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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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1 43 Spark Porsche 908 03 Car H of LeMans S1998,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM13 - 1966 Morris Oxford 1 Of 600 Maroon,.1 43 Mini Champs Jaguar Xj220,.Autoart 1 43 Scale Diecast 53602 - Jaguar XJR - White,.Universal Hobbies UH4921 NEW HOLLAND T6.175 1 32 Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Schuco Porsche 356 Carrera Speedster 43 450883800,.AA71014 by AUTOART CALLAWAY C12 ARTCAR MUKO 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.FN MONOGRAM PC169 KIT 1 32 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE,.Neo Mercury Park Lane Hardtop 1959 Light Beige 1 43 46051,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Citroen Xanae Salon De Paris 1994 Green Franstyle 1 43 FRANSTYLE0003,.1937 Cord SuperCharged model 812 Sportsman S C 1 12th scale AMT ERTL Plastic Kit,.Burago 1 18 Alfa Romeo 2300 Spider (1932) white - 3008 - Die-Cast Modell Auto OVP, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 MINICHAMPS UT MODELS OLD SPICE OPEL CALIBRA V6 ROSBERG ITC 1995 YELLOW blueE,.Dinky Toys 199 Austin Se7en Countryman mint in box all original condition,.MARK43 PM4334BL 1 43 Lexus LFA RHD bluee Pearl model cars,.Spark 1 43 Norma M20 - Pikes Peak Winner 2016 - Romain Dumas,.

Porsche Mission-E Cross Turismo 2018 Light Grey Porsche p 1 43 SPARK WAP0209000J,.D86 IMU REPLIKA 8 STK MAGIRUS 3500 MB 5000 PRITSCHE green Forst Thyssen 1 87 HO,.TEKNO DENMARK 702 HARLEY DAVIDSON MOTOR - WEGENWACHT - IN GOOD CONDITION,.Suzuki SX4 S-Cross SUV 1 18 model car,.VINTAGE FRENCH DINKY TOYS 24B PEUGEOT 403 EXCELLENT-- FRANCE CAR 1 43,.

Ebbro 1 43 Courage Mugen LC70 Courage Competition LM 24h 2006 from Japan,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Bmw M6 Gt3 MINICHAMPS 1 43 437152699 Miniature,.Juke Steel bluee 1 43,.VINTAGE HUBLEY RED PIPER CUB & RACE CAR 1960'S,Hot Wheels Liberty Promotions Pirates Caribbean VW DRAG BUS Captain Kidd,.Matchbox RW 23C blueebird Caravan metallicbrown greye Räder in D Box,.

Matchbox SF Nr.28C Lincoln Continental red white dunkelbrowne Einr. in franz. Box,.CEF Replex 43 n° 406 Camion Renault Pompiers Sauvetage déblaiement neuf MIB,.Lesney Matchbox Superfast 1970 Mercedes 230 SL Mint w Orig. Box,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

SCHUCO 07725 - 1 32 MERCEDES-BENZ UNIMOG U1600 - WINTERDIENST (orange) NEW,.

Boxed Dinky Toys Dinky 131 Cadillac Tourer Pink Body, Grey Interior Cream Hubs,. We agree in part.

Autocult 1 43 Glasspar G2 USA BEIGE 1952 L.E. 333 pcs.,.Mercedes S600 (1997) 1 18 Norev 183593,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MINICHAMPS 1 18 NSU RO 80 1972 YELLOW 151015402,.Kalmar Schwer Gabelstapler Stapler forklift NEU OVP,.Art Model AM0133 FERRARI 315 S 335 S PROVA 1957 RED 1 43 Modellino,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; DINKY TOYS No 163 BRISTOL 450 SPORTS COUPE BOXED 1956,.Oldsmobile 98 cabriolet dore 1959 voiture miniature 1 43 collection neo 46081,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 8v 1989 Quartz Grey 1 18 Model 3155 SUN STAR,; Dodge Sportsman San Diego Ambulance 1973 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Batmobile 1940 S 1 43,. VINTAGE 1967 - 1969 CORGI TOYS NO 340 RALLYE MONTE CARLO SUNBEAM IMP ,NEO Maserati Quattroporte III 1978 Metallic 1 43 44565,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3008 Alfa Romeo 2300 Spider 1932 White bluee model car,.

Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 1973 White Red PMA Grand Prix,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Kess Model KS43011020 CITROEN CX 25 TRD TURBO 2 BREAK 1986 GUN GREY MET.1 43 Mod,.Ford Focus ST 2011 Race Red 1 43 Minichamps 410081001 NEW,.Citroen Ds5 2015 Ink bluee NOREV 1 18 NV181616 Miniature,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Spark Model S0403 BMW 320 I RKBLOM ETCC 2002 1 43,; Renault Caravelle, blue-Metallic, 1 18 - NOREV,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 Spark Street Lotus Europa Twin Cam from 1971 in Red S2215,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Corgi Toys 218 Aston Martin DB4 yellow with free spinning wheels (1),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Spark Model S3812 BENTLEY BROOKLANDS 1992 DARK RED 1 43 Modellino,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

BH743-0,5Wiking H0 1 87 Modell Sprengwagen Ford 3500 unverglast; 640 2; s.g.,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

16x HOT WHEELS STAR WARS POP CULTURE NEW 2016 & 2017,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Subaru BTZ 2012 Galaxy bluee Silica 1 43 Model 44805 EBBRO,.Brand White Pearl Crystal Shine 1 43 Toyota Crown Royal,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Brand Item No. 79 Dome F106 Toyota,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi classics No 12802 is the model of the Scania T cab and Bulk tipper Stobart,.

Mercedes S-Klasse Coupe 2014 black 1 18 Norev neu + OVP 18482,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 - P9915 FERRARI 575 GTZ ZAGATO - METALLIC GREY,.1 18 Autoart Cadillac CTS-V SCCA World Challenge GT 2004 Winner Sebring,.CORGI 1 50 CC13216 DAF XF SPACE CAB CURTAIN - SW WREFORD & SONS LTD,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Audi 80 B4 1992 Light Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43354 Model,.

KAMAZ 53212 khaki SSM1279 1 43,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44575 ASTON MARTIN DB4 GT BERTONE JET 1961 METALLIC GREY 1 4,.MINICHAMPS OPEL DIPLOMAT 5.4 MONZAblue 430046072,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Fast and Furious 1 18 2003 Nissan 350Z,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ford Galaxie 500, Cabrio, Bj. 1964, hellblue, 1 18, Sun Star,.Best Model BT9492 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.25 ACCIDENT 24H DAYTONA 1969 DIBOS-CALABATTI,.P DINKY TOYS 240 COOPER RACING CAR GREY HELMET MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,.1 18 BoS Bentley Continental Flying Star by Touring 2010,.Norev 183589. Coche colección. Mercedes 280 CE 1980 blue metálico. Escala 1 18,.

SSM ZIL-4333 Vacuum tanker KO-520 bluee oran 1 43 1256, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Siku 1 55 Mercedes Benz Recycling Transporter ÖTV Werbemodell OVP,.Vaso 1 18 Hotwheels Bcj76 Batman Hwmvbcj76 Hot Wheels The Dark Knight Rises,. The Partridge1 43 Bizarre Alfa Romeo BAT 7 from Glendale 1955 BZ365,.Maisto - Special Edition - Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Roadster - 1 24,.Corgi Master Replicas Toy Fair 2007 TY93905 Mini, Coin & Lightsaber Set NEW,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Diecast Car Model All New Jeep Grand Commander 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT , although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Dism Toyota Soara Ibaraki Prefectural Police Car Minicar,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Hot Wheels Premium Car Entertainment Halo 5 Fahrzeuge Mattel DMC55,.VW Volkswagen T4 Caravelle Bus Fensterbus grey grey 1992 KK Scale 1 18,PartridgeDINKY TOYS Meccano England original covered TRACTOR green with red wheels,.1 43 Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 23 2008 Brazilian GP L. Hamilton 530084352,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Betonpumpe Readymix 1 50 CONRAD Model OVP Werbemodell, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BMW 1600 cabrio, 1 43 von Minichamps in OVP und Plexiglashaube, Rarität,; GREENLIGHT HOT PURSUIT LE 2008 DODGE CHARGER-RIDLEY TOWNSHIP POLICE SERIES 1 NEW,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, ERTL American Muscle 1968 Olds 442 1 18 Scale Diecast Oldsmobile Model Car, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Lesney Matchbox Superfast Clear Plastic Storage Display Boxes 250 Toy Model Cars, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHOT WHEELS 1 18 - 29441 FERRARI 550 BARCHETTA PININFARINA - RED,.

1 43 SSM1178 KrAZ-255 AC-8.5 Military SSM,.FB Models 1 43 Scale FB241 - Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Mille Miglia 1932 A.Celli, Clarke's negligent act.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 976627 - Porsche 911 GT 1 Le Mans 1997,.DINKY TOYS NO. 429 FLAT TRAILER - RED - 1950'S - APPEARS UNUSED OB -,.Audi 200 quattro 20V (dunkelred metallic) 1990,.

Spark Model S2524 OAK PESCAROLO-JUDD N.24 LM 2011 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Citroen Gt Mother of Pearl, Salon de Paris 2008, Model Car 1 18 Norev,1 18 Dealer Edition Ford Everest Die Cast Model,. In Noska,1 43 Trofeu Ford Capri 2600 RS 1972 24H of Spa Car TRF 2307,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3041 Lamborghini Diablo 1990 yellow,.Schuco 1 43 Porsche 911 (993) Turbo Speed Yellow,.Mercedes Benz W124 E320 T Break Herpa 1 43, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Schuco Classic 450112400 Wendeauto 1010 Schnittmodell NEU OVP,.Mark Martin Aarons Nascar Unites color Chrome diecast 1 of 72 made,.BENTLEY 1 43 SCALE LIMITED EDITION DIE CAST MULSANNE SPEED MODEL CAR NIB NOS.,.1 43 Russian bus ART TA-9A Bread delivery 1958 Handmade,. Id., p 923.

NEO NEO45833 1 43 CHEVROLET FLEETLINE AEpinkDAN 1948 BEIGE WOODEN,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W180 220S Ponton 1958 Polizei 1 43 Faller-Minichamps,SAVA J4 J-4 AUSTIN 1 43 BIMBO ,.MOSKVITCH 1 43 USSR RARE SELTEN - IN GOOD CONDITION,.1 18 AUTOWORLD ERTL 1970 PONTIAC FIREBIRD DON GAY FUNNY CAR,.Vintage 70s Ideal Light Glow Mini City, Carry Case Original Lesley Matchbox Cars,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.192 RANGE ROVER BRONZE WITH LIGHT blueE INTERIOR MIB,.SIKU 305 POSTWAGEN, STUNNING VINTAGE MODEL IN EXCELLENT BOX. PARCELS ON SPRUE.,.PONTIAC GTO 1967 RARE RARE RARE HOT WHEELS 1 64 Factory Flaw,. The parties Dinky Toys 207 Triumph TR 7 Rally in O-Box,.

Hot Wheels Ferrari lot of 16 cars. 575 GTS, 156, 512 LM M, F512M, 333 SP, 360,.FRANKLIN MINT PRECISION MODELS VOITURE CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ 1959,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 50 DM Caterpillar Cat 323 Hydraulic Excavator Next Generation Models,; FORD MUSTANG cabriolet black 1964 1 2 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Baymo 1 43 BMW M3 GTR E36 GT-Cup 1993 Team Isert Handmade Resin Model Car Kit,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Audi Tt Roadster, 1 18, Tango Red, Nip,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)TRUESCALE MINIATURES - 1 43 - PAGANI HUAYRA PACCHETTO TEMPESTA 2016 - TSM430185,.FROBLY 1 43ème CORD L29 COUPE 1931 REF 1001,.Autoart 1 18 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RSR 2007 Presentation OVP Tutta Apribile,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3395 Porsche 911 GT3 CUP Giraudy,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Norev 1 43 - Boxset VW Coccinelle Champion and 5 Cyclists Tour de France 2001,.KAMAZ 5440 yellow SSM1247 1 43,.Neo Scale Models NEO45600 ALFA ROMEO 2600 SPRINT ZAGATO 1967 RED 1 43 Modellino,.1965 Pontiac GTO Danbury Mint 1 24 Diecast Original Box & Papers,.Neo 1 43 Scale Model Car NEO45640 - Maserati Sebring II - Metallic Red,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps Jordan Peugeot 196 1996 1 18 Rubens Barrichello (BRA) (F1NB),1 43 Hummer Military Ambulance Us.Aumy,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 CHRYSLER GHIA FALCON 1955 LIGHT GREEN METALLIC,. Id.,IXO - 1 43 - PETERBILT 350 - PRESTON PEOPLE 1952 - TTR003,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Scale US005 - Nissan Deltawing Hrs Of Sebring 2013,; TSM Models 1 43 McLaren P1 in Matte Red ,Aston Martin Db2 4 Competition Spyder Bertone 1953 Red 1 43 Matrix MX40108-031,.Spark Bentley Brookland 1992 1 43 S3812,. The ScottsdaleVintage USSR Soviet Model VAZ 2101 Diecast Car Made In Belarus - New In Box,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels Williams FW27 2005 1 18 Mark Webberr (AUS),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Saab 9000 CDE Beige Metallic (Neo Scale 1 43 44595),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CORGI THE EDDIE STOBART STORY gold PLATED SET SCALE 1 64 CC86610,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Renault Alpine A110 R8 956 1963 Red 1 43 Minichamps-R5 Fuego,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, LLEDO BRITISH MOTORING CLASSICS 1960'S 24 CARAT gold PLATED SET,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Hot Wheels Mclaren MP4-15 Mika Hakkinen, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Final Minicar 1 43 Ford Mustang, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Vintage 1950s Tonka Red Steam Shovel with Original Paint and Decals,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHOSTARO 44 BUILT KIT RESIN + METAL OPEL KADETT C COUPE - 1 43 - GOOD IN BOX,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Spark Model S43LM00 AUDI R8 N.8 WINNER LM 2000 T.KRISTENSEN-E.PIRRO-F.BIELA 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSpark Model S0683 AUDI R 10 N.3 LM 2007 1 43 Modellino,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.KESS MODEL KS43014051 MASERATI 3500 GT FRUA COUPE' 1961 RED ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Red Line Models Ferrari F599 GTB Fiorano RL110,McLaren MP4-1 Winner GP British 1981 J.Watson S4300 1 43 Sparkmodel,.VW Volkswagen Bus T3 Multivan bluee Star blue bluee 1993 Norev NEU NEW 1 18,.CHTZ 100 tractor khaki SSM 3022 1 43,. The HuygheSpark Model S1958 PORSCHE RS N.5 LE MANS 2009 1 43 Modellino,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 43 1959 Mercury Park Line Hardtop NEO 46051,.

Porsche 934 5 Sebring 12 Hr 3rd Place by TSM,.A Jgtc 2001 P-4 Ebbro Gt-R,.

Matrix Volkswagen Thing Limousine 1 43 MX32105-051,.Auto Pilen (Spain) 1 43 Oldsmobile Tgoldnado M.307 BOXED ,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Greenlight Muscle Car Garage 1971 71 AMC Javelin AMX Purple Die Cast 1 64 Loose,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFranklin Mint 1 24 Scale diecast 03AUG6 1938 Jaguar SS100 Cream,.1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1968 FORD MUSTANG COBRA JET blueE od,.

For example, in Partridge,Vw Bus T2B 1971 Artisan Collection Kansas 1 18 Greenlight GREEN19012 Model,. In Jorgensen, supra,Autocar Renault OS 1930-1935 Grand Hôtel Rétro 87 SAI 7434 - Echelle 1 87,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.FRANKLIN MINT 1957 BELAIR FUELIE LIMITED EDITION,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ros 50305 Laverda M306 Mietitrebbia 1 32,. That is the same situation in this case.Honda Civic eg6 Sir II Spoon yellow 5. Generation 1991-1996 nr 524 1 18 Ott...,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Alfa Romeo Zeta 6 Zagato 1983 Metallic Red 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Polistil S 14 Honda Coupé Z mint in box,.1 43 Minichamps Jacques Villeneuve Team Green Reynard Ford Indy Car,.Ebbro 20005 Team Lotus Type 49B 1969 1 20 scale kit,.

Vintage 1960's Tat Friction Toy Yellow Ford Econoline Camper Van Hong Kong,.