Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X Red 1 18 Kyosho Samurai KSR18019R,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 18 Ertl Joy Ride 1977 Pontiac TRANS AM Filmmod. Ein ausgekochtes Schlitzohr ,.BROOKLIN BRK 87X 1949 DESOTO STATION WAGON CTCS 2001 TOPLEY TAXI 1 OF 275 1 43,.ACME Models 1 18 Scale A1801811 - Mel Burns 1965 Drag Shelby GT350,.1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000Gt-R Kpgc110,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK83A 1947 Ford V8 Station Wagon Parred Green Poly,.HPI 1 43 Calsonic Skyline GT-R R33 1995 JGTC Sendai Kazuyoshi Hoshino ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Vintage Britains Fordson Mayor Tractor with Spudded Metal Wheels with Figure,.MIN100911046 by MINICHAMPS AUDI V8 QUATTRO DTM 1991 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Vintage Fun Ho Midget Scale Models No 47 Fork Lift Mint In Box New Zealand Made,.1 18 - TEMPO HANSEAT KASTEN (LHD) - 1952 - PEPSI - MINICHAMPS,.AUTOart 1 18 Mercedes-Benz G500 SWB bluee finished product, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

LS COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - JAGUAR XJ6 - 1982 - LS025F,.Autoart 1 18 Porsche 911 (997) Gt3rs 4.0 (white) From Japan,.RARE GAZ 63 DiP Models 106303 1 43,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK32 001A - 1953 Studebaker Commander Reworked M. Cooling,.

AUTOAart 70244 ASTON MARTIN ONE 77 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR MORNING FROST WHITE,.1 18 Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 orange + Zusätzliche,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK188A - 1954 Mercury Monterey Super Station Wagon Green,.NZG VW Bus T6 Multivan silver 1 18 954 55,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari 488 Pista in yellow Yellow Tristrato Leather LS488C,.

MAP autobus U23 au 1 43 vendu monté,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Gasoline 1 43 2007 Maserati MC12 FIA GT Championship Limited Edition of 150,.AUTOart 85470 1 18 PORSCHE 550 SPYDER 1954 HERMANN CARRERA PANAMERICANA,.Mclaren F1 Road Car 1993 Red Minichamps 1 18 530133422 Model,Chevrolet Corvette C7 Z06 Coupe 2014 Red Autoart 1 18 AA71262 Model,.Mclaren Mp4-12C (Vulcano Red) Peako 1 18 No MR No CMC No BBR No P1,.

GLM 1 43 1962 Kaiser 'Jeep' Panel Delivery Resin Model,.Dinky Toys No 352 Ed Strakers Car,.MODELLO MINICHAMPS BENTLEY ARNAGE R - 2002,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Vintage Tonka Jeep Collection--Camper, Stake, Concrete Mixer, Rescue Ambulance,.

Ferrari Portofino Cabriolet Open 2017 red Corsa Lim.Ed.159 BBR 1 43 BBRC207B M,. We agree in part.

CORGI 292 STARSKY & HUTCH ORIGINAL VERY GOOD ORIGINAL SET- BOX WORN AS SHOWN,.1 18 Autoart Lexus LC 500 metallic white dark pink interior 78872,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1979 BMW 323i (E21) Baur green Metalizado 1 18 BoS-Models 073,.AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (KPGC10) 1 18 87176,.Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 gold MINICHAMPS 1 18 107032522,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Opel Ascona C GT, white, 1 43, Neo,.SCANIA R Highline Nooteboom Semi Dieplader (3 as) Peter Mussche 1 50,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Kool Toyz Target Hot Wheels Power Launcher 67 Camaro Purple Rare,; Ferrari SF70H Gp Montecarlo 2017 Winner Sebastian Vettel BBR 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

RWB 993 1 12 GT SPIRIT GT167,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari F60 America in Yellow on Tan Leather Base,AUTOart 1 18 2003 AUTOart HONDA NSX JGTC 2003 G ZOX MUGEN Japan F S,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Volkswagen T6 Multivan Edition 30 Minibus 2017 White NZG 1 18 LX95420040,.

Neo Setra Kässbohrer S 215 HD - weiss green - 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Rig Warriors Collection Galoob 1997 Mega Rigs Mini Missile Rigs & Fighting Rigs,.LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR LB-WORKS METALLIC RED 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 79109,.Mercedes Arocs StreamSpace mit 4achs goldhofer Semitieflader Scholpp Neu OVP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Classic Carlectables VK Commodore 1986 Wellington 500 Winner 18654,; Corgi 339 1967 Monte-carlo Winner BMC Mini Cooper S Good Cond,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Herpa Conrad 1 50 071291 MAN Tgs L round Holes - Trailer Geiger ,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Schuco Porsche Master - red (00086) - 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniversary Usa bluee Nart BBR 1 43 BBRC182,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Kyosho 1 43 Scale Lamborghini Iota Svr,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

AUTOart 1 18 77451 Nissan Fairlady Z S30 Wangan midnight Devil Z Japan EMS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Fiat Dino Coupe' 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.Predech Space Saver Car Cases for carded Hot Wheels Display and Storage,,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.OTTO 1 18 Scale Resin Model Car - OT699 Audi S8 White,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.BBR Ferrari 488 GTE 1 43 BBRC179MB - limited 24 pcs ,.

Kyosho 1 43 05032R Ferrari 360 Spider red MIB Diecast Car,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08108R Morris Mini Cooper S Mk1 1275S Red,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT657 - Ferrari 308 GTB Tour De Corse Rally 1982,.GMP – 1 18 Scale Ford “Raw Steel” 1934 Blown Altered Coupe Diecast Scale Model,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Minichamps 180862911 BMW M1 Procar - 24H Du Mans 1986,.

Hpi Mirage 1 43 Toyota 2000GT 1968 SCCA D. Jordan from Japan,.Special Scale 1 24 Car Collection 41 Nissan GT-T T35 2012 2018.4.3 Hachette New,.New 1982 Pontiac Trans Am KARR Elite Edition 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Hpi-racing 1 43 Subaru Impreza WRC 2006 Toshi Arai Memorial Set Limited,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Bentley Flying Spur W12 - 1 18 - Kyosho,.RLM24RL007 FERRARI 248 F1 2006 24,.PORSCHE 908 2 1970 S MCQUEEN HOLTVILLE AUTOart BIANCO 1 18,.LAMBORGHINI CENTENARIO 2016 voiture miniature 1 18 collection kyosho18503w 500 e,.1 18 Mazda 6 Sedan Atenza año 2015 Dorlop 1004BL blue,.

Spark Model S18LM85 PORSCHE 956 N.7 WINNER LM 1985 K.LUDWIG-J.WINTER-P.BARILLA 1, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan R90Cp 1990 Shakedown Test Resin Model Ig0287 New,.1 43 Century Dragon 1961 JAGUAR E-Type Series 1 Fixed Head Coupe,. The PartridgeALPINE CELEBRATION LE MANS A110 2016 1 18,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 RUF SCR 4.2 964 Body Red GT192 Leather Base,.Bentley Mulsanne (browen metallic) 2010,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes 300b Pininfarina 1955 Beige Dark Brown 1 18 Model BOS MODEL, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.76299 AUTOart 1 18 Mercedes Maybach S600 Pullman Dark Red Metallic,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Tecnomodel Ferrari 857 Scaglietti 1956 red,.Porsche 911 RS 2.7 1972 opening features - Minichamps 1 18,PartridgeKyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08705GP BMW 645Ci Moto GP Safety Car,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Model 08164B - Ferarri 365 GTB4 Daytona Competizione,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1960s.matchbox.LESNEY.10.Tate&Lyle Sugar Container.GPW.Mint in box.CROWN on Rear, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Look Smart Models 1 43 1999 Lamborghini Diablo GTR Red,; 2010 Land Rover Defender 90 TDI Green-Whire 1 18 Kyosho 08901GGR,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Kyosho Samurai Lexus RX 200t F Sports White 1 18 Model Car, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, SpecCast SPEC1626 FARMALL 340 GAS NARROW FRONT C BARRA FALCIANTE 1 16 Modellino, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.


1 43 GLM 1930 Cord L29 Town Car Murphy & Co Resin Model,.Corgi 262 Lincoln Continental VnrMint Boxed w Leaflet T.V. strip original, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Carousel1 Aar Eagle 1974 Indianopolis 500 Pancho Carter Rarity,.Minichamps 110014004 1 18 AUDI Q7 2015 orange,.AUTOart 89280 Nissan Skyline GT R R32 Plain Body Version,.

Hot Wheels 19th Nationals 2019 Convention Bingo Red White & bluee '70 Camaro 125,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, GT Spirit 1 18 Scale GT742 LB Performance Nissan GT-R R35 orange,Lot of 69 Hot Wheels Treasure Hunts,. In Noska,1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 (991) Carrera 4S lightbluee,.Mercedes-Amg Gt R Solar Beam Yellow Metallic 1 18 Autoart,.Aston Martin Rapide S Año Fabricación 2015 silver 1 18 Autoart,.BBR Ferrari J50 50th Anniversary Ferrari Japan 1 43 BBRC208, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CULT CAR CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 CABRIOLET blueE + DISPLAY-BOX 1 43 HANDBUILT KIT,.CCC HORS SERIE RESIN KIT (built) CITROEN H CROIX-red - AMBULANCE 1 43 - RARE,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM61A - 1937 Jensen 3.5 Litre S-Type - Cream,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 022B - 1935 Dodge Van Dr Barnardos 1 Of 100,. Id., p 923.

Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Laurel 2000 Sgx Green Ig 0140 Completed Product,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Kyosho Bentley Bentayga Bright Bronze Nr. 08921BZ OVP,1 18 Minichamps 107125330 1936 Lancia Astura Tipo 233 Corto white Sonderpreis,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK173 - 1954 Monarch Lucerne Coupe - White Red,.Kit 1 24 NISSAN GT-R LM NISMO n°21-22-23 24h Le Mans 2015 Profil24 24100K,.ZIL 4906 bluee Bird DiP models resin 249060 1 43,.Nascar 1 12 Tony Stewart Home Depot 2000 Pontiac Grand Prix,.Schuco Volkswagen VW T1b Bus grey white 1 18 450037700,.Vintage - FIAT DINO Coupè Bertone A - 1 43 Mercury Art. 63 NMIB,. The parties WIKING 113 VW KAFER GREY-WHITE 1 40 RARE SELTEN IN NEAR MINT CONDITION IN BOX,.

RAI'S 1 43 CROWN 2.0 POLICE DEPARTMENT AREA POLICE TEAM,.Ford Capri 1 Rs 2600 1970 Green, Model Car 1 18 Minichamps,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, TECNOMODEL 1 18 - TM18-27D ALFA ROMEO 33 3 Long Tail 24H LE MANS 1970,; Mercedes Benz G-Class G500 V8 Swb 1990 silver Autoart 1 18 Aa76112 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Range Rover (1970) 1 18 Almost Real ALM810103,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 81341 AUTOart 1 18 Mclaren MP4-12C GT3 White,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - P9902 Ferrari 360 Spider Red,.Matchbox VW Volkwagon Van Resin Model Green Pre-Production RARE Pre-pro 70mm,.AUTOart 1 18 Nissan GTR R32 GROUP Die Cast Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 43 165103 DIP MODELS PAZ-651 (1950-1960) bluee white and white stripe Limited,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Very Rare BRANCHLINES AUSTIN 7 'RUBY' - 1 43 Scale Whitemetal Kit Unused,.DINKY A.C. Aceca No. 167 (R),.Rare matrice moule résine Talbot LM 1 43 Heco modeles voiture véhicule RU,.TEKNO 70560 Scania R HL Kofferhängerzug 1 50,.AUTOart 78057 Car 1 18 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 '73 (orange) Finished product,. The ScottsdaleParagon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432244242 BMW 3 Series Touring Alpine White,LS COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - ASTON MARTIN LAGONDA - 1974 - LS024B,.Tecnomodel TM18-97C Bizzarrini P538 Spyder Press Version Bj. 1965 red 1 18,. Id.,Vintage - FIAT 600 D - 1 43 Politoys-M511 Perfetta,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 100 037131 MERCEDES BENZ SLR MCLAREN ROADSTER 2007 GREY MET,; 1 18 Autoart Mercedes CL Klasse CL Class ivory Dealer NEW CONDITION NO BOX,1 18 AUTOart PORSCHE 356 SPEEDSTER F James Dean,.Diapet Yonezawa G-70 Alpine Renault A310 V6 made in Japan 1 40 scale MIB rare,. The ScottsdaleDiecast Masters 1 50 Scale 71015 International HX520 Tandem XL120 Trailer,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM13AA - 1965 Humber Sceptre Mk2 - Metallic Green,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Tarmac Works 1 18 Honda Civic Eg6 Sir II 1993 White T01-SIR-WH,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast NV18001B - Citroen DS 21 Chapron - Dk Red,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps Audi R8 LMS Ultra Winner 24h Nuerburgring 2015 18 LE of 350 New,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast L2972 Ferrari 250 GTO Candy Red,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, NISSAN GTR LEMANS LMP1 2015 Spark SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, NZG 1 32 Genie SX -180 Aerial work platform alloy model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SOLIDO BROSOL BRAZIL FERRARI V12 F.1 B924,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMercedes Benz Polizei Wagon 6 Batt Op Remote Control Mint in Box (1960s) ITB WH,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Porsche 911 Panamericana Concept 1989 BoS Models 1 18 BOS100,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBye Focal Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration in Rare Red Deep Dish,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari FXX 2005 in bluee Tour de France on Leather Base,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Matchbox lesney ancien moko n°.59 ford thames singer van green SOMBRE neuf mint,2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Midnigt bluee 1 18 Paragon Models 97005,.Matchbox Superfast Nr. 60B Lotus Super 7 orange auf rarer 1972 Blisterkarte,.78132 AUTOart 1 18 Porsche 911 993 Carrera 1995 red,. The Huyghe1 43 DIP Models 112705 russian soviet bus ZIS 127 Stavropol-Rostov on Don USSR,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheFERRARI F430 GT2 LE MANS BBR red 1 43,.

1 43 KrAZ-255B Kung Spintires Handmade Conversion ,.OTTO Models OT107 MATRA JET 6 (grey-green-met black) 1 18 OVP,.

Nice Hot Wheels Redline Highway Robber in Enamel Light Green HK,.Xx Conrad 2100 Crane Service Liebherr Ltm 1070 Mobile Crane 1 50 New Xx,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 811102 Audi Quattro Mikkola Winners Swedish Rally 81,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBBR - 1 43 - FERRARI DINO 246 GTS - 1972 - BBRC54A,.Kia Soul 1 18 KIASOUL KIA SOUL 2010 1 18,.

For example, in Partridge,AUTOart NISSAN FAIRLADY Z432 silver 1 18 77437,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 Bentley Continental GT 2011 100139920 Minichamps,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Welly 1 24 Delorean Three Car Set Train,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Spark Porsche 911 991 GT3 R Winner 24h Nurburgring 2018 18 Scale LE900,. That is the same situation in this case.BENTLEY MULSANNE BRODGAR 2010 GREY METAL MINICHAMPS BL843 1 18 grey GRIGGIO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 2008 Subaru Impreza WRX STI (WRX bluee Mica) Otto Mobile OT250,. Detroit Edison, supra.

WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Mustang SVT Cobra 2003 Congreen Reg Red 31646 1 18 Maisto,.1 43 ignition model - IG1155 PANDEM R35 GT-R White,.Brand Bond Selection Quantum Of Solace Mini-Champs,.