Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
AEC Hoynor Car Transporter - Dinky Toys 974 England in Box 36391,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Brooklin models, 1 43, 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Indianapolis pace car 1964,.Nico Rosberg World Champion 2016 Mercedes F1 W Figurine by Minichamps in 1 18,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - bluee,.BBR FERRARI FXX blacke 1 43 2006 avec boite vitrine,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale GT113 RUF RTR Porsche 911 991 bluee Resin cast model car,.Carousel1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 Watson Roadster 1964 Indianapolis 500 Winner,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS SONDERMODELL POR000031,.Eddie Stobart models by Corgi Classics - excellent condition,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.GT Spirit 2018 Dodge Challenger SRT Demon in Tor Red GT213,.American Classics 1 43 Scale Model AA6G - 1956 Oldsmobile Super 88 bluee White,.2018 FORD GT HERITAGE EDITION GT SPIRIT US008B 1 18 DIECAST CAR, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

TOGI 8 72 ALFA ROMEO 2000 BERLINA - RED 1 23 RARE - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.BMW serie 3 E90 berline blue navy 330d 330i 1 18,.WSI 01-1510 Scania R Topline Curtainside Trailer Käppeli,.1 18 Jada 2006 Dodge Magnum R T Hemi Dub City white RARITÄT §,.

1950 Ferrari 195 Inter Ghia red 1 18 BoS-Models 354,.Opel Cd Concept 1969 BoS Models 1 18 BOS192 Model,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFMCC1 - 1960 Facel Vega HK500 1 Of 600 Red,.1 18 Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 orange + Zusätzliche,.Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 851102 Audi Quattro A2 Belga Win Boucles Spa 1985,.

Minichamps 107054130 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN KAFER 1200 KARMANN CONgreenIBLE 1949 GRE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Busch BOS124 MERCEDES 300B PININFARINA 1955 BEIGE DARK BROWN 1 18 Modellino,.1 18 GT Spirit Ferrari Enzo Gembella MIG-U1 in White GT169 Leather Base,.Chevrolet Corvette 1986 black Autoart 1 18 Aa71242 Modellino Auto Diecast,ACME – 1 18 Scale – 1967 Plymouth GTX in Limelight Green Diecast Model Replica,.DINKY TOYS 40E 40 E STANDARD VANGUARD SALOON TRADEBOX NEAR MINT RARE SELTEN RARO,.

Land Rover Range Rover RHD 1970 yellow, Modellauto 1 18 Almost Real,.Acura Nsx Nouvelle bluee Pearl Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0013,.Maserati BiTurbo Spyder 1986 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Autoart 1 18 Scale 80506 Aston Martin DBR9 24H LeMans 2005 Enge Kox Lamy,. We agree in part.

PRECISION SUPERCAR COLLECTIBLES BIG JOHN MAZMANIAN 1941 WILLYS 1 18 DIE-CAST,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818A - Austin Dorset - Dark Green,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Alfa Romeo Giulia Super 1600Cc Carabinieri 1970 green Minichamps 1 18 183120991,.SUN MOTOR CO 103 - 1 43 SCALE RESIN WHITE METAL 1950 HUMBER SUPER SNIPE - gold,.MIN117840004 MINICHAMPS TYRRELL FORD 012 STEFAN BELLOF MONACO GP 1984 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BUGATTI VEYRON L´CENTENAIRE EDITION (Chrome bluee) 2009,.1 18 Minichamps, BMW M3, H. Grohs, DTM 1988,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Autoart 79108 Liberty Walk LB-Works Lamborghini Aventador red,; 78771 Toyota 86 limited Asien Version orange ,1 18 Autoart,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Ferrari 488 Gte black Opaco Ruote gold Lim.Ed. 24 Pcs BBR 1 43 BBRC179MB,.MINICHAMPS McLaren Mercedes MP4-23 Heikki Kovalainen 1 18 530081823 503081823,Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK16 023B - 1935 Dodge Van Gems & Cobwebs,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Cadillac DAMS LMP 24 Hours of Le Mans Limited Edition 200 BBR 1 43 Scale,.

Hot Wheels 16th Nationals 2016 Convention Yellow '68 Copo Camaro 'd 1966 2400,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.2010 BMW M3 GTS (E92) 25 Years M Power orange 1 18 Kyosho 08739PM,.Renault 5 r5 super 5 gt turbo phase 2 blue 1 18 1 18 1 18 norev neuf new,.(Go) 1 18 Minichamps BMW M3 GTR Street 2001 NIP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Porsche 911 RS 2.7 1972 opening features - Minichamps 1 18,; Opel Kadett van Gama 461 Germany 1 20 in Box 12653,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, PORSCHE 911 964 Speedster Cabrliolet au 1 18 GT SPIRIT GT008CS voiture miniature,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Porsche 911 orange Tennis Grand Prix 2017 Lim.Edition 500 Spark 1 43 WAX02020026,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

TAV Citroen 15 cv, CLUB SOLIDO , carte adhérent,catalogue ,neuve en boite,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Fujimi Model 1 24 inch Up Series No.99 Subaru Impreza Sti Version IV VI ID-99,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Ferrari FXX LS159F 1 43 Solar Direct orange,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.MODELLINO ALFA ROMEO GIULIA 1300 blue 1966 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.DV8029 ELIGOR 1 43 SEMI RENAULT PREMIUM 420 DCI FRIGO TRANSPORTS FRIGETRANS RARE,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SOLIDO ASTON MARTIN 3 LITRE DBR1 COMPETITION DARK GREEN MINT BOXED.,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ilario Rolls R Plll IL053 Sedanca De Ville Hooper 1938 Limited 99 Pieces 1 43,.

TAMIYA 1 6 BIG SCALE HONDA CB750 FOUR STREET RACE - NEW KIT NEW BOX LATEST ISSUE,.Porsche 911 (997) GT2 RS White 2010 1 18 Model 77963 AUTOART,.1 18 Bburago MIGLIA FIAT 500 L 1968 bluee - RARITÄT §,.Eidolon Make Up Ferrari 156 85 Brazilian GP Alboreto Sold Out Rare,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Jurassic World Matchbox Harbor Rescue, Island Escape+27 New Dinos+20 JW Cars Lot,.

2-Car Set BMW M6 GT3 & Porsche 911 GT3 R Nürburgring 2018 Falco Motore,.Johnny Lightning The Dukes of Hazzard 1969 Dodge Charger DIRTY GENERAL LEE 1 64,.Revell 08432 NSU 1000 Prinz TT Cup R. Podak mit Zertifikat, 1 18, OVP, K011,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Old Cars 1 43 - Car Autocar Iveco EuroClass green,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MG REMEMBER 1 43 FERRARI 250LM CH5891 TOUR DE FRANCE 1969 REM43020,.Nissan Fairlady Z Vibrant Red 1 43 Model 8432 HPI RACING,.TOYOTA CELICA GT-S 2000 yellow Yellow LHD au 1 18 AUTOart 78723 voiture miniature,.Lamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 Spider Aftermarket 2015 LOOKSMART 1 43 LS470D Model,.Trax 1 43 TSS20 1954 Ford Mercury Sedan Grey Ghost in It's original boxes.,.

Ural 43202 (PM-102B) AC-40, red white, Likino-Dulevo, 1 43, Start Scale Models, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Chevrolet Yenko Camaro 1969 blue, Fast & Furious, Modellauto 1 18 Highway 61,.Abc brianza sc1 43 alfa romeo 1900cc special ghia 1955,factory bulit,. The PartridgeKyosho TF-5S chassis, with Lexus SC430 body,.MINICHAMPS Duesenberg Model J Torpedo MC-107150431,.NOREV 181652 Citroën C4 Cactus W 2016 Üearl White & Dune Airbump 1 18 OVP,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Matchbox lesney ancien moko n°.59 ford thames singer van green SOMBRE neuf mint, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 10 ERTL Harley-Davidson sixteen Motorcycle Die Cast Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Schuco 0401 Porsche Cayman Gt4 -,.AUTOART 1 18 LEXUS LC500 METALIC WHITE 78846,PartridgeRENAULT KERAX CCFS 9000 SIDES SECURITY CIVIL CORSE REF 115938 ELIGOR 1 43,.DINKY TOYS 32D DELAHAYE ECHELLE POMPIERS + BOITE D'ORIGINE,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, LOTUS TEAM ELICOPTER 1962 Spark 1 43 SP0271, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1966 Cadillac S&S 48 High Top Ambulance Red and White Precision Collection,; Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale W1180 Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Passo Corto SWB Blk,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Autoart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador New yellow Orion Pearl Yellow 79132, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 999 1 43 HONDA FIT 2007 WHITE PEARL, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAUTOART 1 18 LIBERTY WALK LB-WORKS LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR RED 79108,.

1 VINTAGE('70s) CORGI JUNIORS WHIZZWHEELS-NO.12 RELIANT-OGLE SCIMITAR GTE -MINT,.Spark 1 43 Corvette C6-R Team SRT GT FFSA 2008 from Japan, Clarke's negligent act.2008 JAMIE WHINCUP RED DUST DARWIN LIVERY VODAFONE 1 18 DIE CAST MODEL CAR,.Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 Coupé 1973 Ahornyellow 1 18,.2016 Bentley Continental GT Congreenible Sunburst gold 1 18 Paragon Models 98232,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Faller 161597 H0 Car System LKW Scania R 13 HL Pritsche mit Holzkiste Herpa,Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK5A 004 - 1930 Ford Model A Coupe Fire Prevention Car Red,. In Noska,Acura MDX 4x4 4WD 2014 1 43,.Tekno SB 1 43 - MG 1600 Red,.WSI01-2092 - Camion porte containeur Scania R09 Topline avec conainer 40ft aux c,.Kings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari D50 French Grand Prix Test Alfonso de Portago, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1959 CADILLAC AMBULANCE WHITE PRECISION COLLECTION 1 18 CAR BY GREENLIGHT 18004,.Mercedes Benz A 217 S Class Cabrio S 63 AMG White 1 18 New OVP,.Corgi Toys No. 233, Heinkel I, Economy, - Superb,.FORD STARLINER HOT ROD 1960 film GREASE 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE ERTL 36602 voiture,. Id., p 923.

1 18 AUTOart LAMBORGHINI HURACAN HURACÁN LP610-4 green mantis metallic pearl,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Maisto Exclusive 38136 - Lamborghini Centenario LP 770-4 Year 2016 yellow 1 18,Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 375 Woodcote Cup Goodwood Louis Rosier,.GT Spirit BMW M6 (F06) Grand Coupe San Marino bluee Resin Car Model 1 18,.Opel Admiral B Caravan Yellow 1 18 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,.Conrad 77224 MAN TGS LX Euro 6 5achs mit Ladekran Palfinger PK200002L SH 1 50,.AUTOart Nissan Gt-r Fia Gt1 World championship 2010 Team Sumo 1 18 Car Diecast,.AUTOART 75403 HENNESSEY VENOM GT SPYDER, RED 1 18TH SCALE,.McLaren Mercedes MP4 16 Hakkinen Minichamps 1 18 scale,. The parties DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 977D TRAXCAVATOR 1955-60 963K 85559,.

RARE Mercedes G Class W461 Zeppelin Ambulance Vector Models Hand Made 1 43,.Aoshima 1 32 Bus No.10 JR Bus Kanto Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Queen I Model kit Japan,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Ulster Trophy Dundrod Bobbie Baird,; Ignition Model IG0352 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-R KPGC110 White JDM from Japan, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Resin Model Car 177,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)BMW 850i Cabrio red Modellauto 1 18 Schuco,.TEKNO 64813 Scania R Highline, Kippauflieger 1 50,.Minichamps Magirus S 6500 Aerial Ladder 1955,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Original Mercedes-Maybach S650 Congreenible Designo Zirkonred 1 18 Norev,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.KK Road Kings 1.18 scale Scania 6 x 2 Tractor Unit ASC Livery Ltd Edition MIB,.Porsche 911 Pocher 1 8,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car US11B - 1964 Studebaker Avanti II - White,.Franklin Mint 1970 Plymouth Red Hemicuda Congreenible, 1 24 Scale, Factory Sealed,.ERTL 1 18 Diecast Model Car Fast & Furious Tokyo Drift - 2003 Nissan 350Z Green,. The ScottsdaleAGUTI TOYS MATCHBOX SUPERFAST DODGE CHARGER MARK III EXTREMELY RARE,TOYOTA Celica ST 165 Rallye Test Testcar white READY TO RACE N Top Marques 1 18,.Matchbox SF Nr. 67C Datsun 260Z rare Farbe komplett in black top in Box,. Id.,Mint Kyosho 1 43 Skyline 2000 Gt-R Minicar,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Hot Wheels 32 Ford Coupe,; 1 43 BBR C76BLK Ferrari 599XX EVO 2011 limited ex. no 34 50,Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 Turbo T Practice 1000km Spa 1974 Müller, van Lennep 1 18,.Schuco 1 43 Hymermobil 900 450899500,. The ScottsdaleNZG VW Bus T6 Multivan Edition 30 weiss 1 18 9542 40,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels REDLINE 1970 GREEN NITTY GRITTY KITTY UNREAL NEAR MINT CONDITION,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Honda NSX NC1 AUTOart 73233,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK4X - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe Toledo Toy Fair 1987 1 Of 100,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1963 Austin Mini AA Patrol Service Van yellow yellow Minivan 1 12 Sun Star 5318,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Carlectable 1 18 Holden Supercheap Auto Racing 2009 18397,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-El C210 White Hayashi Wheel Ig0317, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Cc13767 Corgi Scania R Feldbinder Tanker Liam Kelly Transport Gießen Modell, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Mugen Honda Civic Type R Anno di Costruzione 2017 Milano red 1 18 Scala Reale,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN T2 Kastenwagen 1967-1979 bluee - SCHUCO,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, BBR - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO 6C 2500 GT TOURING - 1951 - BLM1807D,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 AUTOart Lancia Delta S4 1985 red,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.AUTOart Nissan Juke R 2.0 2016 Red 1 18 77457,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Brand High Story Demio Xd Touring 2014,Vintage dinky toy no.353 ufo shado 2 mobile original,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari 458 Italia GT2 in Yellow on a Leather Base,.1975 Porsche 911 RSR No.55 Le Mans in 1 18 Scale by Spark 18S289,. The HuygheCorgi 859 Mr McHenry's Trike and Zebedee - box,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 52-1 RARE 5 DECAL YELLOW MASERATI RACE CAR,.

44404 1 43 TOYOTA MR-2 1984 WHITE,.LS Collectibles 1963 JEEP GRAND WAGONEER bluee 1 18 Scale New Release ,.

Ferrari Fxx 23 Red Frank Muller Limited Edition 1 18 Mattel,.Matchbox Lesney No.17a Bedford Removal Van (LIGHT blueE),. Nonetheless, on the facts of DV7722 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TGXXL SEMI FRIGORIFIQUE TRANSPORTS AGENEAU CHEREAU 113232,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePorsche 911 GT3 RS 991 (2016) 1 12 GT Spirit GT140,.2003 Lincoln Twon Car Limousine Vibrant White 1 18 Sun Star 4201,.

For example, in Partridge,Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM93X - 1936 Bentley 4.25 Ltr FHC - Metallic Green,. In Jorgensen, supra,PORSCHE 935 BABY 1977 MARTINI LOOKSMART LS366 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Aston Martin Vanquish 2013 White Autoart 1 18 AA70250 Model,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,RARE GAZ 63 DiP Models 106303 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark Iso Rivolta 24h Le Mans 1964 Berney Noblet in 1 18 Scale New Release,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK26A 006 - 1955 Chevrolet Nomad WMTC Special 1 Of 300,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1933 Ford Lincoln KB Top Down Rebelite Red 1 18 Sun Star 6166,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 89834 Mercedes Benz CLK GTR FIA 1998,.CORGI SEALED BATMANS BATMOBILE 1940 ROADSTER 1 18 DC COMICS LIMITED EDITION,.

MINICHAMPS - Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR, W 196 S und SLR McLaren - 1 43 - in OVP,.