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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Toy Toy Toy Story Woody Car Out Accessory Item 20cm + 35cm Two Size Doll Kidult Toy Set bf6cdf
ANTIQUE GERMAN HANDMADE GLASS MARBLE .530 COLORFUL SM DIVIDED RIBBON BEAUTY-gold,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Beyblade Burst Roktavor R3 incl Launcher Genuine Hasbro New Sealed Switchstrike,.CAPTAIN FUTURE CAPITAINE FLAM CAPITAN FUTURO MATTEL VINTAGE TOY,.M.I. Japan Tin Litho M-105 Armored Car Tank in Original Box Friction Toy Vehicle,.Korea Animation The Haunted House Sinbi Doll Anime Characters Goblin Toy,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.ABA ABA64013 Zetor Tractor Metal Toy,.RULLERO AMBULANCIA AMBULANCE FRICTION silverINA OLD PLASTIC RAMBLER WAGON,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Emerald Green Mica Marble 14mm (9 16”),.192 Vintage G1 My Little Pony Christmas Holiday Merry Treat Santa GORGEOUS ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.CLASSIC VINTAGE TIN TOY LITHO BATTERY OPERATED MYSTERY CAR MADE IN JAPAN BY TN,.Vintage 1950's Japan Wind Up Dog Wags Tail & Rings Bell,.Kaiserpinguin Baby Emperor Penguin von Folkmanis Handpuppen, puppets (3126), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

TIMANIC TAKARA 1978, Space Traveler 2 made in Japan original raro vintage,.Transformers MPP27 Ironhide Leader Class Robot Force Action Figures Van Car Toy,.Vintage Erector Set Red Metal Case. Only B,.1950s TIN TOY CAROUSEL MADE IN WESTERN GERMANY WITH AIRSHIP FAIRGROUND SWING,.

Neca The Year Without A Santa Claus Warner Bros MRS CLAUS Plush Doll Toy Figure,.FIMBO FROM THE FIMBLES FIMBO IS A TALKING AND MOVING TOY WHICH LIGHTS UP,.Imperialdramon Fighter Mode Digi-Warrior D-Real Digimon Figure Veemon Wormmon,.Dixie's Diner by Tyco Toy Doll Playset New NiB 1988,.M.A.R.S AUTOTRON Cybotronix Motorized Walking Light UP Voice Sounds Robot,.

Warhammer Fantasy - Daemons of Khorne Bloodcrushers - 28mm,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Mixed Lot Take Along Learning Curve Thomas The Tank Engine,.Old Composition Medical Unit - Soldiers Hospital Doctors Office Building + Dog ,.Grandstand Firefox F-7 Vintage 1983 VFD Tabletop Electronic Game in Good Cond.,The FIXIES, Collection Figure, Fixiki, Set (6 pc.), Cartoon Character,.SMALL EAGLE PUPPET 3114 NEW for 2018 in USA Folkmanis Puppets,.

Roads to Stalingrad - Wargame Campaign Commander 1 Boardgame,.L@@K RARE VINTAGE BOXED MB ELECTROICS SUPER SIMON HANDHELD GAME VGC 80S 1980,.Vintage blueebird Toys Manta Force The Scythe Rare Pre Factory Sealed MINT,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

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RARE SOUTH PARK TALKING ERIC CARTMAN PLUSH TOY DOLL FIGURE BY FUN 4 ALL MWT,. We agree in part.

Original Schuco Fex 1111 Post War US zone Germany,.8 large Antique Marble or 8 Marbles Swirl Core German Pontil Glass,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Funko Pop Vinyl Vegeta bluee Chrome NYCC Dragon Ball Z 154 Toy Tokyo TT 2018,.Cyclist NIB B O MADE IN GREECE BY MISTER P Nr 836 VTG GREEK TOY,.Vintage Antique F. Gretsch Brooklyn NY All American Fife Tin Toy Instrument,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Thomas Wooden Railway-Sodor DYNAMITE BLAST -new in box (e),.YATTA PANDA DX TAKATOKU IN BOX VINTAGE JAPAN YATTAMAN CHOGOKING,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Japan Yonezawa Jetspeed Racer Battery operated Tin Toy with box,; KO Toys Bump n Go Hustling Bulldozer vintage Tin Toy,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Folkmanis 3038 Rat Puppet (White),.Minions MiP Turbo Dave Balancing Robot by WowWee (blueETOOTH),3pcs Pokemon Moltres & Ditto As Lapras Dragonite Soft Plush Toy Stuffed Doll,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.NIP 2002 Toy Biz SPIDER-MAN Series 2 MARY JANE Action Figure Pink Red Dress,.

Living Puppets® Lottchen W197 NEU & OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Rare 1930s Manoil JAPANESE copy SOLDIER ON PARADE dime store lead soldier figure,.TECHNOFIX COUNTRY TOUR tin toy,.Alte Glasmurmeln antike Murmeln Lauscha Handarbeit Marble Swirl 40mm 4 cm (247),. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, LOTTO 2 GIOCATTOLI LATTA JEEP JAPAN MASUDAYA CARRO ARMATO TIN TOY ME-060 LITHO,; Ben 10 Super Deluxe Figures - Four Arms,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, ANTIQUE TYPEWRITER TIN TOY 1920's GEBRUDER SCHMIDT GSN GERMANY USA PATENTE,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Classic Pooh Gund Kanga And Roo,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

SS19 spare original Charbens cyclist from Circus set. VGC,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

VINTAGE HOME SWEET HOME CALCULATOR LCD HANDHELD GAME BY LUDOTRONIC IN BOX BOXED,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Antique German Handmade Magic Swirl Marble 5 colors 1 7 16”,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Sam The Snowman & Boss Elf - Rudolph & The Island Of Misfit Toys - In Box,.Folkmanis hand puppet orangutan 2270,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.The SMURFS JUMBO Papa Smurf Plush Stuffed 18 Tall USA,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Big Bird Talking Plush Sesame Street Playtime VTG 1996 Plays 4 Games Tested VGUC,.

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Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.VINTAGE TINPLATE FRICTION MODEL No.M322 AMERICAN SEDAN MIB,.

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The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, EVOLUTION TOY DYNAMITE ACTION No. 17 BRAIGER ESPOSTO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.New Jumbo Jurassic World 24 Indominous HYBRID PLUSH Dinosaur Toy NWT.Licensed,.Clementoni Galileo - MIND Designer Spiel Roboter blueetooth Robot Ausführung,.DIY Assembled Electric Robot Dog Induction Infared Educational Toy Kids Gift MB,.VINTAGE SEARS BEAUTY SALON BIG TOY BOX IN THE BOX DOLL NOT INCLUDED,.Living Puppet Elephant Hand Puppet,.

Pokemon Eevee Exclusive 6.5-Inch Plush [Standard Size], the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Thomas The Tank Friends TAKE N PLAY MOLLY NEW BOXED LEARNING CURVE,.Duncan Wind Runner Metal Yo-Yo YoYo - bluee 9256SE-J + FREE STRINGS,. The PartridgePAW Patrol Everest's Snowmobile Pup & Vehicle Toy Action Kids Figures Gift NEW,.Laser Shot - Simulator Game - Ideal corporate bouncy castle add on - see video,.Power Rangers Super Samurai Battle Morphin Fire Red Ranger Figure,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Of Dragons, Fairies & Wizards Lily Magic Fairy Wand [Purple], although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Superman Man of Steel Hero Buddies Plush Toy,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.One Drop Cascade Yoyo Boxed Side Effects,.MIRENESSE KIT RADIANT GLOW ESSENTIALS 21. VIENNA,PartridgeVintage string puppet zebra carved wood,.Pokemon XY huge stuffed Deden'ne,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Rare vintage 1986 coleco 18 alf plushie stuffed animal doll great condition, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Breaking Bad - Heisenberg Mr. Potato Head - PPW Toys Free Shipping ,; Billiken Godzilla bluee Tin toy figure Vintage rare from JAPAN free shipping,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1998 Fright Light Scooby Doo Scared Silly 18 Talk Plush Stuffed Flashlight GUC, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Folkmanis 3041 Polar Bear Cub Puppet,White, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeStar Wars Rogue One Wirbel-Action Lichtschwert Hasbro B8263 Laserschwert,.

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The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 5 x South Park Large Soft Toy Figure Plush 12 Comedy Central 1998 - Free post,Dragon Ball Z Goku red cloth PVC figure figures doll dolls anime toy new,. In Noska,Project Sword Moon Prospector 21 Toy Made In Hong Kong,.S.H.Figuarts SHF Marvel Iron Man 3 Avengers Tony's Powered Stage Action Figure,.Spider-man stand cosplay game PVC figure statue doll dolls model toy new,.Dino core DIMETRODON Dinosaur to Robot (Arm) Transformer Toy Dinocore Season 2, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.2018 New Pokémon Gallery Figure Absol-Perish Song,.My Little Pony Equestria Girls Vice Principal Luna & Trixie Lulamoon Guitar Doll,.Vintage Ma-Ma Crawling Baby Battery Operated,.Sand Pail Large Vintage Tin Litho Ohio Arts Unlicensed Hanna-Barbera Characters,. Id., p 923.

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In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Prewar Lineol standing german SA soldier with field glasses WWII,Vintage HAPPYNAK SEASIDE Sand Tin Toy Pail - Lamb Frog Mouse Bird,.ROMEO MODELS RM54-034 Murat security guard Hussar officer 1813 15 54 mm.,.CHRYSLER CHARGER III The Fantastic Car with a Brain Hasbro 1969 Amaze-A-Matic,.Ben 10 Giant Action Figure 10 Inch Four Arms Heatblast Diamondhead Ages 4+ Toy,.Pokemon center original pouch wiht mirror Pikachu Jewel,.Vintage Yonezawa Japan Tin Friction Convair B-36 Bomber in working condition,.1930s Antique German Marklin Bing Lehmann Kellerman Tipp&Co Levy Tin Toy Catalog,. The parties HOMER BART SIMPSON Are We There Yet (2XL) Shirt Matt Groening The SIMPSONS,.

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Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Peppa Pig - Peppa's Home & Garden Playhouse,; Starzinger starcupper st diecast robot vintage japan, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

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Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vintage Retro Electronic Guitar Playing MONKEY Toy,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)PIXYLAND (KEW) PRE-WAR 1930's LEAD ZOO ANIMALS KOMODO DRAGON (BROWN orange),.My Little Pony Funko Mystery Minis Series 3 Figure - Princess Celestia,.Vintage 1950s Elenee Pull Toy Donkey Pulling Cart Tin and Wood Made in NY,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,BATTLE FEVER J DX - BATTLE COMBINATION - POPY,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.New Official JUMBO Wailord Pokemon Center 24 Plush Toy Pokemon GO Doll kid gift,.ANTIQUE COLMOR TIN LITHO TOY SPINNING TOP ALICE IN WONDERLAND,.Jellycat BAS3BS - Grey rabbit teddy.,.Gumby’s Horse POKEY Bendy Toy Lewco Prema 1984,.Sonic Collector Modern Plush, bluee, 1-8 ,. The ScottsdalePeppa Pig Family Soft Toys,Vintage 1970 Tudor Games Bowl w Dual Action Pin Reset Bowling Game - EXC COND,.Pikmi Pops Surprise Jelly Dreams, Wishes the Unicorn -Light Up Plush Brand New,. Id.,Rare - SCHUCO Micro racer - FORD Hot rod 1032 - Original W.Germany 1959,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Diecast Easter Trains Set for Thomas & Friends Take Along or Take N Play,; VINTAGE LOST IN SPACE VIEWMASTER REELS 1967 SET B482 RARE D395,Vintage Ohio Art Co. United States Marine Corps Toy Drum-USMC Drum-Bryan Ohio,.Vintage Soviet Meccano Technical Constructor Game Building Set 70-80s,. The ScottsdaleVintage Die Cast Animal Farm And Workers,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, VINTAGE TINPLATE FRICTION MODEL No.M342 JAGUAR E TYPE OPEN TOP VN MIB,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 3pc Thomas The Tank Engine Sodor Paint Station Smelting Yard Learning Curve EUC,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, My Little Pony Lot G4 Brushable Glitter cutie Marks very nice some rares,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 28896 Beyblade B-104 Starter Winning Valkyrie.12.VI,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, PROSTO Toys, Cut the Rope, Collection Action Figure Set (5 pc.) №12 Cartoon,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, VINTAGE MARX WARRIORS OF THE WORLD INDIANS X6 PLASTIC FIGURE JOB LOT HIGH WOLF, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Tin Astroganger Robot Japan Character Billiken Bullmark Popy Takatoku Kyarakuta, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MY LITTLE PONY G3 2007 BEST FRIENDS SCENTED BUTTER POP + ACCESSORY NEW NO BOX,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMarionnette, pantin, représentant un chevalier du Moyen Age en métal et bois,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Vintage Pelham Puppet - Giant - SL19 - 1963 RARE (please read description),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheJODY FINE HANDMADE GLASS MARBLE .888 -CITRUS PINWHEEL-RED GRAPEFRUIT,LEMON,ORG.+,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Despicable Me 9324 DM3 Unigoat Soft Toy (Large),independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,King Yo Star Rapid Light Yo-Yo - Yellow,VINTAGE 1950s TIMPO HOLLOW CAST LEAD U.S. ARMY GI SOLDIER No. 9023,.PJ Masks Lights and Sounds Robot,.1950,s Tin Friction BOAC Comet DH C-8 Jetliner,. The HuygheVintage 1948 Erector Set The A.C. Gilbert Co. New Haven Connecticut,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMilky Lemon Opal Multi color Vintage Peltier Glass Marble Mint,.

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For example, in Partridge,Rare Casio Deep Jungle Solar Power 1984 Vintage LCD Electronic Game - Near Mint.,. In Jorgensen, supra,Alternity Lot- Campaign Kit, Gamemaster Guide, Star Compendium (U-B10S6 203238),. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Vintage 1970's 80's Single Bed Duvet Cover Holly Hobbie Double Sided Pic,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Cute cat fruit-chan whole set of 6 Japan,. That is the same situation in this case.Superalloy Lump Dz-15 Zamas Union Dragon Ball Super,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Handpuppe Kasperlepuppe Esel 33cm 20650 Kersa Classic mit Stoffkopf,. Detroit Edison, supra.

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