DINKY TOYS Ferrari 312 Original Box - New Corgi Meccano Polistil,.HOT WHEELS 2018 50TH ANNIVERSARY ORIGINAL 16 REPLICA DISPLAY CARS U CHOOSE MENU,.1 43 Bizarre - Lancia ECV2 - 1988 BZ410,.

Mint Suzuki Rgv-R Minicar 1 18 Scale,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DIE CAST FIAT DUNA 60 - 1987 + TECA RIGIDA BOX 2 SCALA 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2565 - Audi R10 TDI Kolies LM 2010,.Hpi Racing HPI8139 NISSAN GTR N.3 N 1 1992 1 43,MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.66 TYRONE MALONE SUPERBOSS DOT DASH WHEELS NMIB L BOX 1982,.MINICHAMPS- WAP 02000118- PORSCHE 911 GT2,.

Durham Classics 1 43 Scale - DC8A - 1938 Lincoln Zephyr Top Up - Metallic Green,.Spark Model S4661 ORECA 03R NISSAN N. 48 13th LM 2015 CHANDHOK-PATTERSON-BERTHON,.Best Model BT9307 LANCIA BETA MONTECARLO N.67 47th LM 1981 GABBIANI-PIRRO 1 43 M,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Ivk020 Alfa Romeo Junior Zagato Pred. Car Delta,.

Minichamps 1 43 - Horch 855 'Spezial roadster' 1938 orange métallisé,. We agree in part.

NHRA BOB TASCA III AAA 2007 MUSTANG FUNNY CAR Limited Edition 1 24 Rare Limited,.1 18 Ertl - 1969 BALDWIN MOTION CAMARO white - Lmtd.Ed.1 of 2500 - RAR - neu OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MATRIX - 1 43 - PORSCHE 356 ZAGATO SPYDER - 1958 - MX41607-061,.Starter E014RO 1 43 1987 Lamborghini Countach LP500 Resin Handmade Model Car,.Siku Super 3716 MAN 26.321 mit Sattelauflieger und Zettelmeyer Lader Europ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Porsche 911 997 GT3 RS - Cup, Welly 1 18,.MINICHAMPS LORRAINE-DIETRICH TYPE B3-6 SPORTS ROADSTER 437119260,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 mobile sales series No.7 fishmonger's Model Car,; Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham 1978 black Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Kit VAUXHALL MAGNUM RAC 1974 HILL-BRYANT Arena 781K,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera 4S,Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin - sx18A Mercedes 300SL Green,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.DAF 3300 -DE ROOY- DE KOFFER - 342- IN BOX 1 50 SEHR SELTEN,.

Somerville Models Fordson 5CWT Castrol Van made in England 1 43 scale EXIB,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Citroen ID19 Break Hearse 1963 1 43 RIO 4223,.Chevrolet Camaro Z28 5.0 Spider Iroc-Z 1985 Bright bluee SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1942,.Chevrolet Impala Coupe 1967 Cream 1 43 TRUE SCALE MINIATURES TSM134314 Model,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Greenlight 1 24 Scale Diecast - 84071 1958 Plymouth Fury Christine Chase car,; 1 43 IXO Citroen DS3 R5 Spa Rally 2015 Grooten RRS263,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Ferrari 599 Gtb 2006 Red 1 43 Model REDLINE,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Lamborghini Aventador Lp700-4 2012 brown True Scale Miniatures 1 43 Tsm11Fj014,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

K K SCALE DIECAST 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN TRANSPORTER T4 CARAVELLE LIMITED EDITION,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Laudoracing-Models Fiat 128 Coupè 1100 S 1972 1 18 LM093,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Siku Control 6780 - Tandem-Axle Trailer, Scale 1 3 2, Nip,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.INNOCENTI 950 S SPIDER CABRIOLET 1962 black 1 43 MATRIX 30902-011 N,.1966 Chevrolet Chevy Chevelle SS red Holiday Edition 1 18 Auto world,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.POLITOYS EXPORT 544 GHIA ISUZU 117 SPORT n°9 1.43 TBE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Skoda 110R Coupe 1972 Red NEO44486 1 43,.

Kess Model KS43014012 MASERATI QUATTROPORTE 4.9 1983 brown COLORADO MET.1 43 M,.Mega RARE Mercedes S Class Police Milicya Russian 1 43 Lim 7 of 20,.1 18 Kyosho Mercedes CLK Congreenible bluee DEALER NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1 18 Ertl Classics Cord 812 Congreenible 1937 Limited Edition RARITÄT§,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MECCANO FRANCE.A PANHARD EBR NEAR MINT ORIGINAL CONDITION ,.

Rare Minichamps 032222 Mercedes Benz W123 Coupe 280CE OVP MIB 1 43,.MASERATI ELDORADO 500 MIGLIA MONZA 1958 ABC BRIANZA 1 43 BRK32,.MINICHAMPS BRABUS 600 BASATA SU MERCEDES AMG C 63 S 2015 NERA MODELLINO,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Scale model 1 43 Gutbrod Superior Coupe, bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO49558 NSU 1200 C 1969 orange 1 43,.NOREV - 1 18 - ALPINE - RENAULT A110 PREMIERE EDITION 2017 - 185138,.Citroen Ds 19 1961 Cabriolet Grey Met. 181598 Norev 1 18,.LOT 33387 Matchbox 31 C Lincoln Continental US-Car PKW neuwertig in E -Box,.Corgi Job Lot Of 3 - GS 19 Land Rover ,GS Benz & Caravan,1102 Dumper,.

2015 Mazda MX-5 Congreenible black Metalizado 1 18 Triple-9 1800196, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.A Franklin mint of a scale model of a 1967 Morris Mini Cooper S, with paperwork,.TONKIN 1 53 SCALE KENWORTH W900L MODEL BN 500036,. The PartridgeMercedes Benz 500Sec Koening Specials Coupe 1985 Red Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46601,.DINKY MATCHBOX VW VOLKSWAGEN KARMANN GHIA THE DUTCH DINKY SOCIETY MINT BOXED ,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18-12034 2001 Mini Cooper Red White Model Car,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3064 Ferrari 550 Maranello 1996 red, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Somerville 1 43 Scale Metal Model - 152K Vauxhall IO H-Type 1939,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NOREV 530040 - Saviem S105M in bordeaux Felix point Baujahr 1969 1 43 NEU,.Dinky Toys Early Version Frazer Nash BMW Tourer Sports Car 1940's Dinky Toys GR,PartridgeRENAULT R5 MAXI 5 TURBO n°4 Rallye Asturias 1986 1 18 Sainz,.Bugatti 41 Royale Torpedo red 1927 Rio 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DKW MEISTERKLASSE UNIVERSAL TYP 89S 1951 NEO 46275 1 43 HELLGRUN HOLZOPTIK, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 Minichamps Mercedes Benz 500 SE , 1989 , Antikwhite,; NOREV 1 18 Mercedes O319 Bus 1960 bluee white,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Side Tipping Tractors Trailer 2-Axled L.Green 1 32 Siku, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes-Benz 300 CE, black, 1990, 1 18 NOREV, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFerrari 365 GTC 4 Coupe - Il Gobbone - 1971 Red 1 18 Kk Diecast,.

CORGI TOYS FERRARI SHARKNOSE FORMULA ONE 1 43,.Tower Crane , Siku Super 1 87, art.1899, Clarke's negligent act.Spark Model S3601 FORD GALAXIE N.0 DAYTONA 500 1963 DAN GURNEY 1 43 Modellino,.Matchbox Superfast TP-11 Tractor & Hay Trailer bluee mint on card,.Minichamps Mercedes Benz 200T Red 1 43 Scale Diecast Collectible Car Replica,.

FORD GRAN TORINO COUPE SPORT Neo yellow 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Sophiart 1 43 Koenigsegg Regera Green Metallic Geneva Motorshow Frontiart,VINTAGE OLD YELLOW ENGLAND TOY CAR MATCHBOX CABRIO SUPERFAST MERCEDES 230 SL,. In Noska,VODAFONE McLAREN MERCEDES MP4-23 L.HAMILTON Team Box,.MAISTO 1 18 - 36613 MERCEDE BENZ 300 SLR - TARGA FLORIA 1955,.AUTO WORLD - 1 18 - FORD MUSTANG GT - 2016 - AW242,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 436 120420 ALFA ROMEO 8C 2900 B LUNGO 1938 - LIGHT blueE, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Revell 1 35 - Mercedes Classroom G Military UN Wolf,.MARK43 PM4390BL 1 43 Subaru WRX STI Type S VAB 2017 WR bluee Pearl,.BMW 323i Baujahr 1982 brown metallic - 1 18 Minichamps 155026004,.1 18 Scale ERTL American Muscle 1969 Plymouth GTX - White,. Id., p 923.

Spark Model SB210 MERCEDES GT3 N.84 24 H SPA 2018 R.VAN DER ZANDE-E.MORTARA-G.PA,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Bugatti Type 54 Roadster 1931 1 43 Minichamps 437110160 Model,Burago 1 18 Scale Unique Diorama Mercedes 300SL Barn Find Diecast Model Car,.FORD T VAN CARGO COCA COLA 1 18,.1 18 Hot Wheels 1953 Corvette Modified pro Street bluee Limited Edition Rarity §,.Mercedes S-Klasse Coupe 2014 black 1 18 Norev neu + OVP 18482,.Cisitalia 33DF Volo Radente Beige bluee 1954 (Matrix 1 43 MX10307-011),.NASA SPACE SHUTTLE ATLANTIS W SRB DIECAST DRAGON WINGS 56185 1 400,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F138 F1 Felipe Massa red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The parties Tekno Holland Ford D 800 920 Falk Zonen 1 50,.

Spark Model S7012 LIGIER JS P217 N.25 DNF LM 2018 M.PATTERSON-A.DE JONG-T.KIM 1 ,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 731258 Mercedes Benz SLK Red,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 50th Caterpillar AP600F Wheeled Asphalt Paver DIECAST Vehicle Model Toy Gift,; NOREV NV185209 RENAULT SUPER 5 GT TURBO ANNO 1985 GRIGIA SCALA 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13212 - DAF XF Space Cab Curtainside - Grimer's Transport,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Century AMR 2702 1 43 1975 Mercedes-Benz 500SL White Metal Handmade Model Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Mercedes Benz A-Class (W177) 2018 Red NOREV 1 18 NV183594,.BMW M1 Procar 1 18 scale Model Miniature Car Diecast White 80432454788,.Maisto 2015 Ford Mustang GT, yellow (31197y),. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 43 MATRIX Ferrari 250GT Passo Corto Winner RAC Tourist Trophy Moss,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Conrad MAN Baumassig Stark with Crane in Green on 1 50 in Box,.Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport Nürburgring 2016 n° 353 Team Mathol Racing e.V. 1 4,.Vintage German MILITARY SET--complete, original box,.Mikansue 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 22 - Adler Racing Car White Unboxed,.Bristol 402 DHC (bluee metallic) 1949,. The ScottsdaleLancia Flavia Sport - Politoys 509 1 43 34749,1939 Lincoln Zephyr Congreenible Coupe black 1 18 Signature Models 18102,.PORSCHE 911 930 Turbo 3.3 Ltr. 1987 - 1989 weiss white 1 1000 RAR Norev 1 18,. Id.,WSI MODELS MAN TGX XLX 6X2 TRACTOR SOLO AYALA ARTICLE NEW,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 LS Collectibles Triumph TR6 red,; EBBRO 43541 1 43 NISSAN CHERRY X1 Green NEW from Japan Model car F S,ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 92198 VW KARMANN - GHIA (1966) GREEN,.Corgi Major 1101 Warney & Swasey Hydraulic Crane. VNMINT Boxed. Original 1970's,. The ScottsdaleFIRST 18 1 18 Nissan GT-R 2017 Japan Spec RHD orange Diecast Model F18-020,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, ASTON MARTIN V8 Vantage GT2 Presentation 2008 Light bluee 1 43 Spark NEW,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Handmade Hot Wheels 1 64 scale diecast display shelf. Holds 133+- loose cars.,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mint Ebro Minicar 1 43 Endless Motor Advan Z 2004,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Neo Cadillac DeVille Congreenible 1970 golden-metallic,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, SUNSTAR 1 18 4199 LTD EDITION RALLYE MONTE CARLO 1982,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Model SCYD07 REYNARD 01 Q JUDD N.37 LM'01 1 43 Modellino, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, BMW serie 3 E92 Kyosho 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, N.O.S PEUGEOT 504 COUPE V6 SOLIDO TOY + BOX,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBrooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 039A - 1935 Dodge Van Speelgoed Otten 1 Of 100 gold,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1965 CORGI CLASSICS 1910 RENAULT PRIMpink, MINT W VG+ BOX & BROCHURE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCITROEN MEHARI Recherche petroliere ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Jaguar Xk150 Ghia Aigle Coupe' 1958 Metallic Green Limited Edition 400 pcs 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Best Model BT9623 LANCIA BETA MONTECARLO N.1 WINNER 6 H WATKINS GLEN 1981 PATRES,MINICHAMPS ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 FRECCIA D'gold DARK blueE 403120483,.Schuco Varianto 3042 Lasto ( bluee ),.P18-5 DINKY TOYS 404 PEUGEOT,. The HuygheMercedes 300 Ambulanza Polizia Svizzera 1958 1 43 Model RIO,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAlfa Romeo Giulia Sprint Gt Veloce 1.6 1966 Grey Met.Ed.Lim.Pcs 250 1 43 Kess Mo,.

2012 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta blue Pozzi 1 18 Hot Wheels BCJ73,.1 43 SPARK RESIN MERCEDES- BENZ GT,.

Carmel Ducas Miniature Car Model Israel Resin 1 43 Scale Unique Susita Vintage,.FERRARI PredOTIPO 330 P4 1 43 MERCURY 65 RED METAL MODEL RACE CAR IN FACTORY BOX,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Diecast Car Model for XC60 Deluxe Edition 1 18 + GIFT ,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBIG BIRD 1 500 - KOR50 BOEING 747-400 - KOREAN AIR,.SSM LKW 1 43 AC-40 (43202) PM-102B Feuerwehrfahrzeug,.

For example, in Partridge,Norev - Lola Aston Martin LMP1 24 Heures DU MANS 2009 Gulf Sonderedition - 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,MINICHAMPS 327 040096 050046 060046 AGV HELMETS V ROSSI 2004 2005 2006 1 2nd,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lamborghini Murcielago Exclusive for Yokohama Toy Show,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale diecast 03AUG6 1938 Jaguar SS100 Cream,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Carreras,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Detail Cars 1 43 Scale Model Car ART435 - BMW 3000 CS 1971 4Hr Monza NM BOX,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SAKURA JAPAN LAMBORGHINI MIURA SV JOTA GREY METALLIC 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.15 ASSORTED 'N' GAUGE OXFORD DIECAST GRAHAM FARISH VEHICLES (VS40),.Pritschen Magirus Rundhauber Hängerzug THYSSEN IMU H0 1 87 å,.

Quartzo 1 18 gold Leaf Lotus 72C USA F1 GP Winner 1970 Emerson Fittipaldi,.