ROAD ROAD ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92078 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - YELLOW 6e9570

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
ROAD ROAD ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92078 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - YELLOW 6e9570
.- DINKY TOYS 436 ATLAS COPCO COMPRESSOR LORRY YELLOW EXCELLENT BOXED,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina (Red),.TSM TRUE SCALE MINIATURES CORVETTE GRAND SPORT blueE WHITE STRIPE TSM430230 1 43,.Porsche 919 2016 WEC Champion 1 43 by Spark,.Matchbox 1969 Cadillac MCCH Convention Dealer Model RARE Issue Boxed Light,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Rare DINKY Toys Triumph Spitfire No. 114 in Original Box Excellent ,.NOREV 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST CITROEN DS 19 1956 CHAMPAGNE & AUBERGINE ART 181565,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Norev 1 18 Citroen Ds 19 1956 green Printemps Champagne 181480,.1 43 Spark Dallara P217 2017 LeMans Aleshin Siredkin Shaytar S5814,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Sunstar 1 18 Diecast - 4056 - 1966 Lotus Elan SE Roadster - Yellow,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car WAP 020 125 17 - Porsche 911 GT3 RS - Green,.DTE 1973 HOT WHEELS REDLINE RED STRIP TEASER, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK42 008 - 1952 Ford F1 Ambulance Jasper County White,.Matrix Jaguar D-type LM Michelotti 1963 Red 1 43 MX41001-052,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale - 430 074122 Ferrari 512M 1994 red,.MASERATI GRAN TURISMO MC GT4 TESTCAR SPERATI 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400101212 NEU,.

Burago 1 18 Scale - 3031 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1961 Plum,.MCLAREN MP4-23 Lewis Hamilton WORLD CHAMPION 2008 GIFT BOX MINICHAMPS 1 43,.TEKNO DENMARK 432 FORD TAXA - 1947 1955 - RARE SELTEN - IN GOOD CONDITION,.F1 WILLIAMS BMW FW24 R. SCHUMACHER 2002 Minichamps BIANCO 1 18,.Corgi Ltd Edn CC12927 Scania Topline Step Frame Archers Trans Untouched De-Cert,.

1 43 Mark43 PM4319BL Honda Integra Type R (DC5) bluee,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Dinky 1 43 Scale Diecast DY-903 - Classic British Sports Cars Series 2,.1983 Cadillac Presidential Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24098,.Lot Of 9 Hot Wheels Car Culture Team Transport With Very Rare 71 Datsun 510 LK,Hachette 1 43 Ferrari 248 F1 6 F. Massa 2006 Collection Mini Cars Only,.FERRARI 512S COUPE 1000KM SPA 1970 43 BRUMM ECURIE FRANCORCHAMPS,.

Pontiac GTO The Judge 1970 yellow yellow - 1 43 NEO,.Welly WEIS1014 MASSEY FERGUSON 1014 1978-1985 1 32 Modellino,.1 43 PLASTIC NOREV Crysler NEW YORKER WITH CARAVAN HENON NICE VINTAGE SET RARE ,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Spark Model S4112 MINARDI M189 P.BARILLA 1989 N.23 RETIRED (CLUTCH) JAPAN GP 1 4,.

Ferrari 250 California Competizine, red, 1960,. We agree in part.

LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP560-4 MONTEREY blueE 1 18 AUTOART AA74588,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 72-1 FORDSON TRACTOR W FRONT & REAR BPT NIOB,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Replicars BV Spyker C8 1 43 hand built model very very near mint all original,.Neo Lincoln Premiere Hardtop 1956 bluee White 1 43 46016,.NEO SCALE MODELS 43635 MAZDA 323F 1992 - RED METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 31,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; PEUGEOT 404 BREAK SONOLOR AUTORECLAME 1 43,.1983 Cadillac Presidential Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24098,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, ZIS-121B Tractor 1948 Green 115103 DIP Models 1 43 New in a box ,; 1 18 Autoworld Ertl 1937 Lincoln Zephyr Coupe Pepsi Cola,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Modelcollect As72118 1 72 S-300 Pmu1 2 Sam Syst. 5p85se Tel,.Bmw 5-Series 530D (E39) Touring 2002 bluee Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO49555 Model,Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK32 - 1953 Studebaker Starliner - Unboxed,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Hot Wheels 1970 Plymouth SuperBird Real Riders,.

WOW EXTREMELY RARE VW Type 4 411 LE Variant 1969 Offenburg Fire 1 43 Minichamps,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi Toys 227 MORRIS MINI COOPER UK GT BRITAIN CAR VG+ EXC --,.1 18 Sun Star Mercedes Benz - E320 Polizeiauto - RARITÄT §,.Siku Super 1028 Ford Granada Turnier 3.0 (Mk 1), B5, ca. 1 58, siku® EUROBUILT,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, BMW 520I E39 2002 TOURING DARK RED METAL NEO 43301 1 43 5ER RESINE BREAK SW,; 1 18 BMW M5 Modificata,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ557 - Talbot Lago T26 GS Le Mans 1951,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

ROAD ROAD ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92078 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - YELLOW 6e9570ROAD ROAD ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92078 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - YELLOW 6e9570ROAD ROAD ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92078 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - YELLOW 6e9570

MATCHBOX LESNEY MODEL No.45b FORD CORSAIR WITH BOAT MIB,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Herpa LKW MAN TG-A XXL Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Henglein Feinkos,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

METRO FIAT 500F 1965 - WHITE 1 24 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Schuco Micro Racer 1045 1 Ford Limousine Vintage 60er Jahre,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 Tank T-34 85 Panzer Militär Premium PCL47026 NVA DDR russian USSR CA SSM,.1 43 Aston Martin DB5 - James Bond goldfinger Hot Wheels Elite BLY26,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 22 B Vauxhall Cresta dull-bronze & turquoise GPW,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Mercedes Benz Gt-S Amg 2018 NOREV 1 18 NV183497 Model,.

WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 108X 1983 CHEVROLET CORVETTE SIL,.TONKIN 1 53 SCALE KENWORTH W900L MODEL BN 500032,.FERRARI 458 CHALLENGE black mat n°12 1 18,.1 43 Bizarre Sigma MC73 Car Hours of LeMans BZ06,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Mercedes 300 1963 Kennedy - Adenauer 1 43 Model RIO,.

Eagles Race 1 18 Scale - BOX1 Ferrari 250 SWB Race Car bluee + Case,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 436 139071 - Bentley Arnage T - Metallic Grey,.RARE 1973 NR MINT MATTEL Zowees Numb Skull Killer Redline Hot Wheels Era HK,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, MotorArt MTR13366 RUSPA RUOTE JCB 456 1 50 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Hanomag L28 Kreidler 1 43 Model 2929 SCHUCO,.MARK43 PM4347MR 1 43 Mugen Civic Type R FN2 Milan Red,.Johnny WHITE LIGHTNING CHASE HOT ROD POWER TOUR 1969 Dodge Cgoldnet Super Bee,.JUVENTUS   FIAT 500 pink   Scala 1 43  -  Maisto,.MARK43 PM4385Y 1 43 Honda Integra Type R X (DC2) '00 Spec SUNLITE YELLOW,.

NOREV 181700 Citroën E Tense Geneve 2014, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Scale S3314 - VW Polo WRC Champion French Rally 2013,.Corgi NEW AVENGERS JAGUAR 57405 1.36 Die Cast Model & Figurine New & Boxed,. The Partridge1 43 Spark Sauber C29 car European GP K.Kobayashi S3005,.Maserati Quattroporte - Politoys 541 1 43 34097,.LION CAR PORTEGIES 1 50 - DAF 3600 PARIS DAKAR 1987 - IN VERY GOOD CONDITION,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes Benz GT  Titanium 2016 (Spark 1 43 S4906), although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Schuco 1 43 - Car Bus Autocar Kässbohrer Setra S6 avec Bagages,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Volkswagen 1200 Cabriolet 1949 1 18 • Minichamps 107054232,.Autoart 1 43 Mclaren P1 (orange) New F S,PartridgeChrysler Town And Country 1948 green Woody, Coche Modelo 1 18 Sun Star,.Schuco 03900 - VW Käfer 1600- S Super- Bug Baujahr 1974 in red 1 43 NEU ,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, (36) Hot Wheels Red Editon Target Exclusive RE3, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi 55304 TEXACO Diamond T980 Ballast + Girder Trailer MIMB,; NOREV - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T3 BUS blueESTAR - 1990 - 188540,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Bburago B18-76103 70th Anniversary California T Die Hot Rod Modell Spielzeug,, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 ( 930 ) Turbo 3.0 bluee CA04316028, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Scale ERTL American Muscle Dodge Viper SRT-10 - Red,.

Large Collection Lledo Days Gone,.Acura NSX Roadster 2012 Avengers Movie Tony Stark Iron Man 1 43 Model, Clarke's negligent act.1 76 Oxford Diecast fire engine ARP (Working beacons),.Mercedes W123 Amg Dard Red Met. 1980 Neoscale 1 43 NEO45538 Model,.Pontiac Gto Coupe 1965 Very Light Purple Met SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1845 Miniature,.

Jensen Inteceptor Siii Rhd 1975 Yellow NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43394 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Caterpillar Cat 950 GC Wheel Loader W Operator 1 50 By Diecast Master 85907C,1959 Mercury Park Lane Congreenible Yellow Sun Star 5152 1 18 Scale Diecast Car,. In Noska,Lincoln Premiere Hard-Top Closed 1956 Light bluee White NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46016,.1 18 B.A.R Honda 005 J. Button Minichamps,.FRANKLIN MINT 1957 BELAIR FUELIE LIMITED EDITION,.Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car Diorama BD1002 - Ford Anglia Van - Whitbread, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Jacques Villeneuve indycar 1995 1 43,.New 1 64 Blind Toy Die Cast Minicar Glashan Collection BEST 2 12 pieces BOX,.Fire Engine AC-30 (GAZ-66), white stripes,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM76X - 1957 Sunbeam Rapier Mille Miglia Harper 212,. Id., p 923.

1 18 HOTWHEELS BATMOBIL 1995 BATMAN FOREVER BATMOBILE BLY43 Heritage,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Schuco MB 170V mit 2 Brütsch Mopetta 1 43,Dinky Toys 231 Maserati empty original excellent plus complete original box,.SUPERMAN CORGI SUPERMAN VAN LARGE DIECAST TOY BOXED UNUSED ,.Ford Usa Mustang Ii King Cobra Coupe 1978 White GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN13508 Model,.CITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ, voiture miniature, NEO 47000,.Audi R8 Spyder V10 Dynamite Red 1 18 Scale iScale 5011618552,.Mclaren F1 Road Car Year 1993 Red Diecast 1 18 Minichamps New,.1 43 Bizarre Nissan Deltawing ZEOD RC Le Mans 2014 Reip Motoyama B1050 Spark,. The parties Kk Siku 3272 John Deere 8360 R with Broad Tires Agritechnica 2015 1 3 2 New Kk,.

1 43 IXO Peugeot 208 T16 R5 Rally du Condroz 2016 Monfort RRS311,.DINKY TOYS TRIUMPH VITESSE SEDAN METALLIC AQUA blueE SCALE 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, KYOSHO 09511 Y LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP 610-4 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR YELLOW PEARL,; Brooklin Models BRK 140 1954 Hudson Hornet Congreenible Royal Red, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 LOOKSMART LS384A NEW PERFECT,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, OTTO MOBILE - 1 18 - RENAULT 5 GT TURBO CABRIOLET BY EBS - 1990 - OT280,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ebbro 1 43 Vemac RD180 bluee White from Japan,.1 18 ERTL NEBRASKA HUSKERS 1932 FORD STREET ROD SPORTING with TEAM MASCOT od,.Herpa Scania Transporter Käse-Maik LKW H0 OVP mit Autogramm des Künstlers,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,ESPEWE, Skoda Tanklastzug, white , Farbversuch, äußerst selten,,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Audi R8 Spyder V10 - 1 18 - iScale,.Mercedes-Benz Unimog 404S FW Gaggenau - Lim. Edition - 1 43 - Schuco (03383),.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 14 1978 PARMALAT BRABHAM BT46,.Ertl, 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air, blue Weiss, 1 18, OVP, Rarität,.TSM Models 1 43 Honda NSX GT2 - Le Mans 1995 - Kupinkua Salow Tanaka,. The ScottsdaleKYOSHO Original 1 43 Lexus IS 350 F Sport (Exceed bluee Metallic),TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Built Kit 36 - CTA Arsenal 1947,.MERCURY 306 ALFA ROMEO ALFETTA GT KENYA EAST AFRICAN SAFARI - 1 43 RED - GOOD,. Id.,McLaren 675LT Coupe (ceramic grey) 2015,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 918 Spyder White 2014 (Spark 1 43 S4242),; RARE KIT METAL GRAND PRIX MODELS SERIE 77 VAILLANT KREMER SEKURIT PORSCHE 935 77,Dinky Toys F 1430 Fiat Abarth 2000 Pininfarina neuf en boîte,.1 18 Greenlight - 1973 Ford Falcon XB The Last Interceptor,. The ScottsdaleACME 1 18 1932 FORD 5 WINDOW GRAND NATIONADUECE SERIES,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Wyandotte 205 Fixed Wing Airplane Rubber Wheels Made in USA Very Good,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ferrari Koenig Testarossa 1985 Metallic Dark Red 1 43 NEO 45922,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Conrad 1 50 Scale Model No 6444 Concrete Mixer.,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Tatra 815 V26 Flatbed Yellow bluee Model Car 1 43 Premium Classixxs,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 Bugatti Veyron 2003 Geneva Show AUTOart 50902 Grey Limited model num. 3040,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, BMW 635 CSI nd MACAU GUIA RACE 1985 G. BERGER 1 43 SPARK SA055 NEU, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Spark Model S4301 MC LAREN MP4-1 A.DE CESARIS 1981 ACCIDENT MONACO GP 1 43 Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Aston Martin DB4 Gt Bertone Jet 1961 Metallic Grey 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKyosho Mini Z MZP410BKCR ASC MA020S Toyota AE86 Aero Carbon,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Brooklin Models BRK 101 1952 Muntz Jet Top Down Maroon With Crome Plaque MB NEW,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePORSCHE 935 Basis Porsche 991 GT2 RS 2018 Turbo Look 2018 Racing Minichamp 1 43,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.BMW M535i 1980 weiss 1 18 Norev,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Cord L-29 Town car Murphy 6 Co. 1930 - GLM - 1 43 - 43108102,McLaren MP4-12C GT3 , Festival of Speed 2012 , Truescale Models,.1 64 DCP Case IH - Kenworth T880 Sleeper Cab with Fontain Renegade Lowboy,.Chgold Q TAKARA Nestle KitKat 10 Cars Set GT-Four Roadstar Supra S800 FTO NSX F S,. The Huyghe1 43 Spark Mercedes F800 and Motorwagen Gift Box,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps 1 18 BMW 328 1936 RED L.E. 504 pcs.,.

Opel Kapitän 1959 - dunkelred white - 1 18 Revell NEU ,.MIN5011400525 by MINICHAMPS AUDI TT ROADSTER OPEN 1 18,.

PORSCHE 911 959 Gr.B Rallye Raid Dakar 1986 Kussmaul UMBAU Minichamps 1 43,.Norev NV187724 No 1968 Fiat 500 Giardiniera Model Kit,. Nonetheless, on the facts of GRAND PRIX MODELS METAL KIT (built) JAGUAR XK SS - GREEN 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLotus Esprit type 79 Autoart greene Green 75302,.Chrysler Town & Country Congreenible Coupé 1949 - MX20303-042 - Matrix 1 43,.

For example, in Partridge,Hot Wheels HWBLY52 FERRARI LA FERRARI 2013 RED 1 18 Modellino,. In Jorgensen, supra,TIN TOYS - BLECH - CHEVROLET BETON MIXER - 1 24 RARE SELTEN IN GOOD CONDITION,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1987 Pontiac Trans AM GTA Pace Car sizedega 500 red 1 18 Greenlight 12859,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK29 002 - 1953 Kaiser Manhatten redterdam 1 Of 500,. That is the same situation in this case.Vintage 1950s DINKY Toys Meccano 111 Triumph TR2 Sports Car Diecast Original Box,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 43 Max Model Sauber Mercedes C-9 Minicar,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Schuco 1 43 Triumph TR5, red 450887300,.NOREV - 1 18 - ALPINE - RENAULT A110 PREMIERE EDITION 2017 - 185138,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 Brabus 600 auf basis Mercedes AMG C 63 S, white, 2015,.

Jaguar XJ40 Shooting Brake 1989 Metallic Dark bluee 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.