Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals FERRARI F399 N.4 E. IRVINE (WITH MARLBgold DECALS) - HOT WHEELS 1 18,.1962 Volkswagen T1 VW a. J. Bus Samba 9 Sitze 25 Window bluee Cream 1 18 Kk New,.1967 Pontiac GTO Die Cast Route Wix Collectibles 1 24 Scale,.DINKY SUPERTOYS 948 - Tractor Trailer McLean 1960s,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 43 Russian Cabriolet Limousine ZIL-111G grey 1962 Handmade Kherson-Models,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 437 019130 - 1935 Audi Front 225 Roadster - bluee,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mattel Hot Wheels 1 18 Shelby GT 500 SVT 2007 red white (JS5324).o,.YatMing 92437 Sammelmodell Pontiac Bonneville 1958 Cabriolet Metal M.1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Fleischmann Auto Rallye 1 32 Porsche C6 RED Some Work Nice Condition,.JADA COLLECTORS CLUB LIMITED 1957 CHEVROLET BEL AIR 1 24,.Hpi 1 43 Alfa Romeo 155 V6 TI 1996 ITC Suzuka Ver.hpi8091 Best Buy Sale, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Lincoln Mark 6 Sedan 1979 1 43 NEO 43540,.Pritschen Magirus Rundhauber Hängerzug THYSSEN IMU H0 1 87 å,.MISTRAL FERRARI 575 BARON CONNOR RACING LE MANS 2004 1 43,.1 18 AutoArt Lamborghini Reventon in Matte Grey 74591,.
CORGI 1 50 EX71007 - RENAULT FAINEANT FOURGON - T M O CALBERSON,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 33772 BMW Z8 Red Roadster Model Car,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3058 - F1 Sauber C32-Ferrari Australian GP 2013,.BMW 545 Kyosho modellino 1 18,.BURAGO SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 FERRARI 458 SPECIALE ROSSA ART 18-16903,.
1 18 Highway 61 Saturn L300 Sport Sedan red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Original 1969 Mattel Hot Wheels Redline TNT Bird bluee White Interior Ford Nice,.NZG777 01 - MAN TGX 4x2 CHROME - 1 50,.NEO MODELS NEO46155 1 43 PUMA GT COUPE RED 1969,1 24 ACTION Ryan Reed '14 Mustang American Diabetes Assoc. 1 of 500,.( GO ) 1 18 Kyosho BMW 1 er Coupe NEU OVP,.
Matrix Scale Models 2013 Aston Martin Bertone Jet 2 Concept gold 1 43,.LESNEY MATCHBOX B redINOFF ATLANTIC PRIME MOVER,16B ATLANTIC TRAILER RARE,.Vintage Dinky 161B - Anti Aircraft Gun On Trailer - In Collecta Box 2nd Listing,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Citroën DS 19 1959 - 1 18 - Norev,.
PORSCHE 911 TURBO green Olive 1977 1 18 930 933,. We agree in part.
1941 Cadillac Fleetwood Series 60 Special Sedan blue 118 MC Group 18072,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S3090 - F1 Lotus Renault Malaysian GP 2014,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Minichamps Jaguar XKR GT3 2008 greymetallic 150 081390,.DV7945 ELIGOR HOTCHKISS PL20 PL50 FOURGON INCENDIE 1969 1 43 Ref 101426 NB,.CONRAD - METALLMODELL MERCEDES STETTER TRANSPORTBETONMISCHER OVP 1 50 (7.BM-161),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ebbro 45366 Honda CIVIC TYPE R 2015 1 43 scale,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3028 Lamborghini Diablo 1990 Light bluee,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Lesney Matchbox Superfast 63 Freeway Gas Tanker ARAL Petrol Boxed Toy Model 70mm,; Spark 1 43 Porsche 956 - Le Mans 1983 - M. Andretti M. Andretti Alliot,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Chevrolet Special De Luxe Congreenible 1941 Beige NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46991 Model,.Porsche 911 (991) Club Coupe dunkelgreen 1 18 GT-Spirit NEW GT007-CS SALE,A.L.C.A Volpe - blue - 1 of 333 - autocult - 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ebbro 44556 Costin Nathan GT 1968 Green (Resin Model) 1 43 scale,.
PRX47045 - Camion de Pompier TATRA 111 R , Cas 12 - 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MINICHAMPS 430 050090 VW 181 Kübel Bundeswehr red 1 of 1008,.ERTL Set of 2 UNRESTORED & RESTORED 1957 Chevy Bel Air 1 18 diecast cars 2500 pc,.SUNSTAR 1 18 AMERICAN COLLECTIBLES 1939 CHEVROLET WOODY SURF WAGON W SURFBOARD,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1935 Auburn 851 Boat Tail Speedster Ertl 1 18th scale die cast Model 1936 852 SC,; 1 43 Spark Street Triumph Dolomite Sprint 1973 in Yellow S0519,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Fiat Regata Weekend 100s I.e. 1986 White 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
DINKY 213 FORD CAPRI RALLY CAR - NR MINT in original BOX,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Burago 1 18 Scale Model Car 3366 - 1997 Chevrolet Corvette - Red,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
BURAGO 1 18 3529 FERRARI 348TB EVOLUZIONE 1991 RED,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
MATRIX VOLKSWAGEN T1 AUWAERTER CARLUX BUS 1963 - WHITE+RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 39,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 50 Scale Caterpillar CAT 85928 Wheel Loader 966M Diecast Vehicles Collection,.Ferrari California T Closed 2014 Amarant Metallic Signature 1 18 Model BBURAGO,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.MODEL ROAD REPLICAS MRR No.3 - FORD E83W VAN - ASHFORD MODEL COLLECTORS CLUB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Mercedes Benz S-Class 560Sel Kombi (W126) 1990 Kess Model 1 43 KE43037020 Model,.
NOREV AC Cobra - white Apink,.Hot Wheels Renault R24 2004 1 18 Jarno Trulli (ITA) (F1NB),.Best 1 43 1966 Ferrari 330 GTC in Metallic Light bluee,.Minichamps 437032502 Brabus 6.5 500E W124 1989,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T3 BUS LIMITED LAST EDITION - 1992 - 180141B,.
1 43 IXO Hispano Suiza H6C Tulipwood 1924,.1 16 MGA Twin Cam TG VHTF,.Spark Model S43SE11 PEUGEOT 908 N.10 WINNER 12H SEBRING 2011 LAPIERRE-DUVAL-PANI,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Art Model AM0196 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA N.78 ACCIDENT 1000 KM NURBURGRING 1960 1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Vintage Corgi Toys Smith Karrier Mobile Canteen 1 43 Diecast Model Car,.Corgi 1 50 Scale - 76404 Scania Curtainside Prestons of Potto,.Neo Scale Models NEO45242 OPEL ASCONA B GR.2 N.5 RALLY ANTIBES 1980 J.L.CLARR-J.,.PORSCHE 911 934 Turbo Le Mans 1980 Almeras Hoepfner Eminence Esso Spark 1 43,.1971 Hot Wheels Redline Sugar Caddy bluee 1969 USA Base Solid EX+ C-8,.
V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL015 FERRARI F430 F 430 RED MIB RARE, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3355 Porsche 911 GT3 CUP UPS,.1 24 Franklin Mint Mercedes-Benz Simplex 1904 VP,. The PartridgeEbbro 45135 Gathers ACCORD JTCC 1997 No.33 White 1 43 scale,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 32 - Delage 1.5 Litre 1951 - bluee,.Ebbro 1 43 Courage Mugen LC70 Courage Competition LM 24h 2006 from Japan,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, LOTUS 77 GP GIAPPONE 1976 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.AUDI TT ROADSTER silver DEALER-VERSION NEW DIE-CAST ART. 501.05.005.15 1 18,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 diecast 1969 Chevy Yenko Camaro Issue,.Mercedes Benz 250T T modell W123 Kombi 1 43 Minichamps Limited Station Wagon,PartridgeUSSR. COMPANION LADA VAZ 2108 09 SAMARA SKIF WITH BOAT. Sc.1 43. RARE MIOB ,.Wonderful NEO-modelcar Pontiac Bonneville US Dreamcar 1954 -greenmetallic- 1 43,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, GLOBE TOYS (MAJORETTE) MERCEDES 350 SL CABRIO WITH AW MADE IN FRANCE MOC, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1953 CORVETTE 50TH ANNIVERSARY COLLECTION WHITE NEW,; WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 108 1983 CHEVROLET CORVETTE ORAN,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Dodge Polara 1972 Maryland State Police 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Hot Wheels 2004 Treasure Hunt - Rare Morris Wagon w Real Riders RR of 12, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSUN STAR Ford Escort MkIII RS1600i 18 4965,.
1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 993 Ruf TurboR grey SP NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.DUESENBERG MODEL J TORPEDO CONgreenIBLE COUPE 1929 437150430 Minichamps 1 43 New , Clarke's negligent act.Faller 1 43 Mercedes Benz 200 8 W115, red in Mercedes Händler Box,.Mercedes-Benz L911 Horse Transporters (Brown),.Dinky Toys ROUTEMASTER City Bus VISIT MADAME TUSSAUD'S Mint Boxed,.
Konvolut alte Modellautos__9 LKW`s__Brekina__ ,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 40 Cadillac Fleetwood Series 75 1 18 Scale The Godfather, Boxed & Sealed,WSI 04-2063 Daf XF SSC MY2017 Red 1 50 Scale,. In Noska,Neo Tatra T600 Tatraplan 1948 Red 1 43 46162,.05961 SCHUCO Piccolo 1 90 Lancia Stratos HF Pirell San Remo 1978,.PORSCHE 911 type 930 CABRIOLET US black 1 43,.Spark Model S4477 PORSCHE 959 KOMFORT 1983 RED 1 43 Modellino, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Matchbox Curtiss Wright Rear Dumper very nice condition with box,.Mercedes 280 SE Cabrio 1969 brown 1 18 Norev 183568 neu & OVP,.1 18 Otto mobile Model Spoon Honda Integra Type R DC2 Yellow OT792,.SCHUCO Edition 1 43 Porsche 911 RS 2.7 - Touring, weiss red Art. Nr. 03553,. Id., p 923.
Renault 5 winner turbo tour de corse 1984 1 43,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Delahaye Type 135-M Cabriolet 1937 - 1 43 - Minichamps,Matrix Talbot Lago T26 Cabriolet by Antem 1950 White Ref MX51904-011,.Matrix Scale Models - Siata 208 S Motto Spider (1953) yellow - Limited Edition,.Spark Model S4348 BRABHAM BT49C H.REBAQUE 1981 N.6 DNQ MONACO GP 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 Schuco (Germany) Mercedes Benz L 322 Sinalco,.Bentley Continental DHC (red) 1985,.1 24 ACTION Greg Biffle '13 Fusion M Pink 1 of 592,.MOKO LESNEY ACCESSORY MODEL No.A-3 GARAGE VN MIB,. The parties 1 24 DANBURY MINT 1957 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CONgreenIBLE blueE,.
Mercedes AMG Gt (C190) 2015 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Maisto Exclusive,.Speccast 54017 CHEVY COUPE CHEVROLET LOGO 1954,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MINICHAMPS McLAREN F1 GTR - BMW POWERED - 1st LE MANS 1995 1 43 - IN DEALER BOX,; LANSDOWNE LDM77 RILEY1.5 SALOON 1957-58 - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
MINI GT Nissan GTR R35 LB Works Zero Fighter Hong Kong Limited japan officiel,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Cadillac Ser.62 Miller Meteor 1957 Carro Funebre + Bara NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46840 M,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps Audi Quattro - 1980 - silver - 1 18,.TEK69679 - Camion 4x2 SCANIA T5 Torpedo - 1 50,.1976.- FORD MUSTANG II COBRA II ADELBERT´S II whiteo-blue 1 18 Greenlight 1288,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S. 1930 bluee Minichamps 1 43 400120431 Model,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Jaguar C-TYPE - AUTOart 1 43 scale - (British Racing Green) 53501 Model Car RARE,.Alfa Romeo 2000 Praho Touring 1960 Dark Green MATRIX 1 43 MX50102-081 Model,.Minichamps 1 43 Auto Union Typ Lucca 1935,.1970 Chevelle Baldwin Motion orange 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32514,.1 43 1960 Holden FB Utility golden Fleece Trax TR73D,. The ScottsdaleUT MODELS 1 18 - 180 024330 BMW Z3 CABRIOLET RED,1 24TH SCALE FRANKLIN MINT 1967 CHEVROLET CORVETTE. 427 L88. B11UL65,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK38 - 1939 Graham Combination Coupe - Beige,. Id.,1 43 Ferrari 250 Tr 1958,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ERTL 1 18 32760 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1966 SHELBY COBRA - RED,; Carretera Campeones Dodge Viper Rt 10 Remoto Inalámbrico Coche Juguete -,Wonderful NEO-modelcar PONTIAC BONNEVILLE CONgreenIBLE 1968 - blueemetallic - 1 43,.1 43 PORSCHE 911 GT2 (993) STP 24h DAYTONA 1996 by MINICHAMPS,. The ScottsdaleDurham Classics 1 43 Scale - DC8A - 1938 Lincoln Zephyr Top Up - Metallic Green,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 CLUB COUPE (991) 1 18 GT SPIRIT (GREEN),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 43 TSM Fujimi Lamborghini Gallardo LP600-4GT3 24H Spa 2011 Gulf Racing,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ghia 450Ss Congreenible 1966 Red Ed.Lim.1 Of 408 1 43 Matrix Mx10701-032 Miniat.,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 450347600 VW T3 a Joker Camper Van 1 43 Scale Vehicle,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, CITROEN TRACTION 11 FOURGONNETTE Les Jouets Citroen ELYSEE 521 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, MINICHAMPS. Ford Escort Cosworth. 1 43. Yellow . 1992. Ltd Ed 430 082105, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DCP Jim Aartman Peterbilt 379 w Brenner Chemical Tank Trailer 1 64, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SCHUCO 03461 BORGWARD B 2500 FEUERWEHR STADT MAYEN 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeVintage Dinky Supertoys 20 Ton Lorry Mounted Crane Crane Coles No. 972 Boxed,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Best Model BT9351 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.36 52th LM 1969 PILETTE- SLOTEMAKER 1 43 Mod,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHot Wheels RLC '72 Ford Gran Torino Sport Real Riders in PredECTOR,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.JOYRIDE 1932 FORD ROADSTER BOYD CODINGTON AMERICAN HOTROD 1 18 SCALE,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Nissan Cherry Coupe X-1R  1 24 Diecast Model Hachette Japan Cars 61 Datsun,Corgi CC13201 DAF XF SUPER SPACE CAP CURTAINSIDE EDDIE STOBART LTD CARLISLE 1 50,.1 18 Greenlight - 1973 Ford Falcon XB The Last Interceptor,.Solido Peugeot 206 WRC 2002 1 18 Burns Reid Rallye Cataluña (MCC),. The HuyghePorsche 911 GT3 RS - blue, NOREV 1 18,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRare Dinky 190 Monteverdi 375L & original Dinky Showcase Box and Lid,.
Wonderful modelcar BMW 535i (E12) 1978 - darkbluee metallic - 1 43 - lim.700,.Lamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 2014 Red Autoart 1 43 AA54604 Miniature,.
Corgi Vanguards RD1002 Ford 109E Brands Hatch Diorama Ltd Edit. No. 0001 of 4000,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 G. VENTO IMSA GT3 CHALLENGE IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 2018 Audi R8 Spyder V10 Dinamite Red 1 18 Dealer Edition 5011618552,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLand Rover Freelander 2 2007 Hongwell Cararama 1 72 Rare,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 10 1978 McLAREN M26 JAMES HUNT,.
For example, in Partridge,Spark 1 43 Sunbeam Tiger - Monte Carlo Rally 1965 - P. Harper I. Ha,. In Jorgensen, supra,Kit 1 43 RENAULT R24 GP MONACO 2004 1° J.TRULLI Tameo SLK013,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.PEM 1 64 Scale Coca-Cola International COE 45' Trailer,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,2018 Hotwheels 18th Collectors Nationals Bingo '40 FORD COUPE Red White and bluee,. That is the same situation in this case.GT Spirit 1 18; 2014 Porsche 911 Carrera 4S 5 Million; Met bluee; Excellent Boxed,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 Minichamps MB SLS AMG GT3 Rowe Racing Nürnburgring 2012 151 123122,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Art Model AM0272 FERRARI 290 MM N.9 2nd 24H SPA 1957 M.GREGORY 1 43,.BMW 5er (F10), metallic-gold, 1 18, Welly,.Spark Model SG126 MERCEDES C-COUPE' N.17 DTM 2013 D.JUNCADELLA 1 43 Modellino,.
NZG Scania R500 3-achs Sattelschlepper Top R8RB,.