Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Dinky Toys 596, Arpinkuse-Balayeuse L.M.V., Mint in Box ab579,.AUTOart 74603 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 1 18 DIECAST ARANCIO BOREALIS orange,.Audi Q7 2015 orange 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.Brand Ferrari Sf16-H Look Smart,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.SUBARU Impreza WRC S7 Monte Carlo 2002 Mäkinen Nightversion TopMarques 1 18,.AUTOBARN AB205 FERRARI 550 Maranello GTS Igol no.5 FIA GT 2002 1.43 NB,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 18 BMW M3 GTR E46 Coupe año 2002 color blue Techo black Carbono Kyosho,.MILESTONE MODELS 1 58 WHITE METAL BURRELL SCENIC SHOWMANS ENGINE - THE DOLPHIN,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lamborghini Huracan Lp580-2 Rwd Spider 2016 Cepheus bluee LOOKSMART 1 43 LS464E M,.Schuco Studio I Vivienne Westwood ,.UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 22106 Ferrari F355 Spider Red Cream Interior, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK112 - 1963 Ford Falcon Futura Sports Congreenible Red,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21LE - Jaguar XK150 Coupe - gold,.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-X (KGC10) gold Resin Model IG0632,.Remember Model 1964 Ferrari 250 GTO Tour de France Dubois de Mantaigu,.
Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK220 - 1955 Studebaker Champion 4-Door Sedan,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3202 Jaguar XK140 Drophead Coupe Maroon,.New Classic Craig Lowndes HRT Holden VS Commodore 1999 Reverse Livery 1 18 18670,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 5110B EXCAVATOR - CORE CLASSICS 85098,.IXO 1 43 Lamborghini Countach LP500S 1982 Front Wing RED from Japan LTD ZI-L07,.
1 12 Minichamps Yamaha YZR-M1 2015 Motorcycle GP Die Cast Model,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1939 Mercedes-Benz T80 Recordwagen silver 1 18 BoS-Models 202,.Ignition model 1 43 Datsun blueebird Coupe KP 510 bluee Resin Model IG0262 Japan,.SMTS 1 43 scale - CL48 - Aston Martin DBS V8 - Lt. Met. Green,Porsche 911 3.2 Speedster guards red diecast modelcar GT130 Otto 1 18,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT802 Ford Focus RS 2017 Red,.
Miniroute 35D 1 43 Mercedes-Benz E250T Binz Ambulance Handmade Resin Model Car,.RAE Models 143 Scale - 1930 MG M Type Midget - Built Kit - Brown,.Cc13767 Corgi Scania R Feldbinder Tanker Liam Kelly Transport Gießen Modell,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1957 Land Rover Series I 88 - Soft-Top in 1 43 Scale by TSM,.
Metal 18 1964 Citroen DS 19 Chapron LE Dandy bluee LE of 1500 1 18 Scale,. We agree in part.
Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK4X - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe Toledo Toy Fair 1987 1 Of 100,.Lamborghini Urus Beijing Motorshow 2012 bluee Monterey Met Looksmart 1 43 LS399SE,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.AUTOart 77428 - 1 18 Millennium Nissan Skyline Hardtop 2000 Turbo Intercooler RS,.BMW M3 E30 Rallye Gr.A Tour de Corse 1990 Chatriot Bastos OT669 OTTO 1 18,.Oreca 03-Nissan, No.25, ADR-Delta, 24h Le Mans, 1 43, Spark,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BOS194 by BOS MODELS PANHARD Y LEVASSOR DINÁMICO 1936 1 18,.WAX02100006 Porsche 911 991 Carrera GTS Club Coupe 2015 GT Spirit 1 18 NEU,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, MG 1 43 1967 Ferrari 412P Monza,; IMC33-0010 - Camion MERCEDES Actros L 6x4 avec remorque porte engins goldHOFER,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
JOHNNY LIGHTNING ROUND JIGSAW PUZZLE 1970 BOXED COMPLETE TOPPER WHITMAN,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013,Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - Red,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.FERRARI 575 GTC N°17 500km DONINGTON 2004 1 18 Team JMB,.
Norev 2018 BMW 2002 Hommage Collection Dealer Edition 1 18BRAND NEW Very Nice ,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Schuco Exklusiv VW T1b Samba Bus green-white Limited Edition 1.000,.2014 BMW i8 eDrive Crystal White 1 18 Paragon Models 97083,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7C - 1954 Zephyr Zodiac - 2 Tone Grey & Green,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Spark Model Toyota TS 040 Hybrid Toyota 18S144,; Roadace Replica (Great Britain) Red Ferrari 330 P4 Cpe 1967 Plaster 1 100,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 577A Rare Citroën ID 19 break 1963 Salon Nuremberg 1993 Norev Collection 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
EXACT DETAIL 224 CAMARO SEA TERROR 1968 1 18 Modellino,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Collection Tonka Poliestil solid 1 43 1 28 21 car modell,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
AF774 DRAGON ARMOR SD.KFZ.251 Ausf.C 3,7cm PAK 35 36 FRONT 1942 1 72 60636 WWII,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ferrari F40 IMSA 1 43 AMR factory-build n BBR,MR,.Ferrari 365 gtb4 Competizione 1 18 Kyosho,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Rare Vintage Tootsietoy No.117 Zephyr Railcar (1935-1936),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 811114 - Audi Quattro Winner Rallye Sanremo '81,.
Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-r Kpgc 10 White,.Dinky Toys Supertoys no. 981 Express Horse Box British Railways ovp,.Top Speed TS0022 1 18 ASTON MARTIN DB11 2017 LIGHT blueE,.Bentley Continental GT 2008 white 1 18 MINICHAMPS,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Conquest Models 1 43 Scale Nr.1 - 1954 Oldsmobile Starfire 98 FAULTY,.
AUTOART 74651 LAMBORGHINI COUNTACH, WALTER WOLF EDITION, RED 1 18TH SCALE,.IST 1 18 RUSSIA LADA POLICE CAR DIE CAST MODEL RARE,.KYOSHO BMW 1er Coupe CSL 1 18,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Wiking HO 1 87 801 3 MB L 3500 S Alter Aral Tanksattelzug (CA 028-120S6 70),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale resin - LS008A TVR Sagaris 2005 Metallic Green,.ALFA ROMEO 159 -1951 - 1 20 built - Revival,.FERRARI 250 GT CALIFORNIA SPIDER SWB cabriolet 1 18 HOT WHEELS P9897 voiture min,.Exclusive First Editions 1 76 Diecast - British Bus Collection Lot of 20 Models,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK108X - 1957 Ford Ranchero SFBBC 2005 V.Sattui Winery,.
Hobby JAPAN MARK43 1 43 Daihatsu Copen Robe Pearl White III Resin Model PM4355W, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Matchbox Swing Wing Jet Commando Army Pre-Pro Trial Camo RARE Brown,.Matchbox RW 39A Ford Zodiac peach rare browne Einrichtung mit Box,. The Partridge1 18 Minichamps - Mclaren Mp4-12c 2011 Matt Grey - Limited 750 Pieces,.Mercedes Benz L3500 Dl17 1950 Pompieri Feuerwehr Bensheim 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Vintage - Iso Rivolta Gt Coupé - 1 43 Politoys -m515 Mint Boîte,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOart 86271 PORSCHE 804 FORMULA 1 WINNER GURNEY GP DE FRANCE 1962 1 18, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.CORGI 96655 JAMES BOND 007 DB5 ASTON MARTIN 1995 30TH ANNIVERSARY LTD BRAND NEW,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.BBR Ferrari SF16-H Scuderia Ferrari 18 BBR181605,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK140A - 1954 Hudson Hornet Congreenible Cgoldnation Cream,PartridgeJUE Arpra (Industria Brasiliera) Leite PAULISTA Scania Vabis Tanker Boxed,.Brand Accord Euro R 1 43 Scale Car,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ertl The Fast And The Furious 1993 Mazda RX7 1 18, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Franklin Mint 1961 Lincoln Continental Congreenible Teal Boxed + Papers & HangTag,; Aston Martin DP-100 weiss purplet - 1 18 Modell 777 NEW SALE,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, AJ763 SOLIDO 1 50 CHAR PATTON M-47 TELECOMMANDE Ref 210 TRES BON ETAT, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Porsche 911 TURBO S 2016 Red 991 1 18 Minichamps, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFERRARI PORTOFINO SALONE FRANCOFORTE 2017 yellow MODENA Looksmart LS480C,.
1 18 Minichamps Bentley Embiricos 1939 greymetallic,.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI ESPADA - 1 43 Politoys-M587 MIB, Clarke's negligent act.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT141 Ruf CTR-2 Sport (Porsche 911) Yellow,.Vintage Dinky 259 - Fire Engine - Red,.1 18 Autoart 2013 Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2, Special Item ,.
Highway 61 1 18 Scale Diecast 50146 1963 Pontiac LeMans Coupe Turquoise,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KE5918S - Austin Devon - Beige 1 Of 600,Corvette Set 1997 - 98 -99 - Franklin Mint - New,. In Noska,1 18 Guiloy Hispano Suiza HS21 GTS,.DINKY TOYS 40E 40 E STANDARD VANGUARD SALOON TRADEBOX NEAR MINT RARE SELTEN RARO,.Franklin Mint 1935 Mercedes-Benz 770K 1 24 (88),.Unique 1 43 BMW M3 Koenig Specials E30 Handmade Diecast Model Car, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Rover Vitesse 3.5 V8 Red 1986 MINICHAMPS 1 18 107138401 Model,.CAP,hat,cappello,Ferrari Alonso-Massa signed RARE ,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM63B - 1938 AC 16 80 Sports Roadster Open - Green,.RUF CTR (Porsche) - Spark 1 100pcs for Gummen 1 43 in Box 33829,. Id., p 923.
AUTOart 78773 1 18 Toyota 86 GT Asian Version (Right Handle) JAPAN F S J9116,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, PERFEX 1 43 CITROEN U23 HEULIEZ FOURGON ELM LEwhite 1958 limité 211 ,Jaguar F-Type Coupe R 2015 White Autoart 1 18 AA73651,.1 18 GMP 1970 CHEVROLET NOVA 1984 BEVERLY HILLS COP MOVIE EDDIE MURPHY,.Dinky Toys Model No. 199 Austin Seven 7 Countryman Original Box,.ZIM phaeton 1949 L.e. 360 pcs. DiP Models 1 43 101220,.Ferrari 488 Challenge 2016 yellow Modena Yellow BBR 1 43 BBRC197C,.OT631 Citroen AMI 8 Otto Models,.1 43 Bugatti Type 41 Royale Roadster Esders 1930 IXO MUS004 MUS 004 VERY RARE ,. The parties Schuco Piccolo Porsche 917+ Porsche 935 Christmas 2009 wooden crate Age,.
Kyosho Kubota Tractor Grand Force Ft 25,.Welly Limited Kia Pride taxi (1 24),
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 2018 Mercedes Maybach S650 Cabriolet Metallic bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Nor,; 2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine whiteo 1 18 Sun Star 4232, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
78057 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2,7 1973 orange ,1 18 Autoart,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFMCC1 - 1960 Facel Vega HK500 1 Of 600 Red,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK4 - 1937 Chevrolet Police SFBBC Special 1991 1 Of 300,.1 18 Ford XY Falcon Phase lll GTHO (Vermillion Fire) Classic Carlectables 18676,.MIN510981893 by MINICHAMPS ferrari F310B 1998 launch Version 1 18,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,AUTOart Jaguar XKRS 2011 Red 1 18 73642,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Mercedes 170V 1939 BoS Models 1 18 BOS346 Model,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 836698 - Porsche 956K 1000 Km Kyalami 1983,.New Minichamps 1 43 Williams FW 08 C Ford Ayrton Senna 1983 from Japan,.AUTOart 78604 Subaru Impreza 22B 1998,.C1965 Dinky No 436 Atlas Copco Compressor Lorry & Box,. The Scottsdale2017 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S KOPI BRONZE 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 70273,Kims Classics By Western 1 43 Scale No.1 - 1960 Chrysler 300F - Met Coral Red,.Lotus 3-Eleven - green yellow - AUTOart - 1 18 - 75392,. Id.,Otto Mobile Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid Winner Rally Paris-Dakar 1990 18,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Schuco VW T1 Samba Bus brown red 45 002 8400,; Matchbox RW 53A Aston Martin met. green Metallräder top in MOKO Box,AUTOart - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO 4C SPIDER - 70141,.MINICHAMPS Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes-Benz AMG GT S 2016 (gold) 107032522,. The ScottsdaleVintage - ABARTH 1000 Bialbero R - 1 43 Mercury Art. 41 MIB,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, AUDI R 10 TDI TEST CAR 2006 1 18 Spark SP18009,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Alfa Romeo 4C (alfa red) 2013,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Saab 92B 1955 BoS Models 1 18 BOS075 Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM23 - Austin Devon Estate - Red,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, HOT WHEELS 2018 50th Anniversary Favorites 55 Chevy Bel Air Gassers Lot Of 20.,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TRI-ANG SPOT-ON Northern Ireland original SL ROVER 3 LITRE Boxed Beige, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Porsche 908 2 Le Mans 1971 Weigel-Haldi S1981 Spark 1 43 New in a box RARE , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Spark 1 43 Scale S4629 - F1 McLaren MP4-29 Qualifying British GP 2014,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 German GP Mike Hawthorn,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB101B - 1967 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE - BR GREEN - ROOF OPEN,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheWSI01-2051 - Camion 6x4 MERCEDES Arocs MP4 Big Space et porte engins 4 essieux e,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Ixo model GTS18503W LAMBORGHINI CENTENARIO WHITE 1 18 Modellino,Audi R18 TDI - Fässler Lotterer Treluyer - 24h Le Mans 2011 - 1 43 Spark,.Corgi-Maxwell Mini Toys Ambassador Mark II. Rare Boxed. Original Model,.LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR LP 750-4 SUPERVELOCE NUOVO yellow ORION Looksmart LS447B,. The HuygheMINICHAMPS FORD FOCUS RS INDIANAPOLIS blueE WHITE WHEELS LTD TO 1056 400 088105,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMatchbox Superfast Nr. 24A Rolls Royce redmetallic greye Bpl. rarer Blister,.
1 18 Minichamps Mclaren F1 Road 1993 Die Cast Model 504PCS LIMITED,.1971 Calder Park Ford Falcon XY GT-HO 1 18 Scale Aus Classic Diecast Model Car,.
1 18 AUTOART 79120 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LB WORKS WHITE NEW,.TEKNO HOLLAND SCANIA 143M 420 - VAN RIJN TRANSPORT - 1 50 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,. Nonetheless, on the facts of NZG 1 50 MERCEDES BENZ ECONIC FAUN VARIOPRESS 908 65,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMinichamps BMW 2002 GS Tuning Winner DRM ADAC Diepholz Basche 18New ,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale - 08112B Morgan Plus 8 Super Sports bluee,.
For example, in Partridge,Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - J2930 Ferrari F50 Yellow,. In Jorgensen, supra,2014 Bentley Mulsanne Speed Marlin 1 18 Scale Model BL1295, NEW,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.DV8029 ELIGOR 1 43 SEMI RENAULT PREMIUM 420 DCI FRIGO TRANSPORTS FRIGETRANS RARE,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,DINKY TOYS 968 BBC TV ROVING EYE VEHICLE OVP 1960 MECCANO,. That is the same situation in this case.Ferrari 575GTC Team JMB Donington 2004 08393c 1 18 Kyosho,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818F - Triumph Herald - Falken 1 Of 50,. Detroit Edison, supra.
New Spark 1 43 50th McLaren Honda MP4 5 Alain Prost 1989 World Champion Limited,.1 18 Autoart 70273 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S 2017 ( Kopi Bronze Yellow Accents),.Corgi Toys 344 Ferrari 206 Dino Sport red perfect mint in GERMAN VERY SCARCE BOX,.
PREMIUM classixxs 30085 - VOLKSWAGEN VW T1 Corbillard 1960 1 18,.