Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL046 FERRARI 250 GTO ND LE MANS LM 1962 MIB RARE,.1983 Land Rover Defender 110 Firenze Red Metallic 1 18 Dorlop 1810,.ARE318-24 LANCIA STRATOS TURBO TDF 73 HOCICO CORTO KIT DE MONTAJE - 1 24,.AUTOart NISSAN FAIRLADY Z432 1969 orange 1 18 77436,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Alfa Romeo Giulia 1300Cc Vigili Del Fuoco 1966 Minichamps 1 18 183120992 Model,.NZG 1 50 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ UNIMOG U 5000 MODEL BN 9113,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mclaren P1 Gtr 2015 Volcano orange AUTOART 1 18 AA81545,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari F60 America in Yellow on Tan Leather Base,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.MakeUp VISION VM112C 1 43 Porsche 911 (993) turbo 1995 white model cars,.Schuco Mercedes 170 V Tankwagen Standard Oil 1 18,.Porsche 991 GT3 997-2 - White- 1 43 - WAP0200000D - Dealer, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Dinky Toys England - 166 - Sunbeam Rapier Saloon - 1 43e,.AUTOart 1 18 Liberty Walk LB-WORKS Lamborghini Aventador Sky bluee 79107 EMS W T,.Chrysler 300B, white, 1 43, neo,.Neo Scale Models NEO45726 MERCEDES 1422 METZ DLK23-12 FIRE BRIGADE 1 43 Modellin,.
Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 625 F Gonzalez German GP Test,.1 18 scale model car 2006 Craig Lowndes Phillip Island Ford BA Falcon,.PSL Psl Autoart 1 18 Mclaren P1 Gtr bluee Yellow,.Minichamps Ford Capri Turbo Gr.5 D&W DRM 1982 1 18 100828503,.DORLOP 181OGY, LAND ROVER DEFENDER 110, RHD, ORKNEY GREY, 1 18 SCALE,.
Porsche Carrera GT Diecast Model Car 78046,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.MIN186970003 by MINICHAMPS WILLIAMS renault FW19 1997 18,.Ferrari 1 18 458 Italia Hot Wheels Elite,.Siku VW Bus V 211 60er Jahre ORIGINAL ECHT Selten u rar,Ignition Model 1 43 Yhp Nissan R90Cp 24 1990 Jspc Resin Model Ig0285 New,.Corgi Toys 344 Ferrari 206 Dino Sport red perfect mint in GERMAN VERY SCARCE BOX,.
WSI 01-2381 1 50 Baldwin's Crane Hire - FTF FS Series Tractor with Ballast Box,.ANA 747 jumbo jet Veterans Memorial Rika-chan Chgold Q,.Difficult Ferrari Super America bluee 1 18 Mattel Elite,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Brand Dealer Box Mini Car Bmw 2002 Turbo,.
Mattel F1 Gp M Schumacher 1 18 Scale Car,. We agree in part.
Nissan Fairlady Z Vibrant Red 1 43 Model 8432 HPI RACING,.Komatsu Micro Pala para Niños Conduciendo Juguete con Casco Pc01 Japón,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46471 GM FUTURELINER 1941 WHITE DARK GREEN 1 43,.BBR Lancia Beta Montecarlo Turbo BBR-TOP21B,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 993 911 RS 1995 Riviera bluee 1 43 Minichamps-GT2,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; SOLIDO BROSOL BRAZIL FERRARI V12 F.1 B924,.FERRARI 599XX VERSIONE CLIENTI WHITE RED CAR LOOKSMART LS368B 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast 32832 1968 Ford Mustang CJ 428 bluee John Force Series,; Audi R8 Lms Plain Body Version 2016 White AUTOART 1 18 AA81602 Model,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Volkswagen VW T2A 50 Anniversary Ed VW T2 1967-2017 Kastenwagen Pastel bluee 1 18,.Crossway Models 1 43 Scale AC06 - Triumph 2000 Saloon - Damson,Maserati 3500 Gt Touring bluee Metallic w White Roof 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.SPARK ASTON MARTIN V8 ZAGATO 1987 - RED 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT - 37,.
Takara 15 Set Chgold QTokyo Metropolitan Bureau Of Transportation Approved,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.153 blueEBIRD RECORD CAR METAL WHEELS VN MIB,.1 18 Top Marques TOP21A Lancia Beta Montecarlo 24h Le Mans 1981 BBR,.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Fairlady Z S30 Star Load Red Finished Item,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, American Classics 1 43 Scale Model Car AA19 - 1959 Dodge Royal - Grey Maroon,; 439350080 L 3500 - DL17 - 1950 - 'Fire Brigade Ben's, Minichamps 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Lotus XI Club (green) 1956,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
PORSCHE 934 RSR JAGERMEISTER orange 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY SCHUCO 450033500,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Jada 1972 Datsun 240Z 1 24 Scale Import Racer option D Rare Graphics,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
VINTAGE GAMA MINI MOD VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE TIN GERMANY EXTREMELY RARE,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
AUTOart 1 18 RWB 993 (white gunmetal wheels),. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Matchbox Lesney No 5 London bus Buy Matchbox series mint in box GMW all original,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM14 - 1963 Singer Gazelle - Green,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155832601 BMW 635 CSi BMW Italia Grano Kelleners Cecotto,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7 - 1954 Ford Zephyr Zodiac - Cream,.
SPARK Porsche 918 Spyder Weissach SPA-18S170,.PORSCHE 907 N.54 DAYTONA 1968 ELFORD-NEERPASCH-SIFFERT 1 18 SPARK S18DA68,.Corgi GS 47 Ford 5000 Super Major Tractor with Conveyor Original near MB,.1 18 ACME A1806102 1970 PLYMOUTH HEMI BARRACUDA HENRI CHEMIN CHRYSLER FRANCE,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 Red MINICHAMPS 1 18 107032521 M,.
Kings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari Bardahl Giuseppe Farina Indianapolis Test,.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Model Car BCJ98 - Batman Forever Batmobile,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM77 - 1957 Riley 1.5 Saloon - Damask Red,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Matchbox RW 02A Dumper red & green Metallräder mit rarer A Box,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Dinky 57 3 Chevrolet Impala, Excellent Condition Original Box, Hong Kong Made,.2018 Mercedes Maybach S650 Cabriolet Metallic bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Nor,.Vintage Corgi Toys James Bond Toyota 2000 GT; No 336; Original Box,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Chevrolet Corvette Mako Shark Xp-755 1961 bluee 1 18 Auto Art,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale 5918 - Austin 7 Van - Green,.
MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.61 blueE SHARK 'SCORPION LABEL' MIB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ford Escort RS Cosworth 4X4 Gr. A Rally Monte Carlo 1994 1 18 OT534 OTTO Mobile,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM64A - 1951 Bentley MkVI Ivo Peters Midnight bluee,. The PartridgeIG1528 ignition model 1 43 Nissan TOP SECRET GT-R VR32 bluee metallic,.Autoart Porsche 911 (997) GT2 RS - Red 1 18 77964,.ALMOST REAL 1 18 MERCEDES BENZ S-CLASS MAYBACH 2016 BIANCO DIAMANTE MODELLINO,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOART 71275 CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT (ADMIRAL blueE WHITE STRIPES) 1 18TH, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.DINKY TOYS No 36b BENTLEY (V.RARE,blueE) (V.NEAR MINT),Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Porsche 911 Turbo Set 40 Years Anniversary 1 43 MINICHAMPS WAP0200120E,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT194 Renault 11 Turbo Gr.A Tour De Corse 1986,PartridgeHot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast N2055 Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina Red,.1 18 Autoart 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera Rs 2.7 White ,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Lamborghini Aventador S 2016 black Pegaso 1 43 Model LOOKSMART, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AUTOart 1 18 Toyota 2000 GT White Composite Diecast Model 78753 Japan,; AM43346 ALFA ROMEO ROMEO 6C 2300B TOURING A THOUSAND MILES 1937,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps HONDA RC211V–VALENTINO ROSSI– Mit Figur -1ST WIN MOTOGP 2002-1 12, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes Benz CL63 AMG 1 18 AutoArt, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRENAULT ALPINE A110 WINNERS 1973 TOUR DE CORS RALLY 1 18 BY KYOSHO 08485 A,.
ABC Carlo Brianza No 77 Alfa Romeo 1900SS Super Stradale 1954 Limited Edition,.BRAND NEW MINICHAMPS 1 43 ALONSO 2005 RENAULT R25 LIMITED1008 AND WORLD CHAMPION, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 JADI 503 BMW 503 (1956) CONgreenIBLE CAR DIE CAST RARE,.Mclaren Mp4-12C 2011 Matt Grey Minichamps 1 18 110133024,.TOPSPEED 1 18 McLaren 675LT Spider Mantis Green Resin Model TS0069,.
Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFMCC1 - 1960 Facel Vega HK500 1 Of 600 Red,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Cadillac Deville Limousine año 2004 Sun Star 4231 black,HPI 8825 1 43 Calsonic Skyline GT-R R33 1995 JGTC Sendai,. In Noska,Dinky Supertoys Vintage Model 934 - Leyland Octopus Wagon - Yellow Green,.CORGI SEALED BATMANS BATMOBILE 1940 ROADSTER 1 18 DC COMICS LIMITED EDITION,.1 18 Autoart 2013 Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2, Special Item ,.Lamborghini Veneno, white, 1 43, Kyosho, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Corgi Toys 302 M.G.A. Sports Car red Spun hubs near mint in box what a beauty,.Ferrari Sf16-H Scuderia Winner 2016 Australia Grand Prix Diecast 1 18 by BBR,.1 18 Die Cast & Porcelain Ertl DIORAMA SKYVUE DRIVE-IN MIB HTF,.Minichamps 107139940 Bentley Continental T 1996 - limitiert - 1 18 NEU & OVP,. Id., p 923.
Matchbox 74a Mobile Refreshments bar, Cream, in type B4 box,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, LM132016-17 PESCAROLO C60-JUDD N.17 LE MANS 2006,Corgi Gift Set 24 Construction Set (Commer 3 4 Ton Chassis). Boxed. 1960's,.Mercedes-Benz Maybach S-Class 2016 - diamant white - Almost Real - 1 18 - 820101,.Rare Kyosho 1 18 Model BMW M3 GTS (E92) orange 08739P,.1 18 Schuco 0354 Porsche 911 Targa S - blueemet.,.New 1982 Pontiac Trans Am KARR Elite Edition 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels,.1 43 BBR FERRARI 550 MARANELLO RED H LM 2006 TEAM RUSSIAN AGE RACING BG311,.MIN110770008 ALFA ROMEO F1 BRABHAM BT45B TEAM MARTINI RACING J. COINCÉ 1 18,. The parties TSM Acura NSX 2017 Red Resine Model Car 1 43 TSM164386 Genuine New Best Gift,.
SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 1997 RALLY SAFARI MCRAE greyT 1 18 BY AUTOART 89792,.PERFEX 1 43 BERLIET VXB170 VBRG GENDARMERIE PC ref 712 serie limitée 200 pieces,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, SAMURAI 1 18 Nissan GT-R 2017 White Pearl,; WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E10 2000tii Touring 1971 bluee 1 18 Minichamps-Auto Art GT, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
MASERATI GRANSPORT SPYDER STREET 2005 YELLOW BBR181 BBR MODEL 1 43 MADE IN ITALY,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 1997 Lincoln Town Car green metallic GLM 43102802,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Ma Collection Résine 1 43 - Delage 3L Le Mans 1938 N°21,.1970 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER PURPLE GRAVEYARD CARZ LTD ED 732 PCS 1 18 GMP 18897,.Jaguar F-Type R Coupe 2015 matt grey Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,BMW M1 Procar BMW Motorsport Procar Series 1979 - 1 12 - Minichamps,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hot Wheels Thrill Drivers 1974 Hong Kong (BH009),.FrontiArt AS018-12 Aston Martin Vanquish S Bj. 2014 Coopermetallic 1 18,.Véhicule Miniature - Peugeot 205 GTI Griffe 1.9L 1990 - green - Echelle 1 18 NORE,.1 18 1999 Nissan Skyline GT-R (R32) (gungrey metallic) WANGAN MIDNIGHT REINA AU,.1 18 Porsche Museumsmodell WAP0210030B - Porsche 911 GT2 RS red - RARITÄT §,. The ScottsdalePROVENCE MOULAGE ASTON MARTIN DB1 ROADSTER 1949 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 -EXCELLENT -12,MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR ALMS 2004 YELLOW ART. 100046401 1 18 NEW,.SUPER RARE Full Set of 5 T2M Motorsport Cars- Minichamps Porsche GT3 RS 1 43,. Id.,1 18 NOREV 1997 MERCEDES-BENZ W140 S600 GREY NEW LIMITED EDITION OF 1000,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ABC BRIANZA 257 PORSCHE ALCADOR SBARRO S20 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD,; Hot Wheels McLaren Mercedes MP4 20 2005 1 18 Raikkonen Sparco Edition (JS),Kyosho 1 18 Kyosho Original die-cast Lamborghini Countach LP500S WW (Red) 08...,.Porsche 934 EGT Nürburgring 300km 1976 Gelo-Tebernum 12 Minichamps,. The ScottsdaleRARE COLOR LADA 2121 Niva USSR Diecast Car 1 43 FREE SHIPS S003,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 155 808608 Ford Capri 3.0S Bastos SPA 1979,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MODELLINO 1 18 PORSCHE CAYMAN 2012 GIALLA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ALFA ROMEO 159 -1951 - 1 20 built - Revival,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 100 012101 BMW M3 GTR STREET - RED,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Chrysler Town and Country 1948 1 24e Franklin Mint Précision,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Mustang SVT Cobra 2003 Congreen Reg Red 31646 1 18 Maisto, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DINKY TOYS MODEL No.439 FORD D800 SNOW PLOUGH MIB, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps - Max Verstappen - Tgold red - STR10 -2015 -1 43 - Hungary GP - Rare,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMercedes MB 2628 WAWE 9000, Wasserwerfer Polizei Berlin, einmalig in 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MINICHAMPS L&M Porsche 917 10 Can Am Champ 1 181 18,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1962 Chrysler 300H 2-Door Hardtop Red by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 Scale New ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.TEK65823 - MERCEDES Actros L08 6x4 Avec citerne 3 Essieux AVIA VOLLENHOVEN - 1,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Brumm BMT05 FIAT IVECO 190 SCUDERIA FERRARI 1982 ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43 Modellino,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 155 373106 Mercedes Benz W125 2nd Eifelrennen 1937,.Berna (Saurer) 1 50 Typ 2VM Tankwagen Militär (ohne Box) N°705 olo swiss,.AUTOart Auto Art outlets 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Valentino Baruboni,. The HuygheM0855 Polistil F1 1 55 - Tyrrell RACING color Arancio - in blister- RARA,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheErtl 1 18 Scale Diecast - 32078 American Graffiti '32 Deuce Coupe Yelow,.
1 18 Autoart - 81541 Mclaren P1 GTR (Gloss White Red Stripes) 2015,.Fiat 850 - Mercury 30 1 43 in Box 28904,.
TopSpeedModels Acura NSX GT3 Presentation New York Auto Show 2016 Rare Model,.DANBURY MINT 1968 PLYMOUTH HEMI ROADRUNNER 1 24 DIECAST MODEL W BOX PAPERS,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Bugatti EB110 Gt Año Fabricación 1991 whiteo 1 18 Autoart,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeNEW Exact Detail 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro RS SS Die Cast 67 Chevy Lane,.Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Resin Model Car 177,.
For example, in Partridge,Almost Real Bill of Materials Bentley Team Absolute in GT3 Asia 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,TEK60727 - Camion SCANIA R et citerne transport d'essence 3 essieux aux colors,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Schuco 1 43 Reisebus Magirus Deutz O6500 DP 450893500,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,894 Technifrance Kit Citroën Type A 1919 torpedo 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.PAUDI MODEL PD2309W SKODA YETI 2013 WHITE 1 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.TEK73452 - Camion citerne Scania R09 Lowline aux colors du transporteur TRANS,. Detroit Edison, supra.
AUTOart 1 18 McLAREN P1 GTR (DARK GREY METALLIC orange ACCENTS) 81543,.MakeUp VISION VM096D 1 43 Porsche 911 (993) RS 1995 (Japan Ver) White,.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniversary Usa BBR 1 43 BBRC182D Model,.
Franklin Mint 1 16 Scale diecast - B11KF10A 1913 Bugatti Royale Coupe De Ville,.