Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals EBBRO 1 24 Citroen H mobile kitchen Assembled car model,.1 18 KYOSHO 09216RR AUDI R8 5.2 FSI QUATTRO BRILLIANT RED NEW,.Matchbox Superfast No 41 Ford G.T. DK Bronze Lt Yell Base Nar Wh HIGH ARCH RARE,.Danbury Mint 1955 Chevy Bel Air Hardtop 1 16 Scale Large Diecast Model Car,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Maserati BiTurbo Spyder 1986 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.AUTOart 78847 LEXUS LC 500 1 18 MODEL CAR METALIC YELLOW,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Kyosho KSR18029W SAMURAI 1 18 Honda Civic Type R Championship White,.Wild Speed 1 43 2 Green Light,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.MG 1 43 Ferrari 512S Presentation Car,.Kyosho samurai 1 18 HONDA S660 α Yellow Resin Model KSR18016Y,.Trumpeter TM09835 TURNTABLE 182mm x 42mm 2 Speed X 8 inc postage to France, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Vintage - FORD MARK II - 1 43 Mebetoys A-24 Nuova,.Top Speed 1977 Porsche 934 Kremer Class Win.Le Mans TS0057 1 18 New Item ,.Wiking 1 87 H0 77426 Stadtbus MAN Lion's City A78 - OVP NEU (K),.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 503 - 1937 Ford 8-7Y - bluee,.
Modellino Ferrari FXX K 2016 N.98 black Stellato Opaco BBR Models,.Porsche 918 Spyder, metallic dark green, 1 43, Spark,.1 18 1993 McLAREN F1 Road car white Lim.504 Minichamps,.1 18 Exoto, Corvette Grand Sport Roadster, 1966 Sebring 12 Hrs, Penske Roadster,.Lykan Hipersport 2012 White Topmarques 1 18 TOP030B,.
Original Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupé W198 verchromt 1 18 limitiert,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Club Bialbero JAG 368 SET RE DEL CRIMINE JAGUAR E COUPE,.Matchbox Superfast No 8 is the model of the rare Mustang in orange red VNMB,.Minichamps 007 Die Another Day 1 43 Scale Car,CORGI TOYS MODEL No.GS 19 LAND ROVER WITH ELEPHANT & GAGE VN MIB,.Maserati 3500 Gt Touring bluee Metallic w White Roof 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.
Land Rover Defender 90 1 18 Kyosho 08901BK,.Vintage Corgi Toys Ferrari Dino 156 65 Sharknose Grand Prix Car No. 154,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 110 067121 Porsche 911 Turbo S 2016 Grey Metallic,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Auto Art Gateway 80782 PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP PCCA ZHUHAI 1 18,.
Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08705GP BMW 645Ci Moto GP Safety Car,. We agree in part.
Autoart 1 18 Mclaren P1 Gtr Gloss White Red Stripes Composite Model 81541 F S,.Greenlight Collectibles PC18002 1 18 1966 Cadillac S&S Hearse,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.PEUGEOT 207 S2000 GIACOMELLI RALLY SAN MARTINO1 43 SCALE MODEL CAR HANDMADE,.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R Pgc 10 Red Resin Model Ig0177 New,.Tamiya 21158 Nsx White Masterwork Collection 1 24 Scale Nza,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Faller 161606 H0 Car System LKW MAN 635 Müllwagen BREKINA,.GMP 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18837 1970 Street Fighter Plymouth Road Runner Yellow,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, TEK69465 - Camion 4x2 SCANIA 164 Topline et semi silo 3 essieux Mattersdorfer -,; LOOKSMART 1 43 Ferrari F430 Scuderia 2007 Avio Met. Art. LS299B,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 RS Touring 1973 yellow green 1 12 GT Spirit GT733,.Toyota Promo 2006 Remote Control car RARE,Vintage - Ford Consul Cortina - 1 43 Politoys -m507,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.IXO Sapgoldshez 965AE Jalta Jalta Export Version First Generation 1963 (turquoise,.
Volkswagen VW T1 Samba Green White 1 18 Model 0286 SCHUCO,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.BBR 1 43 - Ferrari 550 Maranello GTS Prodrive N°88 Le Mans 2003,.Spark Model S18352 RED BULL M.VERSTAPPEN 2018 N.33 WINNER AUSTRIAN GP 1 18 Model,.Triumph Vitesse DHC white '62-'68 1 18 Cult Scale Models,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mint Minicar Ut Models Bmw Z3 Coupe 2.8,; GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin body - GT121 Bentley Continental GT3-R White,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 Hot Wheels - Batman vs Superman - Batmobile Elite,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Ferrari 488 LM GTE PRO 24 H Le Mans 2016 Team AF Corse 1 43 BBRC 188,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Schuco 1967-1970 Volkswagen VW T2a Delivery Van 50 years VW Edition 1 18 Scale,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Pla S-13 diesel train 183 system Okhotsk (japan import),
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Porsche Carrera GT Diecast Model Car 78046,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary Race Team Mini Collection, Factory Sealed 2018,.WSI 1 50 - 9125 GRODA SCANIA R HIGHLINE 6X2 W COOL TRAILER,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SOLIDO 139 MASERATI 3.5L 1 43 OLD ORIGINAL MADE IN FRANCE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 18 Solido Aston Martin DBR9 24 HRS LM KOX Lamy NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
JAGUAR XJR12 Le Mans 1991 SUNTEC, Auto Barn 1 18,.Spark PORSCHE 919 HYBRID LMP1 WINNER LE MANS 2016 18 Scale New Release ,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 143 - Austin Allegro 3 - Snapdragon,.DINKY 410 BEDFORD END TIPPER (SCARCE TRANSITION VERSION) - NR MINT in orig BOX,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 yellow Tristrato BBR 1 43 BBRC187CAR08,.
Siku Plastik V18 Porsche 356 Hellpink V Serie,.2018 JOHNNY LIGHTNING 1970 PLYMOUTH SUPERBIRD WHITE LIGHTNING R.3 V.B SWEET,.Revell Audi TT Rare 1 18 Scale Diecast Metal Pale Yellow Collectible Model Car,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari J50 Red 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Schuco varianto 3065 strabenlaterne street light perfect mint in box OVP SELTEN,.Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 46 Mercedes 300 SE Org-gold Doors Open F BOX,.AM43345 ALFA ROMEO ROMEO 6C 2300B TOURING A THOUSAND MILES 1937,.Spark 1 18 Scale Resin - A06MC1-18 Aston Martin AMR-One Gulf LM 2011,.Ford Mustang King Snake 1993 Green Model Car 1 18 Gmp,.
Opel Rekord C Coupé 1966 - 1 18 - Minichamps, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Limited To 1000 1 43 Look Smart Ferrari F 2004 Es Special Order,.Vintage Lorain Steel Stamping Co. Adgreenising Metal Printing Plate Toy Cars,. The PartridgeMini Champs Mercedes Fw 40 F. Massa 2017,.Matchbox Models of Yesteryear Y-12C Ford Model T Vorserie Farbversuchsmodell,.1 18 Jaguar MARK II 3.8 año 1962 Paragon 98322 Carmen Red,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Alfa Romeo 4C, redmetallic, 2013, AUTOart 1 18, OVP, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 625 Bari GP Winner Froilan Gonzalez,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Boxed Dinky Toys 978 Refuse Wagon,.1 43 AUTOart mclaren F1 Coupe Die Cast Model White RARE,PartridgeKenna Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KM10818 - Allard - Red 1 Of 600,.SUZUKI GSX R1000 Team Rizla J.Reynolds BSB 2004 122042202 MINICHAMPS,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast - 32078 American Graffiti '32 Deuce Coupe Yelow, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Bespoke Model 1 43 1967 Ferrari Dino 206 S Targa Florio,; PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1977 - BIG 1 12 SCALE MINICHAMPS NIB DIECAST PLUM (MAGENTA),; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Schuco VW T3 Joker WESTFALIA CAMPING VAN with White High Roof Yellow 1 18, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . JAGUAR XJ SPIDER . CONCEPT . PININFARINA 1978 ., (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeDinky Toys 538 Ford Taunus salmon very very near mint in box a beauty,.
1 18 AUTOart BMW 635 CSi European Touringcar Championsship RARITÄT§,.Bmw 6-Series Alpina B7 S Turbo Coupe (E24) 1985 LS COLLECTIBLES 1 18 LS029A Mode, Clarke's negligent act.1 64 Kenworth T600 Semi Trailer Toll Trux TX4E,.1 18 NISSAN NISMO FAIRLADY Z S TUNE YELLOW Autoart SEE INFO,.Minichamps 1 18 - F1 McLaren Mercedes MP4-10 Hakkinen Marlbgold,.
Fiat 850 Spider Bertone - Mercury 12 1 43 in Box 32038,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CHEVROLET CHEVY BEL AIR Cabriolet GREASE 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE ERTL 36602 voiture,Corgi 471 Karrier Mobile Canteen,. In Noska,Masterpiece Models 1 43 Scale Model Car MP01 - Hillman Husky - Grey,.1 18 AUTOart - 81541 McLaren P1 GTR (gloss white red stripes) 2015,.Spark Spice Pontiac 1987 1 43,.FIAT IVECO EUredECH bilico Unitron Nordic cup 92 - 1 43 Louis Surber - Promo., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 18 Gmp Gentilozzi Homelink, Ford Mustang Trans Am Winner Limited 1000st Rare,.Autoart Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs 1 18 Scale In Translation,.DV8183 ELIGOR 1 43 RENAULT PREMIUM DXI SEMI FRIGO LAMBERET TPS GUEBEY 114855,.Ferrari California T Spider Open Roof 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC139C Miniature,. Id., p 923.
Kyosho 1990 Nissan Skyline No. 12 GT-R (R32) 1 18 10th Anniversary Model,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Red Line 1 43 2 x Ferrari F360 Race of Champions 2004 Loeb & Alesi winners RL041,AUBURN RUBBER 1950's 4 POLICE HARLEY DAVIDSON MOTORCYCLES 3 WHEELED TRIKES 50's,.Brand Datsun blueebird Sss P510 Red 1 43 Scale Car,.Rai S 1 43 Land Cruiser 2013 Police Headquarters Security Division Commander,.Revell 08843 1 18 BMW 503 CABRIOLET 1956 LIGHT blueE,.1963 Volkswagen T1b Transporter Martini 1 18 Schuco 450028500,.Courage C36 Porsche - 24h Le Mans 1997 - Andretti Grouillard - 1 43 Spark 3675,.1 50 WSI DAF XF SSC Guido Paulus Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug 01-1550,. The parties Alfa Romeo 4C Spider 2015 Competition Red Met AUTOART 1 18 AA70142 Model,.
Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Y31 Gran Turismo SV White Finished Item,.Ferrari Portofino Cabriolet Closed 2017 Aluminium Matt BBR 1 43 BBRC209B Model,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 18 Autoart 73233 Honda Nsx Nc1 2016 Valencia Red Pearl,; Kyosho 80430394361 1 18 BMW E91 3-ER TOURING 2005 DARK blueE METALLIC, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
CALLAWAY C12 Chevrolet Corvette cabriolet j 1 18 AUTOart 71013 voiture miniature,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kings Models 1 43 1957 Ferrari D50 Reims Grand Prix Peter Collins,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Autoart 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette C7 Z06 Yellow Finished Goods,.Sun Star H2911 2911 1 24 Routemaster Bus RM1983 London Transport 50th golden 190,.1 18 Porsche 911 RSR No.86 - Gulf Racing UK Le Mans 2017,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,ABREX AB18033SK SKODA YETI FL OUTDOOR 2013 LIGHT blueE METALLIC 1 18,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.WSI 01-2462 SCANIA R6 TOPLINE HENDIK POSTMA 1 50 SCALE,.AUTOart 70249 Mini Car 1 18 Aston Martin Vanquish 2015 (Dark Red) Finished Item,.Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast 183579 - 1997 Mercedes Benz S500 - Red Met,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT052 Porsche 911 Targa Florio Rally Martini,.Brooklin Models 1 43 1960 Chevrolet Impala Congreenible in Metallic Royal bluee,. The ScottsdaleVintage Corgi Toys 454 Commer (5 ton) Platform Lorry,1 18 ERTL 1969 Dodge Charger 500 - Paul goldsmith Limited Numbered Series ,.Autoart 1 18 Scale - 73641 Jaguar XKR-S French Racing bluee,. Id.,Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT657 - Ferrari 308 GTB Tour De Corse Rally 1982,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 111 - Fordson 5CWT Van - RAF Mid bluee,; Matchbox RW 73C Mercury mit seltener 1968 Mercury Bodenplatte in F Box,1 18 MINICHAMPS BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT W12 COUPE black OVP,.2010 HW RLC HotWheels 24th Convention Finale COPPER '64 GMC PANEL 1500,. The ScottsdaleMcLaren 675lt Spider Solis 1 18 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Norev 2018 Mercedes Benz Sprinter Delivery Van Grey Metallic 1 18 New Release ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Remember Model 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO NART Montlhery 1000 Kms Rodriguez,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 1955 Porsche 550 A Spyder Edition 70 Jahre Porsche 1 18 Scale New Release,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari Portofino Open Roof red Scuderia 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Faenza 43 1 43 1953 Ferrari 166 MM Giro di Sicilia,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Audi Sport quattro S1 RAC 1985 1 18 OT617 OTTO Mobile, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Saab 92B 1955 BoS Models 1 18 BOS075 Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Kyosho original 1 64 Nissan Fairlady Z White,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 NISSAN FAIRLADY Z 300ZX YELLOW KYOSHO SAMURAI KSR18028Y RESIN DIECAST MODEL,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - T6250 Ferrari 410 Superamerica gold Red,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMminichamps 1 43 McLaren Mercedes MP4 13 1998 F1 M.Hakkinen 50th Anniversary,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CMR 1 18 Scale Resin - 033 Ferrari 275 GTB Red,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 722633 - BMW 2002 6H Nurburgring 1972,Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-El C210 White Watanabe Wheel Ig0318,.Durham Classics 1 43 Scale DC-11 - 1941 Chevrolet Deluxe Coupe - Taupe,.ONYX LOTUS FORD 49 + WILLIAMS RENAULT FW 17 - GRAHAM + DAMON HILL 1 43 - RARE,. The Huyghe1 43 MEGA RARE BBR RGM 1964 MASERATI MISTRAL BY FRUA,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 18 Kyosho BMW E46 328ci Green Metallic New & Boxed Dealer Edition Rare,.
DV6933 ELIGOR 1 43 MERCEDES ACTROS 2 STREAMSPACE DELISLE 114854 HORS COMMERCE,.Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 7323 Krupp Kf 380 4x2 Kipper 1 50,.
VINTAGE CORGI NO.319 LOTUS ELAN COUPE 1967-69 MINT MODEL with ORIGINAL BOX,.Hot Wheels - PORSCHE 50th Anniversary - 4 car set - Limited Edition A-2352,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Kyosho 1 43 Holiday Auto Launch 40Th Anniversary Special Order Gtr 32 2 Set,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCentury Dragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2012 Toyota GT86 - Red,.1 43 BBR Ferrari 360 Modena Saloon de Geneve 1999 Yellow MIB Rare No AMR ABC,.
For example, in Partridge,Minichamps 186980008 - MCLAREN MERCEDES MP4 13 HAKKINEN WORLD CHAMPION 1998 1 18,. In Jorgensen, supra,Miniminiera CPG206 PEUGEOT 306 MONTE CARLO 1998 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine whiteo 1 18 Sun Star 4232,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Dinky 262 Schweizer Postwagen PTT VW Beetle Very Near Mint Boxed,. That is the same situation in this case.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08091R Mercedes Benz 300 SL Gullwing Red,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Gt Touring Spider Cabrio Villa D'Este 1951 BBR 1 18 BLM1807A,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Revell 1 18 Scale - 08422 Opel Manta GT E White - Diecast Model Car,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM14 - 1963 Singer Gazelle - Green,.TEKNO HOLLAND SCANIA 124L 400 TORPEDO - VAN BENTUM 1 50 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,.
Spark Mercedes Benz AMG GT3 Fia GT World Cup Macau 2017 Engel 18 LE300,.