Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Vintage Radon (Russian USSR CCCP) 1 43 White Volga Gaz-2402 A13 MIB ,.Dinky 289 Routemaster Bus ESSO In Original Box - Near Mint Vintage Original,.POLITOYS FERRARI 250 GT BERLINETTA LUSSO,.Porsche 928 Targa Bb 1979 White NeoScale 1 43 NEO46580 Model,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.WSI MODELS MAN TGX XLX 6X2 TRACTSOLO AYALA ARTICLE NEUF,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 027 - 1935 Dodge Van ITT Kruse 1 Of 750 White,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark Model S5110 LIGIER JS P2 N.25 17th LM 2016 M.MUNEMANN-C.HOY-A.PIZZITOLA 1 ,.Rare GAZ 3302 + Trailer 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.FDS ALFA MODEL 43 1947 ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 SPYDER SPECIALE blueE NEW ar,.PAUDI 5502BL, INFINITI G37 COUPE 2009, blueE, 1 18 SCALE,.FORD F100 DEPANNEUSE 1 18, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
DINKY TOYS NASH RAMBLER STATIONWAGON TURQUOISE BODY RED FLASH 1958 1 43,.NEO NEO46580 1 43 PORSCHE 928 TARGA 1979 WHITE,.MAISTO 1 18 Benz SLR McLaren bluee Display Mini Car,.2001 Ford Crown Victoria Interceptor Con Luz y Sonido 1 18 Greenlight 12921,.
Dinky Dublo No 064 Austin Lorry - Green (Grey Knobbly Tyres Boxed),.BMW M4 Coupe Austin Yellow Metallic 1 18 Scale Paragon new and boxed,.4 BURGAGO 1 18 cars New UNUSED - ferrari PORCHE jaguar VIPER,.DINKY TOYS DY CODE 3 MODEL PROMO - MGB GT 1965 - SAFETY FAST LIMITED EDITION,.NIB JOHNNY LIGHTNING WHITE WL 1969 CHARGER R T 1 24 DIECAST MUSCLE CAR VHTF,.
Esval EMUS43006A 1 43 1930 Pierce-Arrow Model B Roadster Resin Model Car,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NEO 1 43 Scale - 43314 BMW M5 E34 3.8 Red - Resin Model Car,.SOMERVILLE HILLMAN MINX 1951 RHD CONgreenIBLE - blueE GREY 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 1,.Hot Wheels 1 43 Scale Morse Ford 1964 Ford Galaxy 500 VHTF,WIT`S 1 43 Nissan SAFARI GRANDROAD LIMITED 2004 Die Cast Model RARE,.Yonezawa Toys Diapet Nissan Cedric Super deluxe Taxi in Yellow on 1 40,.
Ford Fiesta RS WRC Rally Monza 2014 V.Rossi 1 18 18RMC014 Ixomodels,.Camion Français BERLIET GBC 8 KT 1 43ème dépanneuse militaire à vendre 180 tbu,.Pagani Huayra 2012 Red Autoart 1 43 AA58208 Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
MAJORETTE 209 CAMPING CAR - GREEN + WHITE 1 80 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.
KIT LANCIA STRATOS CONCESSIONARI WINNER RALLY SANREMO 1979 1 43 RACING 43 FK003,. We agree in part.
Mercedes 300 Cabrio (W186) 1952 dunkelred, Modellauto 1 43 Minichamps,.1968 FORD MUSTANG GT 2+2 HARD TOP AUTO WORLD AMM1132 1 18 scale DIECAST CAR,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 43 TR-6 SPECIAL TRIUMPH BRITISH GREEN TRIUMPH TR-6 TRIBUTE MAGAZINE+MODEL+BOX,.ATLAS DeAgostini Set of 4 Dinky Toys cars Renault Dauphine Minicab...,.Corgi Toys No 428 a Renault Police Car Mint Boxed Made 1978,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ford Focus th Rally Acropolis 2009 F. Villagra J. Diaz 1 18 Model 3949,.1939 Lincoln Sunshine Special Limousine 1 24 Yat Ming 24088,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Die Cast Welly 1966 Pontiac GTO,; 1974 Alfa Romeo Alfasud Red 1 18 KK-Scale 180021,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Mercedes 540K (W29) Erdman & Rossi King Hussein Jordan 1936 KESS 1 43 KE43037012,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2585 - Porsche 997 GT3 Felbermayr-Predon LM 2009,Caterham Super Seven diecast 1 18 Kyosho,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Humber Super Snipe Estate 1965 Grey 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.
Isobloc Tolée EMP Creations 130068,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTOCULT Audi Asso di Picche 1973 1 43 06011,.Hot Wheels Honda Lot Of 26 Cars. Modern Classics CR-X, Honda Series, EF. 26 Cars,.2 seltene Porsche 911 (993) Modelle von Minichamps in 1 43 OVP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mercedes-Benz MB GLE Coupé 2015 White 1 18 Norev,; 1993 Matchbox Construction SuperKing CS-10 Digger Transporter,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 46629 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG White,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
NICE 1937 TOOTSIETOY LINCOLN ZEPHYR SEDAN WIND UP VERSION,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Minichamps 1 43 FORD EDSEL ROADSTER - 1934 - PEARL ESSENCE GUN METALLIC DARK GRE,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
GREENLIGHT COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - MITSUBISHI ECLIPSE - FAST AND FURIOUS - 1995 -,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1 18 OttO-Mobile RENAULT 19 16v CABRIOLET (Sports bluee) LIMITED EDITION 16s Ph.1,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 Bizarre Nissan Deltawing ZEOD RC Le Mans 2014 Reip Motoyama B1050 Spark,.Spark 1 43 Scale US010 - Delta Wing DWC-13 Petit Le Mans 2013,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Dinky Toys 105 Triumph TR2 Sports made in England 1 43 scale EXC condition,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 125 CAT 994K Wheel Loader 85535 Elite Series Diecast Vehicle For Collection,.
HW Liberty Promotions Alien VW Bus– Abduction LTD 1000,.Dinky Mercedes-Benz 600 - Red - A A,.1970 Citroen Break 21 Burdeos 1 18 Norev 181592,.Jadk43159 Ferrari 246 Ch.00008 F1 1960 (2 Versions),.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Wiking 077838 Zürn Direktschneidewerk Proficut 700 with Cutting Unit Trolley 1 3,.
Vintage Schuco Micro racer 1044 Porsche Carrera EXC NM Germany Race Car,. UH 2953 - Universal Hobbies Monosem NG Plus 4 TFC-8R - 1 32,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Ferrari 365GT4 BB HG Resin Kit,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 100A - Austin FX4 Taxi - Claret If It's Got Wheels,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1983 A Team Van GMC Vandura Diecast by Greenlight Diecast Model,.Avengers 2012 Movie Acura NSX Roadster 2012 Tony Stark Iron Man 1 43,.Camion Grue Pompiers hydraulique SIKU,.Shelby Collectibles 1 18 Scale 1966 Shelby G.T. 350 In Pink,.Lamborghini Miura Concept 1 43 Minicar Made By Mattel Elite,.
Mercedes Benz E class 230E W123 Limousine 1 43 Minichamps Limited Taxi Auto Bild, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1937 Duesenberg SJ Town Car Chassis 2405 by Rollson,.NOT TAMEO BUILT F1 FERRARI 446 BARDAHL FARINA TEST INDY 1956 43,. The PartridgeSolido démontable 193 Peugeot 403 avec moteur RARE,.Replicars 1 43 Scale REPJAG03 - Jaguar R Coupe - Metallic Grey,.BUB Diamond Edition 2011 Volkswagen Käfer (black) 1 87 OVP ,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Polistil 1 25 Scale Model Car 02254 - Audi Sport Rally, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Chevrolet Corvette Corvair Concept 1954 Light bluee, Model Car 1 43 ,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CORGI 1 50 SCALE COLLECTION HERITAGE 72901 SIMCA CARGO SIMCA PIECES DETACHEES,.Honda Civic EF3 13 Team Cabin Macau GP 1988 T9-1800107 Scale 1 18,PartridgeFie Brigade Models 1 48 Scale VW T4 Police London Marine Incident Model Van,.1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR YELLOW & WHITE od,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Pontiac Bonneville Congreenible 1959 Yellow 1 43 Neoscale NEO46030, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, TINTIN - Lot 3 voitures Miniature 1 24 ème neuves,; Schuco Schlüter 2500 VL - red (07628) - 1 32,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mitsubishi Canter Fuso TF box van model car 1 43 free ship, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes-Benz W196 Corpo Normale Versione 1954 silver 1 18 Cmr, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMG TD ARNOLD CONTINENTAL 1953 SPORT NEO 44611 1 43 MODELE EN RESINE RESIN,.
YELLOW 1967 FORD MUSTANG GT 2+2 AUTO WORLD 1 18 SCALE DIECAST METAL MODEL CAR,.CITROËN 2CV BB LORRAIN D MODELE SPECIAL NOËL 2012 DINKY TOYS ATLAS, Clarke's negligent act.Detail Cars 1 43 Scale Diecast ART427 - 1969 MG Midget MkIV,.Spark 1 43 Scale S1221 - Lotus Exige 300 Predon FIA GT ZHUHAI 2005,.Neo Cadillac Series 62 Club Coupe - hellgrey - 1949 - 1 43,.
BMW 635 CSI M Coupe E24 DTM 1988 AC Schnitzer Göser RAR Minichamps 1 43,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Minichamps Red Bull Renault RB8 F1 Webber 2012 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,Best Model BT9716 FERRARI 308 GTB Gr.4 N.4 WINNER RALLY PIANCAVALLO 1980 NICO-BA,. In Noska,Lada Samara 1984 bluee KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180212 Miniature,.1 2 AGV Valentino Rossi Valencia 2003 1 2 • Minichamps 327030086,.Dinky Toys 669 USA Army Jeep made in England 1 43 scale VGC-EXC,.Metal-18 18004A Citroën DS 21 Chapron Le Léman 1968 - Night bluee with lights, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.2013 McLaren MP4-12C n.33 City Of Dreams Macau GT CUP by Spark SA058,.Opel Kadett C Limousine 1972 Yellow KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180012,.Datsun 100A 100 a Station Estate Red 1 43 golden Oldies BEV1075 New 1-100,.IXO - 1 43 - MANN F7 - CAR TRANSPORT - 1970 - TTRX007,. Id., p 923.
Spark Model SCCG20 COURAGE C 65 JPX N.31 LM'03 1 43 Modellino,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MINICHAMPS Porsche 934 Tebernum Racing Team GT52 Tim Schenken Nurburgring 300 k,NOREV 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST RENAULT 4 FOURGONNETTE 1965 blueE ART 185188,.Maisto 1 18 2010 ROUSH 427R Ford Mustang Red Display Miniature Car,.Century 1 43 Scale White metal 2600 Mercedes Benz 450 SLC 1972 Green metallic,.1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.31 Mazda R360 Coupe 1960 F S NEW,.1 18 BMW Serie 1 M E82 Coupé año 2013 color green Mamba GT Spirit ZM036,.MINIROUTE 61 RENAULT VAN 800kg 1941 - GREEN 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 12,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 66 - Ferrari 125 GP 1949 - Red,. The parties Dinky Toys 168 Ford Escort perfect mint in box all original condition,.
Aston Martin Models 1 43 Scale A07MC1-43 - AMR Vantage GTE signed David Richards,.LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO SE 2005 YELLOW NOREV 187954 1 18,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 2018 Hotwheels 18th Collectors Nationals Bingo '40 FORD COUPE Red White and bluee,; 4 x Matchbox Models of Yesteryear TOP Nmint in box, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
MAZDA 727 C Jun n°87 Le Mans 1984,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PORWAP02130016 by PORSCHE PORSCHE CAYMAN S 2005 1 18,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ertl 1 18 scale Diecast - 7726 '39 Ford High Tech with lights and sounds,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31806 Mercedes Benz 300S White,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T4 BUS CARAVELLE - 1992 - 180262W,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MARK43 1 43 PM4367CY Mazda RX-7 FD3S Mazda Speed Aspec GT Wing Sunburst Yellow,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Opel Kadett C Limousine 1973 bluee Model Car 1 18 Kk Scale,.Viessmann H0 5171 Dumper MB Actros Flashing Light Lighting,.Dinky toy No 163 is the model of the Bristol 450 sports coupe VNMB,.Maserati 3500 Gt Frua Coupe' 1961 Red Limited Edition 250 pcs 1 43 Model,.MINICHAMPS 1 12 HONDA RC211V VALENTINO ROSSI SUMMER TEST BIKE 2001 MOTO GP,. The ScottsdaleGhostbusters 1959 Cadillac Ambulance Ecto-1 Diecast Car 1 18 Auto World 11 inch,1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1969 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER HEMI 426 RED EXOTICAR,.Greenlight 1 64th bullit with figure.,. Id.,2014 Ferrari California T Open Top whiteo 1 18 Bburago 16904,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GAMA 2123 OPEL CALIBRA - DARK GREY 1 24 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,; Hot Wheels Ferrari F1 F14 T 2014 Kimi Raikkonen BLY68 1 18,1936 Ford Deluxe Cabriolet Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast Green,.1 43 Kyosho Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R Minicar,. The Scottsdale1 43 Pilen Renault 6 Made In Spain,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Saab 9000 CDE Beige Metallic (Neo Scale 1 43 44595),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; E34 BMW ALPINA B10 Biturbo rear badge emblem,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Brumm BMAS52M FIAT 600 MULTIPLA 1960 GHISA DE MILAN 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 BBURAGO SIGNATURE SERIES FERRARI FXX-K RED NEW,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - FERRARI 275 GTB 4 NART SPIDER - 1967 - 180234R,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TAMEO MODEL BUILT F1 LOTUS 107 FORD HAKKINEN ITALIA GP 1992 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 43 - F1 INFINITI RED BULL RACING RB10 - S. VETTEL, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 Ford XY GTHO Falcon (Monza Green) Auto Art 52708,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLand Speed Record car BILL BURKE'S CISITALIA 1953 KIT scala 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3346 Ferrari 456GT Bright Red Model Car,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMatrix Scale Models 1957 Maserati 150GT Spider by Fantuzzi Modellauto 1 43,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 43 Ixo Scania LBT 141 Wolter Koops NL 1976 324309,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,CORGI 1 50 CC13216 DAF XF SPACE CAB CURTAIN - SW WREFORD & SONS LTD,AUT54628 - Voiture de sport - Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SV de color white,.VW T2a Autotransporter blue 1 opf 500 1 43 Premium Classixxs neu & OVP 18410,.BBURAGO 1 18 SCALE MERCEDES AMG W07 2016 F1 CAR - LEWIS HAMILTON,. The HuygheKK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO SPIDER 3 - SERIE 1 - 1983 - 180172BL,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAction, Dale Earnhardt, Doc's Cycle Center, 1st Asphalt Win 1964 Chevelle,.
Panther 6x6 pinknbauer Maßstab 1 43 mit OVP Cursor Modell Leipzig Halle,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK23 003A - 1956 Ford Fairlane 2Dr Victoria Green,.
Esval EMUS43004D 1 43 1937 Duesenberg SJ Town Car Rollson Resin Model Car,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz 200 1968 1 43 Beige (JS),. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 43 Hummer Military Ambulance Us.Aumy,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeHasegawa 20246 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa Chassis n 0714 TR kit 1 24,.Spark Model S7101 BRABHAM BT44B P.NEVE 1976 N.33 DNF BELGIUM GP 1 43 Modellino,.
For example, in Partridge,628F Vintage Solido 147 Ford Mustang Red 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,NZG9483 - Rouleau HAMM H7i cabine ougreene pied de mouton - 1 50,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.AUTOart Nissan 350Z 1 18 Scale Diecast Sunset orange,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Tatra 111 C Tanker Benzina Red Yellow, Model Car 1 43 Premium Classixxs,. That is the same situation in this case.1960 Plymouth Fury Congreenible Platinum Ed. Sunstar 1 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Model Road Replicas 1 43 Scale MRR3 - Ford E83W Van - Southern Eastern Gas,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Wiking 1 87 PMS 82-23 Krupp 806 Tieflade Sattelzug Transformator AEG OVP,.SIKU SIKU3862 JOHN DEERE AVEC REMORQUE À BALLES RONDES 1 32,.BMW 318 Ci 1999 1 43 MINICHAMPS 431028321,.
RACING 43 BUILT F.1 FERRARI F93A ALESI MONACO GP 1993 43,.