NEO SCALE SCALE SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674 d33e30

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
NEO SCALE SCALE SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674 d33e30
BMW 520I E39 2002 TOURING DARK RED METAL NEO 43301 1 43 5ER RESINE BREAK SW,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast Model CC10705 - Scammell Ballast & Caravan,.Corgi Toys - Vintage Metal Model - Renault 16 - Tour de France - (Corgi 46),.Pagani Huyara Green Metallic 2013 (Spark 1 43 S3563),.First 1st Gear 1957 R-200 International Global Van Line Moving Van 1 34 19-1801,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Wonderful modelcar PEGASO Z-102 BERLINETTA TOURING 1955 - darkbluee - 1 43 - ltd.,.Neo Plymouth Valiant Wagon 1960 Green 1 43 47115,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ERTL 1 18 - 7936 1940 FORD DELUXE COUPE - MAROON,.Same Fortis 190 Infinity 2013 1 32 Weise WEIS1034 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Norev Renault 5 GT Turbo 1990 1 18 Oreille Roissard Rallye Monte-Carlo,.Provence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Peugeot 206 WRC Rally Finland 2001 N°1,.NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R JTC SUZUKA 1991 HASEMI OLOFSSON HPI RACING 8607 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

KS43000251 - ALFA ROMEO 2600 OSI DE LUXE 1965 BROWN MET. ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43 MOD,.Corgi Toys 97708 Tour France Set. Mini-Jag.Ferrari. Vintage, NEW ,.Tonka Tractor 1974-75 With Steering V-Good Fully Working Pressed Steel 11 Long,.MEBETOYS 6758 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPECIAL YELLOW MINT BOXED,.

Unique Unknown 1 43 Mercedes-Benz W116 Limousine Handmade Diecast Model Car,.Matchbox Superfast Purple Lotus Mint in box,.Sale 1 64 Hotwheels Plymouth Dodge Hemi,.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Super Car Series No.12 Lamborghini Aventador Roadster,.Vintage Matchbox Lesney d RARE Lotus Racing Car orange 1965,.

SAAB 92X 1 43 NOREV 810000,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2004 World Champ M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Hot Wheels Liberty Promotions DEEP DISH VW DRAG BUS 14th Nationals 1000,.AUTOART 1 32 SLOT CAR FORD MUSTANG GT '05 (LIME),Minichamps 155066205 1 18 Porsche 959 1987 grey metallic NEU OVP,.NEW ERTL 1966 FORD F-100 AND 1969 BOSS 302 MUSTANG WITH TRAILER WIX FILTERS,.

WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 1X 1938 MERCEDES BENZ TYPE 540K SPECIAL ROADSTER GREY,.Dub City 24 Jada Toy BIG BALLERS 2002 Cadillac Escalade 1 18 rare,.1 12 CAT C15 ACERT Diesel Engine Model Diecast Core Classics Series Toy,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

METOSUL MERCEDES-BENZ 200 whiteHE SUPERBE AVEC BOITE 1 43,.

1983 Cadillac Fleetwood Presidential Limousine With Flags,. We agree in part.

Bmw M535i Dark 1978 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Art Model AM0282 FERRARI 375 MM N.26 4th CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1953 SERENA-MANCIN,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Atlas Editions 1 43 Diecast Citroen DS Predotype S 1965 Collection France COA,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3962 1963 Chevrolet Nova Red,.1 43 Spark Porsche 919 Hybrid 2016 LeMans Car Raced Dealer Edition,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 48 Hot Wheels Collector Cars w Case Shelby Cobra Camero Felion Rat Zotic 1 64,.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 (993) TURBO TANNENGRUN METALLIC 430069202,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Ebro 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 2014 Red finished product,; MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 400 044493 OPEL VECTRA GTS V8 SHANGHAI DTM 2004 OPC H FASSLE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674,.MERCEDES 190E EVO2 DTM 1992 AMG BERLIN 2000 LOHR TRUE SCALE TSM124350 1 43,Ebro 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 2014 Red finished product,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.CORGI 1 50 th L E SCANIA T CAB TANKER CC12807 ,.

EAGLES RACE 1 18 - 43540 1941 CHEVROLET DELUXE CONgreenIBLE WITH SOFT TOP,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Western Models WP108 1 43 '83 Chevrolet Corvette White Metal Handmade Model Car,.Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 8V 1989 White SUNSTAR 1 18 SS3154,.Special Scale 1 24 Car Collection 31 Mazda R360 Coupe 1960 2017.11.14 Hachette,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 Spark Lola T70 MkIII Car from the 1967 BOAC 500 S1390,; CORGI 1 50 th L E SCANIA T CAB TANKER CC12807 ,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Coffret 3 Citroen Ds3 2012 Limited Edition 700 pcs 1 43 Model 155286 NOREV,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

NEO SCALE SCALE SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674 d33e30NEO SCALE SCALE SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674 d33e30NEO SCALE SCALE SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674 d33e30

Vintage Hot Wheels Purple Redline 1968 Twinmill Diecast Car & Badge Mattel Toy,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

48820 Ferrari GTO Evoluzione -1 18,Jouef Evolution Revell,ovp - sehr selten ,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Bentley Continental Flying Star Touring 2010 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - FERRARI 275 GTB 4 NART SPIDER - 1967 - 180234R,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 Spark Audi R10 TDI Car th in 2009 24 Hours of LeMans S0691,.BMW 520I E39 2002 TOURING DARK RED METAL NEO 43301 1 43 5ER RESINE BREAK SW,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast Model CC10705 - Scammell Ballast & Caravan,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi Toys - Vintage Metal Model - Renault 16 - Tour de France - (Corgi 46),.

Pagani Huyara Green Metallic 2013 (Spark 1 43 S3563),.First 1st Gear 1957 R-200 International Global Van Line Moving Van 1 34 19-1801,.Wonderful modelcar PEGASO Z-102 BERLINETTA TOURING 1955 - darkbluee - 1 43 - ltd.,.Neo Plymouth Valiant Wagon 1960 Green 1 43 47115,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.ERTL 1 18 - 7936 1940 FORD DELUXE COUPE - MAROON,.

Same Fortis 190 Infinity 2013 1 32 Weise WEIS1034 Model,.Norev Renault 5 GT Turbo 1990 1 18 Oreille Roissard Rallye Monte-Carlo,.Provence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Peugeot 206 WRC Rally Finland 2001 N°1,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, EAGLES RACE 1 18 - 43540 1941 CHEVROLET DELUXE CONgreenIBLE WITH SOFT TOP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R JTC SUZUKA 1991 HASEMI OLOFSSON HPI RACING 8607 1 43,.KS43000251 - ALFA ROMEO 2600 OSI DE LUXE 1965 BROWN MET. ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43 MOD,.Corgi Toys 97708 Tour France Set. Mini-Jag.Ferrari. Vintage, NEW ,.Tonka Tractor 1974-75 With Steering V-Good Fully Working Pressed Steel 11 Long,.MEBETOYS 6758 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPECIAL YELLOW MINT BOXED,.

Unique Unknown 1 43 Mercedes-Benz W116 Limousine Handmade Diecast Model Car, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Matchbox Superfast Purple Lotus Mint in box,.Sale 1 64 Hotwheels Plymouth Dodge Hemi,. The PartridgeAoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Super Car Series No.12 Lamborghini Aventador Roadster,.Vintage Matchbox Lesney d RARE Lotus Racing Car orange 1965,.SAAB 92X 1 43 NOREV 810000,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2004 World Champ M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Hot Wheels Liberty Promotions DEEP DISH VW DRAG BUS 14th Nationals 1000,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.AUTOART 1 32 SLOT CAR FORD MUSTANG GT '05 (LIME),.Minichamps 155066205 1 18 Porsche 959 1987 grey metallic NEU OVP,PartridgeNEW ERTL 1966 FORD F-100 AND 1969 BOSS 302 MUSTANG WITH TRAILER WIX FILTERS,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 1X 1938 MERCEDES BENZ TYPE 540K SPECIAL ROADSTER GREY,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Western Models WP108 1 43 '83 Chevrolet Corvette White Metal Handmade Model Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dub City 24 Jada Toy BIG BALLERS 2002 Cadillac Escalade 1 18 rare,; Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 8V 1989 White SUNSTAR 1 18 SS3154,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 12 CAT C15 ACERT Diesel Engine Model Diecast Core Classics Series Toy, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, METOSUL MERCEDES-BENZ 200 whiteHE SUPERBE AVEC BOITE 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1983 Cadillac Fleetwood Presidential Limousine With Flags,.

Bmw M535i Dark 1978 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Art Model AM0282 FERRARI 375 MM N.26 4th CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1953 SERENA-MANCIN, Clarke's negligent act.Atlas Editions 1 43 Diecast Citroen DS Predotype S 1965 Collection France COA,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3962 1963 Chevrolet Nova Red,.1 43 Spark Porsche 919 Hybrid 2016 LeMans Car Raced Dealer Edition,.

48 Hot Wheels Collector Cars w Case Shelby Cobra Camero Felion Rat Zotic 1 64,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Special Scale 1 24 Car Collection 31 Mazda R360 Coupe 1960 2017.11.14 Hachette,MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 (993) TURBO TANNENGRUN METALLIC 430069202,. In Noska,MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 400 044493 OPEL VECTRA GTS V8 SHANGHAI DTM 2004 OPC H FASSLE,.NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674,.MERCEDES 190E EVO2 DTM 1992 AMG BERLIN 2000 LOHR TRUE SCALE TSM124350 1 43,.Ebro 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 2014 Red finished product, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI 1 50 th L E SCANIA T CAB TANKER CC12807 ,.EAGLES RACE 1 18 - 43540 1941 CHEVROLET DELUXE CONgreenIBLE WITH SOFT TOP,.Western Models WP108 1 43 '83 Chevrolet Corvette White Metal Handmade Model Car,.Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 8V 1989 White SUNSTAR 1 18 SS3154,. Id., p 923.

Special Scale 1 24 Car Collection 31 Mazda R360 Coupe 1960 2017.11.14 Hachette,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 43 Spark Lola T70 MkIII Car from the 1967 BOAC 500 S1390,1 43 Spark Lola T70 MkIII Car from the 1967 BOAC 500 S1390,.Coffret 3 Citroen Ds3 2012 Limited Edition 700 pcs 1 43 Model 155286 NOREV,.Vintage Hot Wheels Purple Redline 1968 Twinmill Diecast Car & Badge Mattel Toy,.48820 Ferrari GTO Evoluzione -1 18,Jouef Evolution Revell,ovp - sehr selten ,.Bentley Continental Flying Star Touring 2010 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - FERRARI 275 GTB 4 NART SPIDER - 1967 - 180234R,.1 43 Spark Audi R10 TDI Car th in 2009 24 Hours of LeMans S0691,. The parties BMW 520I E39 2002 TOURING DARK RED METAL NEO 43301 1 43 5ER RESINE BREAK SW,.

Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast Model CC10705 - Scammell Ballast & Caravan,.Corgi Toys - Vintage Metal Model - Renault 16 - Tour de France - (Corgi 46),

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Coffret 3 Citroen Ds3 2012 Limited Edition 700 pcs 1 43 Model 155286 NOREV,; Pagani Huyara Green Metallic 2013 (Spark 1 43 S3563), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

First 1st Gear 1957 R-200 International Global Van Line Moving Van 1 34 19-1801,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Wonderful modelcar PEGASO Z-102 BERLINETTA TOURING 1955 - darkbluee - 1 43 - ltd.,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Neo Plymouth Valiant Wagon 1960 Green 1 43 47115,.ERTL 1 18 - 7936 1940 FORD DELUXE COUPE - MAROON,.Same Fortis 190 Infinity 2013 1 32 Weise WEIS1034 Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Norev Renault 5 GT Turbo 1990 1 18 Oreille Roissard Rallye Monte-Carlo,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Provence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Peugeot 206 WRC Rally Finland 2001 N°1,.NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R JTC SUZUKA 1991 HASEMI OLOFSSON HPI RACING 8607 1 43,.KS43000251 - ALFA ROMEO 2600 OSI DE LUXE 1965 BROWN MET. ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43 MOD,.Corgi Toys 97708 Tour France Set. Mini-Jag.Ferrari. Vintage, NEW ,.Tonka Tractor 1974-75 With Steering V-Good Fully Working Pressed Steel 11 Long,. The ScottsdaleMEBETOYS 6758 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPECIAL YELLOW MINT BOXED,Unique Unknown 1 43 Mercedes-Benz W116 Limousine Handmade Diecast Model Car,.Matchbox Superfast Purple Lotus Mint in box,. Id.,Sale 1 64 Hotwheels Plymouth Dodge Hemi,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Super Car Series No.12 Lamborghini Aventador Roadster,; Vintage Hot Wheels Purple Redline 1968 Twinmill Diecast Car & Badge Mattel Toy,Vintage Matchbox Lesney d RARE Lotus Racing Car orange 1965,.SAAB 92X 1 43 NOREV 810000,. The Scottsdale1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2004 World Champ M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels Liberty Promotions DEEP DISH VW DRAG BUS 14th Nationals 1000,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 48820 Ferrari GTO Evoluzione -1 18,Jouef Evolution Revell,ovp - sehr selten ,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bentley Continental Flying Star Touring 2010 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AUTOART 1 32 SLOT CAR FORD MUSTANG GT '05 (LIME),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps 155066205 1 18 Porsche 959 1987 grey metallic NEU OVP,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, NEW ERTL 1966 FORD F-100 AND 1969 BOSS 302 MUSTANG WITH TRAILER WIX FILTERS, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 1X 1938 MERCEDES BENZ TYPE 540K SPECIAL ROADSTER GREY, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Dub City 24 Jada Toy BIG BALLERS 2002 Cadillac Escalade 1 18 rare,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 12 CAT C15 ACERT Diesel Engine Model Diecast Core Classics Series Toy,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, METOSUL MERCEDES-BENZ 200 whiteHE SUPERBE AVEC BOITE 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1983 Cadillac Fleetwood Presidential Limousine With Flags,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Bmw M535i Dark 1978 bluee White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Art Model AM0282 FERRARI 375 MM N.26 4th CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1953 SERENA-MANCIN,Atlas Editions 1 43 Diecast Citroen DS Predotype S 1965 Collection France COA,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3962 1963 Chevrolet Nova Red,.1 43 Spark Porsche 919 Hybrid 2016 LeMans Car Raced Dealer Edition,. The Huyghe48 Hot Wheels Collector Cars w Case Shelby Cobra Camero Felion Rat Zotic 1 64,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 (993) TURBO TANNENGRUN METALLIC 430069202,.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 400 044493 OPEL VECTRA GTS V8 SHANGHAI DTM 2004 OPC H FASSLE,.NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674,.

MERCEDES 190E EVO2 DTM 1992 AMG BERLIN 2000 LOHR TRUE SCALE TSM124350 1 43,.Ebro 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 2014 Red finished product,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CORGI 1 50 th L E SCANIA T CAB TANKER CC12807 ,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeEAGLES RACE 1 18 - 43540 1941 CHEVROLET DELUXE CONgreenIBLE WITH SOFT TOP,.Western Models WP108 1 43 '83 Chevrolet Corvette White Metal Handmade Model Car,.

For example, in Partridge,Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 8V 1989 White SUNSTAR 1 18 SS3154,. In Jorgensen, supra,Special Scale 1 24 Car Collection 31 Mazda R360 Coupe 1960 2017.11.14 Hachette,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 Spark Lola T70 MkIII Car from the 1967 BOAC 500 S1390,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Coffret 3 Citroen Ds3 2012 Limited Edition 700 pcs 1 43 Model 155286 NOREV,. That is the same situation in this case.Vintage Hot Wheels Purple Redline 1968 Twinmill Diecast Car & Badge Mattel Toy,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.48820 Ferrari GTO Evoluzione -1 18,Jouef Evolution Revell,ovp - sehr selten ,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Bentley Continental Flying Star Touring 2010 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - FERRARI 275 GTB 4 NART SPIDER - 1967 - 180234R,.1 43 Spark Audi R10 TDI Car th in 2009 24 Hours of LeMans S0691,.

BMW 520I E39 2002 TOURING DARK RED METAL NEO 43301 1 43 5ER RESINE BREAK SW,.