RARE RARE RARE Hispano Suiza H6C 1934 IXO Museum MUS005 1 43 2c0c4b

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
RARE RARE RARE    Hispano Suiza H6C 1934 IXO Museum MUS005 1 43 2c0c4b
Lone Star Impy No.21 Fiat 2300 Coupe green orange Einrichtung top in Box,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals LAZ 695R white green Soviet Bus 1 43,.MAISTO 1 18 - 36637 MORGAN AERO 8 - DARK GREEN,.Minichamps 1 43 - BMW M Roadster Kyalami orange,.Lamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 2014 White Autoart 1 43 AA54601,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 106 - Standard Flying 12 - Brown,.Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - S1850012 Citroen 2CV 007 James Bond Yellow Model Car,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Neo VW Jetta I - hellbrown - 1980 - 1 43,.ORIGINAL VINTAGE 1969 HOT WHEELS RED TOP ELIMINATOR NEAR MINT CONDITION CAR,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Abingdon Classics Kit Assembled Metal 1 43 - MGA bluee,.BBURAGO 0119 OPEL KADETT COUPE - GREEN 1 24 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.Porsche 964 Speedster 1993 Spark 1 43 S2043, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

MODELLINO 1 43 PORSCHE 914 6 RALLY MONTE CARLO 1971 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Minichamps 437082040 1 43 1934 Ford Model 40 Special Speedster Resin Model Car,.1 18 Norev 1980 Mercedes Benz 280 Ce C123 gold Metallic Limited Edition,.Ixo 1 18 Scale - 18CMC003 Fiat 131 Abarth 1980 Red,.

CAT CATERPILLAR 12M3 MOTOR GRADER 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85519 NEW,.Matrix Volkswagen Thing Limousine 1 43 MX32105-051,.Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet - elfenbein, 1987, NOREV 1 18,.REVELL® METAL 08824 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ SL 500 black NEU OVP,.Matchbox 47b Commer Ice Cream Van, 'Lyons Maid' in type D box,.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18-12034 2001 Mini Cooper Red White Model Car,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Soviet trolley bus Yatb 3 1938 USSR Ultra Models 1 43,.MAISTO 1 18 - 36637 MORGAN AERO 8 - DARK GREEN,.(Go) 1 18 Anson Mercedes Benz 230 SL NIP,Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider 1964 Light bluee Met KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180246,.Spark Model BMW 635 1983 Macau Guia Race D. Quester 1 43 SA053,.

New Scale 1 1 gold Metal Model (gold),Rolls-Royce Fabulous hood Ornament Mascot,.Cadillac Deville Congreenible 1970 gold Metallic, Model Car 1 43 ,.NOREV183494 - Voiture de courses MERCEDES AMG GT3 Daytona de2017 - 3rd Place GT,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Russian belorussian Maz 6303 + trailer 83781 SSM 1 43 SSM7054,.

Modellino Auto d'Epoca Vintage Citroen 22CV 1934 R50021 da Collezione Nuova Mint,. We agree in part.


A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.MODELER'S 1 43 Initial D Smiley Sakai DC2 Integra Resin Model MD43218,.BMW E9 1973 1 18 scale Model Miniature Collectible 80432411550 OEM,.1 43 Spark Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 Car H of LeMans S3429,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Bburago 1 18 gold Lamborghini Miura (1968) (color may vary),.1 18 Porsche 934 Schenken Nurburgring 1976 1 18 • Minichamps 155766452,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Audi 200 Quattro 20V 1990 Red Met. Art. 43039,; EXTREMELY RARE Minichamps Porsche 911 Turbo 1990 bluee Metallic 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Nart Spider 1967 Alloy Rims KK-SCALE 1 18 KKDC180233 Miniature,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast CC13233 - DAF XF Curtainside - Grampian Maclennans,FERRARI 250 TR n°17 Le Mans 1958,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Maisto 1 18 Scale 31149 - 2007 Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera - orange,.

Vintage 70s Ideal Light Glow Mini City, Carry Case Original Lesley Matchbox Cars,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.FIRST 18 1 18 HONDA S800 Congreenible Yellow F18-013 Diecast Model,.Auto World 1 43 Scale AWR1150 - 1974 Dodge Monaco New York Police - bluee Yellow,.1 18 EAGLE'S RACE PORSCHE 911 S PURPLE rd,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, PRXPLC47032 - Camion Citerne Tatra 111C BENZINA de color red et white - 1 43,; Peugeot 205 GTi 1.9 1992 - 1 18 - Norev,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Suzuki Fronte 360 [1967] 1 24 Die-cast Model - Hachette Japanese Cars Japan,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

RARE RARE RARE    Hispano Suiza H6C 1934 IXO Museum MUS005 1 43 2c0c4bRARE RARE RARE    Hispano Suiza H6C 1934 IXO Museum MUS005 1 43 2c0c4bRARE RARE RARE    Hispano Suiza H6C 1934 IXO Museum MUS005 1 43 2c0c4bRARE RARE RARE    Hispano Suiza H6C 1934 IXO Museum MUS005 1 43 2c0c4b

1963 Ford Falcon Futura Open Congreenible Chestnut Poly 1 18 Sun Star 4534,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 43 Minichamps VW Volkswagen Phaeton W12 (2002) Gerhard Schroder Schroeder NEW ,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Schuco 1 43 VW Käfer Kombi blue,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Matchbox Superfast Nr. 09A Boat & Trailer white blue top in Box,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Chevrolet Camaro, silver, 1 18, Sun Star,.GMP 1 18 Hunter (1984-91 TV Series) - 1971 Chevrolet Nova Police GMP-18903,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Solido 1 18 Scale Jaguar XKR - Metallic Red,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Minichamps Ferrari 312 T4 1979 1 43 Gilles Villeneuve (CAN) (LS),.

ANCIEN RCP Albert Richard RENAULT Frégate à Friction TOLE EXCELLENT ETAT 16 cm,.Mercedes-Benz AMG Gt-R Anno di Costruzione 2017 red 1 18 Norev,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Cabriolet Soft Top (1994) blue metallic OVP,.Lincoln Continental Mark Iii Congreenible Open 1958 NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46111 Model,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Toyota Gr Gazoo Racing 86 Strap,.

Greenlight 1 18 Scale - 1844 2010 Ford Mustang GT gold,.Hot Wheels Redlines Snake Front Engine Dragster with wheelie bar,.Cadillac De Ville Congreenible gold 1970 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Rio RI4386 THOMAS FLYER 1908 STRADALE RED 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 24 ACTION Ryan Reed '14 Mustang American Diabetes Assoc. 1 of 500,.VW Volkswagen TYP 38 06 Ur Käfer black Coupe 1 43 Schuco Modell Auto mit ode..,.Hot Wheels RLC 2012 Christmas Holiday Blown Delivery Limited 4,000,.Coche de Colección - RENAULT SUPERCINQ GT TURBO (L1716),.KK SCALE KKDC180291 MERCEDES 208D BUS WHITE 1 18,.

Hot Wheels 2004 Treasure Hunt - Rare Morris Wagon w Real Riders RR of 12, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Nylint Pressed Steel Ford Roadster Red w White Roof,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13811 - Mercedes Benz Actros Step Frame Curtainside - Curran,. The PartridgeAlfa Romeo Alfetta 159 Britsch GP 1951 C.Sanesi 1 43 Minichamps 400511203,.Motormax 1 18 Scale - 73147 Pagani Zonda C12 - bluee,.1 18 Greenlight - 1973 Ford Falcon XB The Last Interceptor,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE BEETLEMANIA yellow 1 18 BURAGO KIT MONTE voiture coccinelle, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE GEOFF BODINE AUTOGRAPHED [1 18 SCALE] EXIDE,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Mercury Turnpike Cruiser Hard-Top Coupe 1957 NeoScale 1 43 NEO45875,.Roco 1353 H0 1 87 Thw- Jeu Secours Techniques Sonderauflage 1989 Neuwertig,PartridgeSPARK S0184 LOTUS Elise GT1 Thai n°15 FIA GT 1997 Policand - Prutirat 1.43,.716E Politoys 543 NSU Typ 110 white 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 50 Diecast Masters International HX620 Day Cab Tridem Tractor in White 71007, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, LOT DE 9 MINI COOPER 1 36 1 32 CORGI MINI MANIA DIVERS NEUVE,; OPEL GT ELECTRO RECORD CAR 1973 silver - black 1 43 BIZARRE SPARK B1028 NEU,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, [Near Mint ] Kyosho 1 64 Bentley Continental GT3 Mint w Box,Card from Japan, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Porsche 911 s 1972 Spark edt limitée 100 pcs last pcs , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeDinky Toys 219 Jaguar XJ 53C Big CAT very near mint very SCARCE model,.

Bentley Mulsanne Speed onyx black 1 43 Kyosho neu & OVP 05611NX,.Audi 200 quattro Test Car Trans-AM 1988 1 43 400881300 Minichamps, Clarke's negligent act.TOGI ALFA ROMEO 1750 GRAN SPORT MM - RED 1 23 - EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,.AUTOart 1 18 80675 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 Cup PCCA Winner 2006 OVP(EH3132),.Ertl 1 18 Scale 32315 1951 Chopped Mercury Dark Green Diecast Model Car,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 Anno di Costruzione 1972 silver 1 18 Kk-Scale,POLITOYS S 582 MINI COOPER WITH BOX, MINT,. In Noska,Bentley Mulsanne Turbo R 1989-92 Amarant Red 1 43 Neo Scale Neo44165 Modellino,.1 64 DCP JJ Keller Freightliner 32406 Die Cast Tractor Trailer 936-LI NEW,.Mint Ebro 1 43 Minicar Motul Autotech Z Test Car,.Atlas Editions Dinky Toys 917 - Guy Van - Spratts MIMB, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.FRANKLIN MINT 1956 FORD T-BIRD..1 24..RARE LE OF 1000..NIB..UNDISPLAYED..MINT,.Norev Nissan GT-R 35 2008 Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 188053 5,.Triple 9 T9-1800132 FORD ESCORT RS1600 N.7 WINNER SAFARI RALLY 1972 H.MIKKOLA-G.,.Armco 1 43 Chrysler Denim Van suit-Trax Biante Spark Minichamps Autoart BBR,. Id., p 923.

Porsche 911 992 Carrera 4S Coupé 2019 yellow yellow 1 43 Minichamps WAP02017,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DINKY TOYS ORIGNAL PULL MORE blueE CAR TRANSPORTER,Corgi CC13231 DAF XF Curtainside James Irlam & Sons 1 50 IN VITRINE CASE,.MINICHAMPS FORD FOCUS RS LE MANS CLASSIC EDITION GT40 DESIGN 1967 VERS 403088167,.1 125 CAT 994K Wheel Loader 85535 Elite Series Diecast Vehicle For Collection,.Schuco 1 43 Citroen SM Shooting Brake gold metallic 450903400,.1 18 Ertl - 1957 CHEVY BEL AIR HARD TOP Police Car RARITÄT Neu OVP P,.Brooklin models BRK 21, 1963 Chevrolet corvette .. Boxed,.LB Performance NISSAN GT-R (R35) [ZM089] 1 18 (NEW),. The parties Maisto 1 18 Scale - 31824 Mercedes Benz 190SL Roadster white,.

Diagostini Deagostini Rally Car Collection 1 43 First Issue Subaru Impreza Wrc,.1 43 Spark Mercedes F 400 Carving Concept,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 50 x Long Card Predectors for Hot Wheels And Matchbox Cars NEW,; MERCURY Monterey Sun Valley 1954 1 43 NEO 44057, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Chrysler Atlantic Top Line Series By Guiloy 1 18th Scale,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, OPEL COMMODORE A STEINMETZ h SPA FRANCORCHAMPS KAUHSEN 1 43 MINICHAMPS NEU,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Spark 1 43 Scale Model Car S0373 - 2007 Morgan Aero 8 GT3 - Green,.Matrix 1 43 Aston Martin DB4 Jet Bertone 1961 MX50108-031,.Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ309 - Matra DJET Monte Carlo 1966,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Minichamps 1 43 Tyrell Ford 012 USA-GP Detroit 1984 M. Brundle from Japan,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hot Wheels 1997 Series 24 Car Collection Set - Unopened - Limited Edition,.Porsche 911 Coupe (indischred) 1975,.Porsche 968 TURBO S 1993 Yellow 1 43 Spark S3456 NEW,.TSM1960 Porsche 718 F2 F2 Championship RRC Walker Racing Team Stirling Moss,.HERPA 1 500 - NA1 BOEING 747-400 - NAA NARITA,. The ScottsdaleCONRAD 1 50 MERCEDES BENZ FEDGAS TANKAUFLEGGER M Box Selten RARE ,ZA083 RYNO RYNOXE FRANCE JOUETS LES MUSCLES MAXI CAMION ELECTRONIQUE REF 1630 NB,.Spark Model S3698 AUDI R8 N.9 2nd LM 2000 S.ORTELLI-A.MC NISH-L.AIELLO 1 43 Mode,. Id.,5 old timer collectie texaco schaal 1 32,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Aston Martin DB4 Jet Bertone (grey metallic) 1961,; PREMIUM CLASSICS 12225 MERCEDES-BENZ 'RENNWAGEN-SCHNELLTRANSPORTER' blueE,Bugatti Type 51 1931 Dubos Coupe Matrix 1 43 NEU OVP,.BMW 6er CABRIO E64 grey 1 18 DEALER,. The ScottsdaleFiat 1400B President Francis Lombardi Taxi di Milano 1956 Limited 220 pcs 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari California T Closed 2014 Amarant Metallic Signature 1 18 Model 16902R,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 GREENLIGHT 1973 VW VOLKSWAGEN TYPE 2 (T2B) MICRO BUS FIELD OF DREAMS MOVIE,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, HERPA Motor Sport 13x ITC '96 1 87 TOP&OVP,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Saab 900 Cabriolet 1987 Metallic Grey 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Ebbro 1 43 Gailkokuya Porsche 911 GT3R 2003 JGTC from Japan,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Abrex Praga V3S Tipper (1967) 1 43 Army CR 143T003H1, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, ZA084 RYNO RYNOXE LES MUSCLES MAXI CAMION POMPIERS A TIRER ELECTRONIQUE REF 1630, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NOREV 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST PORSCHE 962 C WINNER ADAC NURBURGRING 1986 ART 187411,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFrench Dinky Toy 1409 Chrysler 1800 1 43 scale near mint rare,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast CC13403 - MAN TGA Curtainside - Ken Thomas Ltd,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNIKKO RADIO CONTROLLED OPEL ASCONA 400 RALLY GREY 1 20 - GOOD IN BOX,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MINICHAMPS 1 43 Porsche 911 (991) Gt3 RS Coupè 2013 Light Green Art. WAP0201530H,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Spark Models LOTUS SEVEN S2 1960 S2222,Corgi 1 43 Dodge & Trailer Pinder Visitez Le Zoo OVP,.Peachstate Ertl 1 18 1970 CHEVELLE SS 454 LS 6, 1 OF 2500 , New,.1951 FORD MERCURY. Pharaohs. Purple. ERTL. DIE CAST. SCALE 1 18. No Box.,. The HuygheReproduction Dinky RAC Rider with Motorcycle and Side Car,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVolkswagen 1200 Brezelfenster Käfer 1949 Minichamps 1 18 NOVP,.

CORGI COLLECTABLES MR BEANS MINI CAR DIECAST AND MR BEAN FIGURE 04438,.Carousel  1 18 Agajanian Watson Roadster 1962 Parnelli Jones Indy 500 Pole Car,.

Spark S1849 Lotus 79 Austrian GP 1978 R. Peterson 1 43,.1 43 2001 PORSCHE 911 (RED) Minichamps 400 061024,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Vokswagen 181 the Thing Acapulco Edition Brazilia 1979 Matrix MX32105-041 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 64 tires Comold Mix series -fit Hot Wheels Majorette MBX diecast - lot of 20,.Alfa Romeo 2600 Osi De Luxe 1965 Brown Metallic Limited 250 pcs 1 43 Model,.

For example, in Partridge,DINKY SUPER TOYS FODEN SELTEN RARE GOOD CONDITION,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark 1 43 Pescarolo C60 Judd nd Le Mans 2006 S0143,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1969 Plymouth GTX American Muscle 1 18,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 009 - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery 1 Of 750,. That is the same situation in this case.VW T2a Westfalia-Pritsche mit Anhäger und Fendt Dieselroß,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Maisto 1 18 scale Diecast - 31818 Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet 1994 bluee,. Detroit Edison, supra.


BMW Isetta Export red white Modellauto 1 18 Schuco,.