Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark 1 43 Scale S4517 - Porsche 911 RGT rd Monte Carlo 2015,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13212 - DAF XF Space Cab Curtainside - Grimer's Transport,.CITROEN 2CV DOLLY white & green 1985 NOREV 181512 1 18 WHITE & GREEN 1 18 LH,.PRECISION MINIATURES 1 43 - 1957 FERRARI 250 TESTAROSSA 1980,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Germany level 1 24 Ford GT Le Mans Plastic 07041,.IVK020 ALFA ROMEO JUNIOR ZAGATO Pred. AUTO DELTA,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Replicagri REPLI022 TRATTORE FIAT M160 1 32 Modellino,.1 18, 1958 Chevy Impala, American Graffitti,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lada Samara Russian Police 1984 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180216,.Signature Models 18136 PIERCE ARROW 1933 1 18 Modellino,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO 2001 + VW KARMANN GHIA 1955 SET 1 43 MINICHAMPS 402902010 NEU, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
628F Vintage Solido 147 Ford Mustang red 1 43,.Replicarz 1 43 Boyle Special - 1939 Indianapolis 500 Winner - Wilbur Shaw,.FERRARI 500 MONDIAL PROVA 1954 yellow 1 43 331 art model made in ,.Minichamps 1 43 Lamborghini Murcielago Sv,.
Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - Design For A Butcher,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 14X 1978 PARMALAT BRABHAM BT46,.Fleischmann N Piccolo 7377 E-Lok BR 103 der DB red 1 160,.Ford Usa Crown Victoria Police Interceptor New York GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN13513 M,.Spark Model S4554 ORECA 03-NISSAN N.26 9th (2nd LMP2) LM 2011 MAILLEUX-ORDONEZ-A,.
822H Vintage Dinky 24H Mercedes 190 SL 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Conrad Still MX-X Stapler 1 25 Neu 2018 OVP,.Joblot Of 110 Items Corgi And Corgi Juniour Old Vintage Collectable,.RARE Toyota Land Cruiser BJ40 Red 1960-1984 (Ebbro) 1 43,The Dandy and Beano Collectable Cassic Die-cast Cars, Set Of 6,.IXO LKW FIAT 643 N GONDRAND mit Plane ,1 43 RARITÄT,.
1 43 Russian Militsia IZH-2126 ODA bluee,.MINIATURA BMW M1 HOMMAGE NOREV 1 18 LIMITED EDITION NEW,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 2050 - BMW M3 Team Isert - V.Bayern,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 18 FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 IN RED, MATTEL HOT WHEELS.,.
VOLKSWAGEN Der Stern set Vw. Kasten BMW Isetta - Schuco Pequeño,. We agree in part.
SUNSTAR 1 18 - 1211 MITSUBISHI PAJERO V6 3500 - RED,.Lada Samara 1984 Light Brown KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180211 Miniature,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Norev NV183701 BENZ PATENT MOTORWAGEN (VELOCIPED) 1886 1^AUTO DELLA STORIA REPRO,.Vintage Nylint No. 2090 Husky Roller Pressed Steel, Construction, Toy In Box,.Auto World 1 18 American Muscle 1967 Baldwin Motion Camaro SS 427 bluee AMM1118,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Universal-Hobbies 68110 La Campagne 1 3 2,.1 18 Mercedes Benz G Klasse Cabriolet W460 2007 whiteo Calcita Otto Mobile OT275,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, + SCHUCO 1 43 SCALE 07135 IVECO MAGIRUS SUPER DRAGON X8 FIRE ENGINE,; Modern Muscle - 1987 CHEVROLET MONTE CARLO - chrome - 1 64 Johnny Lightning RARE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 GT1 Street 1998 White 433986803,.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 8135 Komatsu HB215 LC3 Hybrid; 1 50,Charbens The Cable Lorry In Origninal Box No 31 1955-62,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 KYOSHO MERCEDES CLK 500 A209 CABRIO DUNKELblue )N MINT OHNE BOX RARE,.
SSM ZIL-130SH only chassis Early edition 1 43 9002,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi Toys No. 161, Santa Pod Raceway's Commuter Dragster, - Superb Near Mint,.Ebbro 1 43 Cgoldlla Axio apr GT Super GT300 2009 from Japan,.1954 DODGE ROYAL 500 CONgreenIBLE TOP DOWN - 1 43 BROOKLIN HANDMADE BRK 30,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, IVECO EUROSTAR LD con CISTERNA DECORATA OLD CARS OLC00516,; Minichamps 1 18 Ford Focus RS 2010 Le Mans Classic Edition 1967 white,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Fiat 130 Saloon - Mercury 1 43 34117,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Jaguar XK 150 1958 - green - TWINCAM,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
MAISTO MI38136 LAMBORGHINI CENTENARIO EXCLUSIVE SERIES YELLOW 1 18,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Spark Model S6065 RED BULL M.VERSTAPPEN 2018 N.33 WINNER AUSTRIAN GP 1 43 Modell,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Ddf Plurma Minicar Diorama Bus Scenery Stadium Parking,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Motormax 1 18 Scale - 73144 - BMW Z4 - Red,.Corgi Modern Heavy Haulage CC15310 Scania 111 40ft Curtainsid Munro & Sons 1 50,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.RARE DODGE Van Burma Shave Brooklin BRK. 16 1936 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Dinky 961- Coles Mobile Crane- Near Mint in Good (Grubby) Box,.
Diecast Car Model KIA K5 Police Car 1 18 + GIFT ,.1 43 Mark43 PM4311CY Honda Integra Type R 98 Yellow Carbon bonnet,.Spark Model Lotus 69 Reine Wisell 1 43 S2147,.1 18 scale RC Toyota bell Fire,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Scale US010 - Delta Wing DWC-13 Petit Le Mans 2013,.
Ertl American Muscle 1966 Chevy Nova SS 1 18 - bluee 1 of 4,999 limited edition,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT. Van - India Tyres,.SUNSTAR 1 18 4541 1963 FORD FALCON CHALFONTE blueE,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CORGI US55702 - KENWORTH W925 LOAD LOADER WITH BOILER LOAD - LIMITED EDITION,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Matchbox Lesney 2 Muir Hill Dumper LAING perfect mint in box,.OTTO MOBILE - 1 18 - RENAULT 5 GT TURBO CABRIOLET BY EBS - 1990 - OT280,.Hachette IXO 1 24 Cars Collection Vol.59 Honda Prelude 2.0Si 2nd 1985 Die-cast,.Welly 1 18 Scale - 18008w Porsche Cayman S - Yellow,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - Castrol - Green,.
Matchbox 1971 Super Kings K-1 HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR box Unpunched Vintage Rare, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Maserati A6G 2000 Allemano Coupè 1956 Art. 46560,.Forces of Valor 1 32 Die Cast US M109 Sel Propelled Howizter,. The PartridgeCOFFRET ISO GRIFO 7 LITRI 1968 YELLOW MINICHAMPS 1 43,.ALFA ROMEO ALFASUD GIARDINETTA GREEN 1975 NEO 45035 1 43 BREAK SW GRUN green,.Porsche 911 Turbo 2000 (996) 1 43 Minichamps chrome edition,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Rietze Mercedes-Benz Citaro Euro 4 Longwy City (Fr) scale 1 87 H0, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.SCHUCO 07725 - 1 32 MERCEDES-BENZ UNIMOG U1600 - WINTERDIENST (orange) NEW,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Dinky Toys GB 471 Austin Van Nestlé's peu fréquent,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31126 Porsche 911 Carrera S Cabriolet bluee,Partridge1999 Nissan Skyline GT-R (BNR34) Falken Tires 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Gre,.Lincoln Premiere Hard-Top Closed 1956 Light bluee White NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46016 Mi,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Brabus 850 Mercedes Amg S63 S-Class Cabriolet 2016 MINICHAMPS 1 43 437034230 Mod, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NOREV 820562 Henschel HS 3-180 TAK yellow 1956 1 43,; NIB Nylint Napa Tractor Trailer 75 Years of Excellence Metal USA Made Collectors,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Norev 1965 Citroen DS 19 Chapron Le Dandy Coupe 1 43 Diecast Rare Made in France, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, TOYOTA GT ONE TEST CAR LE MANS RED HPI RACING 8145 1 43 red red red RESINE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeA Franklin mint scale model car of a 1930 Duesenburg J Durham Tourster, boxed,.
SCHABAK 1521 FORD FIESTA XR2i - RED 1 25 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes-Benz L 3500 - DL17 - 1950 Feuerwehr, Clarke's negligent act.Matchbox SF Nr.70B Dodge Dragster pink rare dunkelgreene Schlange in Box,.Porsche 991 GTS bluee Metallic 2015 (Spark 1 43 S4938),.KK-Scale Lada Samara - red - 1984 - 1 18,.
.. TEKNO DENMARK 812 NORTON RACING CAR WHITE GERMAN NEAR MINT CONDITION RARE,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Aston Martin DB4 S4 Grey Metallic 1961 (Spark 1 43 S2429),SCHUCO Piccolo-Set 40 Jahre years Piccolo, 1237, limit., Holzbox wooden box,. In Noska,Audi A5 2009 Cabriolet 1 18 Norev,.Western Models Metal 43 Opel Olympia Limousine 1952 in Grey on 1 43 in Box,.1 43 Spark Lola B12 60 Nissan Car Hours of LeMans S3749,.1 43 Minicar Serena Highway Star, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Maisto 1 18 Scale 31149 - 2007 Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera - orange,.Trink Milch 66 Werbebus D2U Tür zu Wiking H0 1 87 GD4 å,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.192 RANGE ROVER BRONZE WITH LIGHT blueE INTERIOR MIB,.1 18 ERTL 1968 BALDWIN MOTION CHEVROLET CORVETTE blueE bd,. Id., p 923.
EBBRO AUTOZAM AZ-1 1992 RED 1 43,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ford Capri Mk.III 2.8 Injection 1982 Crystal Green metallic NOREV 182719 - 1 18,PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 CUP 2017 SPARK WAP0201500H 1 43 RESINE MOBIL 1 MICHELIN,.Matchbox chevy Tokyo Giants van set. 6 vans Mint,.1 50 Caterpillar Cat 320D L Hydraulic Excavator w Hammer Diecast Masters 85280,.1 18 Otto VW Käfer 1200 Okrasa Oettinger 1982 anthracit golden,.1966 CHEVY BISCAYNE MARYLAND STATE POLICE AUTO WORLD ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1 18,.Norev Mercedes CLS Klasse Grey Metallic 2010 1 18 - 183548 New,.Norev 1 43 - Boxset Peugeot 206 cc Green & bluee,. The parties Chevrolet Monza IMSA ROAD ATLANTA 1976 Champion Holbert 1 43 Spark S0860 NEW,.
1 43 Neo Ford Taunus P7b 17m Coupe 1968 white,.Dinky Toys 134 Triumph Vitesse made in England 1 43 scale Near Mint rare,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 KAMAZ 44108 6x6 russian tractor unit SSM1242,; ALFA ROMEO 155 V6 TI PLAIN BODY VERSION WHITE 1993 HPI RACING 8042 1 43 white, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
NITTO 740-500 KIT (unbuilt) NISSAN GAZELLE 2000 XE-II - GREEN 1 28 - EXCELLENT,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NEO MODELS DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S 19 1 43 46275,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)MINICHAMPS 1 43 1956 PORSCHE 356 SPEEDSTER - VINTAGE 430 065534 - MINT BOXED,.Subaru BRZ 2012 Dark Grey Metallic 1 43 Model 44803 EBBRO,.1 43 Spark Audi R18 TDi Sport Team Joest Car H of Le Mans S2516,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Neo Models Citroen XM Break Metallic dar red 1 43 44927,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 Minichamps Duesenberg Model J Torpedo Congreenible 1929 437150430,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 993 911 Carrera 2 Targa 1995 Red 1 43 Minichamps-RSR,.Spark Model S5621 PEUGEOT 3008 DKR MAXI N.308 DAKAR 2018 C.DESPRES-D.CASTERA 1 4,.Bizzare BZ387 WM P 79 PEUGEOT N.51 LM 1979 1 43 Modellino,.Man Car Transporter with Trailer 1970 1 43 - TTRX007 IXO,. The ScottsdaleRio RI414105 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA CROCE green 1 43 Modellino,Nikko RC Stunt Car Kids Remote Control Play Vehicle Psycho Gyro Green 90252,.Us Police Motorbike Revell Motorcycle Model Kit 07915,. Id.,PEUGEOT 905 vainqueur 24H du MANS 1993 1 18,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Art Model AM0282 FERRARI 375 MM N.26 4th CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1953 SERENA-MANCIN,; 1 18 La Ferrari (Red) Burago 18-16001,FERRARI F50 d 1995 color Champagne 1 18 BURAGO voiture miniature de collection,.1 64 DCP PETERBILT 379 63 FLATTOP SLEEPER W WILSON FLATBED & LOAD,. The ScottsdaleCIJ - MARQUE DEPOSEE MADE IN FRANCE RENAULT CAMIONNETTE 1000Kgs PTT,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 019 - 1935 Dodge Van Classic & Sportscar 1 Of 200,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; NEW Gulliver 200 T-4 fourth air wingNo. 11 Squadronbluee Impulse 1 200,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 BBR GASOLINE FERRARI 575 GTC SPA 2004 TEAM JMB,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CORGI TOYS 61 FOUR FURROW PLOUGH OVP MINT CORGI CLUB & LEAFLET,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW 507 3.2 V8 1956 Grey Cabriolet Dealer 1 43 Minichamps-501,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Corgi 155 Lotus Climax Formula 1 Racing Car. Green. VNMINT in Card Box. 1960's., (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, PARAGON MODELS 1 18 BMW 3 SERIES (F30) RED PA-97024, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 MATRIX Model BMW 1602 Baur Coupe bluee 1967 MX30202-011,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAlfa Romeo 8C Competizione 2003 Red Metallic 1 43 Minichamps 403120523 NEW,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CALLAWAY C12 1 18 DIE CAST YELLOW DIE CAST MODEL BY AUTOART 71013,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheIXO 1 43 Mitsubishi Rancer Evolution IX 2009 Ralley Australia PWRC Winner,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Spark 1 43 Scale S4211 - Morgan Nissan G-Drive Racing Le Mans 2014,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Spark Model S2691 FIAT 500 SPORT 1958 WHITE 1 43,Shelby Collectibles Shelby 1966 GT350 1 18 Scale Die Cast e,.Action 2001 Dale Earnhardt GM Goodwrench Service Plus 4 Car Set 1 64,.Art Model AM0058 FERRARI 290 MM STREET 1957 YELLOW 1 43,. The HuygheUNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 8127 Komatsu WA 600-8; 1 50,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBMW 635 CSi E24 Australian Touring Car Champion 1985 Richards JPS Spark 1 43,.
CODE 3 METROPOLITAN POLICE FORD TRANSIT VAN (HONGWELL) 1 43,.Rolls Royce Corniche FHC (red),.
Ebbro 45103 D STATION ADVAN GT-R SGT 500 2014 Rd.2 Fuji No. 24 1 43 scale,.Maisto Dodge Charger R T '69 Genuine Model Car 1 18 with Exhaust System, Movabl,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Spark Model Alfa Romeo 8C P. Etancelin 1 43 43LM34,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMatchbox Lesney Volkswagen Caravette No. 34 VNMIOB Fine BPW,.Minichamps 1 43 McLaren Honda MP4 4 Japan Gp 1988 World Champion Senna,.
For example, in Partridge,WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 108X 1983 CHEVROLET CORVETTE SIL,. In Jorgensen, supra,PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS RACING CAR,NOREV 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL,LIMITED EDITION,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.AUT54628 - Voiture de sport - Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SV de color white,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,ENDOH JAPAN TIN TOYS - VW VOLKSWAGEN T1 VAN KLM - blueE L16.0cm - GOOD CONDITION,. That is the same situation in this case.Ebbro 360 Nissan Skyline Gt-R Jono Nismo Jgtc 1995,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Norev 188053 Nissan GTR R-35 2008 Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 Modellauto,. Detroit Edison, supra.
VOLKSWAGEN COMBI T1 CORBILLARD court 1 43,.Century AMR 2702 1 43 1975 Mercedes-Benz 500SL White Metal Handmade Model Car,.Norev 183569 Mercedes-Benz 280 SE 1969 - Ivory,.
Solido RJR 1 18 Volkswagen VW T1 Winston Zigarettendienst Köln OVP,.