Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Jaguar Mk-Viii 1957 BoS Models 1 18 BOS300,.1 18 Hot Wheels Elite FERRARI 575MM MARANELLO Red,.DINKY 353 SHADO 2 MOBILE,.Eidolon 1 43 Lamborghini Urakan Gt3 2015 Candy Red Completed,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin GAS10030 Ferrari 550 SPA 2005 Car Labre Comp,.54F Rare Vector Models 11 VM Bus Mercedes 0321 Galerie Kit Maquette 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Exoto 1964 Chevy Corvette Grand Sport Roadster 1 18 Scale model Boxed 18035 Rare,.1 18 Kyosho Bentley Mulsanne Speed Marlin bluee DEALER NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS - miami blue - AUTOart - 1 18 - 78167,.HPI racing 1 43 FORD GT GT40 GT 40 Die Cast Model RARE,.MERCEDES BENZ KLASSE E 1 18 COUPE NOREV B66962419 SUPERBE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Spot On Triang Renault Floride Rare Superb Condition,.BMW 550i SEDAN FACELIFT E60 GREY 1 18 KYOSHO 08594GR,.11 Free Wheel Construction Excavator - CASE OF 8,.Schuco 450038000 VW T3a Westfalia Joker mit Faltdach blue 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,.
Mercury Turnpike Cruiser Congreenible, red white, 1 43, Neo,.1 18 Autoart - 81541 Mclaren P1 GTR (Gloss White Red Stripes) 2015,.MR MR01A 1 43 1992 Porsche 911 Turbo S 3.3 Lightweight Handmade Resin Model Car,.Toyota Celica ST 205 Red 1 18 - LS031B LS COLLECTIBLES,.RARO modellino FIAT 125 1600 BUBY made silverina 1 43,.
Durham Classics 1 43 Scale DCX91 - 1939 Ford Panel Delivery Van 1 Of 250,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Auto Art 1 18 scale Skyline GT-R 32 Ibaraki Prefectural Police car from japan 4O,.Dodge viper srt10 coupe AUTOART 1 18 new in box sold out RARE (gt spirit),.Corgi 275 Rover 2000 TC VnrMint Boxed w leaflet WHITE INTERIOR,1 18 Autoart 2015 Aston Martin V12 Vantage S in Yellow,.Ford Taunus 17M - Tekno 826 Denmark in Box 36326,.
Norev 1 18 Scale 183464 - 1991 Mercedes Benz 560 SEL - Met Pearl bluee,.Cc13767 Corgi Scania R Feldbinder Tanker Liam Kelly Haulage Die-cast Model 1 50,.1 18 Premium Classixxs VW T3 a Westfalia Joker Camping Bus Green Limited,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
PORSCHE 911 RSR 3.0 DRM NURBURGRING 1975 BOB WOLLEK 1 18 BY SPARK 18S049,.
WSI 01-1536 Buhler Urs Scania R6 Topline + Bulktrailer,. We agree in part.
Matchbox Kingsize K-20A Tractor Transporter mit 3 Traktoren in Box,.Minichamps 1 18 Diecast - 100 121664 Fiat X1 9 1974 Yellow Model Car,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.2015 MASERATI QUATTROPORTE GTS ALPI WHITE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY AUTOART 75808,.Infiniti Skyline Q50 resin 1 18 Kyosho KSR18005W,.Schuco Goggomobil Limousine Light bluee and white in 1 18 Scale New Release ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 766465 - Porsche 934 24Hr Le Mans 1976,.1 18 Dealer Editon BENZ CLS 2018 Die Cast Model,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, RENAULT T520 HIGH MID VAN WAGON BRUNO ROBERT TRED UNION 1 43 eligor,; Matchbox Lesney Moko no. 45 Vauxhall Victor Boxed,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Cadillac S & S Superior, metallic bluee, Hearse, 1 43, Neo,.2013 Aston Martin Vantage V12 GT3 Plain Body White White 1 18 Autoart,GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin body - GT727 Porsche 911 993 RWB Purple metallic,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS - black - Autoart - 1 18,.
Gasoline 1 43 2005 Maserati Trofeo, Press Version,Limited Edition of 500,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ferrari Enzo Charlie's Angels 1 18 - Hot Wheels ELITE Limited 5.000PCS,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155832601 BMW 635 CSi BMW Italia Grano Kelleners Cecotto,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Magirus S7500 Jupiter 1953 Pritschenwagen 1 43 Minichamps-860,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, AUTOART 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette Spider 1986 White Art.71243,; HOT WHEELS 2018 18TH ANNUAL CONVENTION '66 SUPER NOVA GASSER W & W O ROLL CAGE,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, AUTOart Aston Martin Vantage V12 GT3 1 18 81307,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
CONRAD MAN -NOOTEBOOM-2-4 EUROLOWBED TRAILER NOOTEBOOM 1 50 OVP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo GT3 FL2 2013 bluee Composite Model 81359 NEW,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Ot Rare Predotype Citroen Traction 22 Fake Cabriolet 1 43 Heco Models Deco,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast 183579 - 1997 Mercedes Benz S500 - Red Met,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Mugen Civic Type R Milano Red Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0113,.ABREX AB18026YO SKODA OCTAVIA III 2014 gold METALLIC 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Kit Fiat 626 con telo - IV Model Factory kit 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 500 F2 Crystal Palace August Cup Reg Parnell,.
Kyosho Original 1 43 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R V-SPEC II BNR34 White,.Matchbox 74a Mobile Refreshments bar, Cream, in type B4 box,.Faenza 43 1 43 1955 Ferrari 166 MM Oblin Barchetta,.CORGI TOYS 236 Austin A60 De Luxe Saloon CORGI Motor School Car,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.De Lorean Dmc-12 1981 AUTOART 1 18 AA79917 Model,.
GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin body - GT727 Porsche 911 993 RWB Purple metallic,.Antigua miniatura 1 43 Scale Carr PRRETRO Seat 1400 B XII Autorretro 1995.,.Samurai 1 18 Lexus RX 200t F Sports White New,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, VINTAGE CORGI TOYS COMMER MOBILE SAMUELSON FILM CAMERA VAN EXC W ORG BOX,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Norev 1 18 Scale 183464 - 1991 Mercedes Benz 560 SEL - Met Pearl bluee,.Mattel Hot Wheels Mebetoys Audi 100 NASA White 1 24 1 25 Scale Diecast Rare Car,.2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Midnigt bluee 1 18 Paragon Models 97005,.1 18 2017 Ford RS (Stealth Grey) Otto Mobile OT779,.Bentley Continental Azure 1996 Cabrio Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.
DINKY TOYS No 38A Fraser Nash ,Grey ,Brown seats 1940-41 Near Mint, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ignition Model 1 43 Datsun 240Z 51972 Monte Carlo Ig0215 Best Buy Gift New,.NZG 857 KOMATSU HD785, Muldenkipper;1 50,. The PartridgeMinichamps Williams Ford FW07B Carlos Reutemann 1980 1 18,.Honda Comtech color Sample Nsx 1 43,.Autoart Xanavini Ismo Gt-R 2002 Jgtc Special 1 18 Scale Car,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MAN TGS M Euro 6 mit Moser Zweiseitenkipper 1 50 OVP, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.EXACT DETAIL SERIES 1968 Camaro RS SS 1 18 scale of 1002,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Shuko 1 43 Porsche 911 S Brown 450367600,.. SPARK S0778 JAGUAR XJ12C NO 2 TOURIST TROPHY 1977 MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,PartridgeFERRARI SF70-H GP 2017 Vettel 1 43 lim.ed. 230 pcs BBRC203A BBR,.1976 Porsche 934 Rsr Vaillant Wollek Diecast 1 18 Schuco Diecast,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 107054130 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN KAFER 1200 KARMANN CONgreenIBLE 1949 GRE, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dinky Toys supertoys 985 Trailer for Car Carrier in its ORIGINAL BOX....,; CARRERA EVOLUTION 25712 CAMARO SCCA 1973 - SS396 '69 1 32 SLOT CAR MINT NIP,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, GT Spirit Porsche 911 993 RWB Green (Already Sold Out color) 1 18 New Item , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Sun Star Fiat 124 Spider AS ABARTH STRADALE weiss - Rarität §, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeROAD KINGS - 1 18 - MERCEDES - BENZ LPS 1632 - 1969 - RK180023SR,.
1 43 BBR Ferrari 512 Testepink 1992 red SM30A,.BMW M3 Coupe GTS E92 orange 1 43 Delaer Box Neu OVP, Clarke's negligent act.Bugatti Veyron Super Sport 2011 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.Minichamps Williams F1 Bmw Fw24 Malaysia Gp 200,.WSI 01-1937 Autaa Liebherr LTM 1050-3.1 Wheel Crane 1 50,.
Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818F - Triumph Herald - Falken 1 Of 50,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, ZC615 JPS KP291 Voiture Kit Resine 1 43 Toyota HDJ60 Paris Dakar 2004 KP 291,QUARTZO Lotus 49 Dutch G.P. 1967 Graham Hill 1 18 in OVP ,. In Noska,Hot Wheels Honda CIVIC EF Super Treasure Hunt,.Range Rover (1970) 1 18 Almost Real ALM810102,.DATSUN Sunny 1200 TS Racing Forg Cars 1 43 ENIF KB110 A12 Coupe Boys +14,.Marklin No. 8015 Borgward Isabella. Light bluee. Very Nr. Mint & Boxed. Vintage, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - V7437 Ferrari 348 TB red red,.DINKY TOYS 111 TRIUMPH TR2 SPORTS - 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,.Vintage Eidai grip eidaigrip display box technica 6 cars F1 japan very rare 70's,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM14 - 1963 Singer Gazelle - Green,. Id., p 923.
GERMANY DIECAST SKODA TIN TOY BLECH City TANKER van MS VEB GERMANY,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 43 Aston Martin V12 Vanquish 2002 Tuning R20 Wheels Very Nice car model 1 of 1,Autoart 78169 - 1 18 Porsche 911 (991) Gt3 Rs (2016) - Ultrapurple - Neu,.MZG309BK Ferrari Testarossa 1984 Corpo Karosse 1 24 MR-02 MOLTO RARO COLLEZIONE,.Spark Model S18162 LANCIA BETA MONTECARLO N.52 LM 1980 G.BRANCATELLI-P.GHINZANI-,.RARE REAL TIN ford 1967 mustang police car with box, unusual friction action.,.Autoart 1 18 Lamborghini Counterk Lp400 orange 74647 New,.BUGATTI AEROLITHE by HECO 1 43rd,.1939 MERCEDES W 165 LIMITED TO 5000PC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY CMC 074,. The parties Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-R Finished product IG1595 from JAPAN,.
HJ1808MRR Hobby Japan 1 18 Honda S660 MUGEN RA Frame Red,.Dinky Toys 1400 Peugeot 404 Taxi G7 very near mint in box all original condition,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport 2017 Admiral bluee AUTOART 1 18 AA71275,; 2017 Audi A4L TFSI Sline Dark Brown 1 18 Dealer Edition FAW1005BR, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Tecnomodel T-EX05D 1 43 2010 Aston Martin Rapide Resin Handmade Model Car,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, YD008 ESCI 1 24 maquette voiture 3060 Ferrari 512 B.B. sous blister rare version,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Brand Bond Selection Quantum Of Solace Mini-Champs,.JADA IMPORT RACER TOYOTA TRUENO PredOTYPE FROM ROY NAKAMURA COLLECTION,.Ig-Model Skyline 2000Es Turbo Minicar,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MINICHAMPS Cadillac Cyclone XP 74 MC-107148221,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Jouef Evolution 1 18 Ferrari 250 gt berlinetta 61YELLOW NEW, SEALED,MINT ,OWN IT,.DRAKE 1 50 SCALE MAXITRANS FREIGHTER B DOUBLE FLAT TOP TRAILER SET ZT09125,.Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 375 Indy Indianapolis 500 Qualifying J Parsons,.Audi R8 LMS - Edoardo Mortara GT Macau World Cup 2016 1 43 Minichamps 437161107,.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniversary Usa bluee Nart BBR 1 43 BBRC182,. The ScottsdaleAoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Lame Sp No.11 Cgoldna Ht 2000gt 1982 Model Year,(W) solido ASTON MARTIN VANTAGE - 130,.True scale 1 43 Toyota Eagle Mk.3 GTP Sebring 12h 1992 Winner No.99,. Id.,Spark 1 43 Scale S4629 - F1 McLaren MP4-29 Qualifying British GP 2014,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08707GPC BMW M6 Coupe Moto GP 2007 Safety Car,; Mercedes 350 SLC Coupe (C107) 1973 white, Modellauto 1 18 Cult Scale Models,Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari 500 TR Reims 12 hrs Picard Manzon,.GT3 Porsche 911 991 2017 silver blacke Felgen 1 18 Minichamps limited,. The ScottsdaleSchuco-Edition 00035 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 170V Kastenwagen ERDAL Blech OVP,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, ALERTE 1 43 RENAULT MASTER L3H2 VTP SECURITE CIVILE limitée 250 exempl. Ref0055,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mercedes Benz L3500 DL17 1950 Fire Brigade Bensheim 1 43 Minichamps 439350081,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ( GOL ) 1 18 GT Spirit BMW M3 NEU OVP,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps WILLIAMS FW08C FORD MONACO 1983 Rosberg 18 Scale. New Release,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Alfa Romeo Giulia Limousine Dunkel blue black 1962-1978 limitiert 1 von 504 ..,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, AUTOart 1 18 Nissan Mature Juke R 2.0 Red Composite Model 77457, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, WESTERN MODELS DODGE ROYAL LANCER 1957 - blueE MET+WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 7, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Mercedes Actros (MP4), RHD, Barry Proctor, 1 50, Corgi,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1981 PORSCHE 924 TURBO Estate in Dark bluee 1 18 scale model by PREMIUM X,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car 7918 - Rover 14 - bluee,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 GT Spirit Chevrolet Corvette C7 06 in White Red Stripe GT214 Leather base,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 CMF Excalibur Series 3 Phaeton 1977 white,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 43 Looksmart Ferrari F60 America in Yellow on Tan Leather Base,AUTOart 81544 1 18 McLaren P1 GTR Geneva Motorshow 2015,.CMR 1970 Ferrari 512S h Le Mans Kelleners Loos 1 18 Rare Find ,.1 43 1941-1943 MERCEDES BENZ L.1500A Kubelwagen Top down up Military Handmade,. The HuygheKings Models 1 43 1950 Ferrari 166 Berne GP Roberto Vallone,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAUTOart 76299 MERCEDES BENZ MAYBACH S 600 PULLMAN LIMO 1 18 DARK RED METALLIC,.
Aston Martin Lagonda Año Fabricación 1974 silver 1 18 Ls Collectibles,.ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SPRINT GT MERCURY N. 40 - RARE TOYS - MB,.
Mega RARE Lincoln Le Baron Congreenible Sedan BCC 2013 Brooklin BRK 172X 1 43,.Autoart LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR S 2017 New yellow ORION PEARL YELLOW 1 18 NEW,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Kyosho Le Mans 240S Brushless Motor For 4WD 15.5T Radio Control Parts,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBrand Celica Gtv 143 Minicar,.Remember Model 1964 Ferrari 250 GTO Tour de France Dubois de Mantaigu,.
For example, in Partridge,Porsche 914 6 Weiss Beige 1970 1969-1976 77933 1 18 AutoArt Modell Auto mit od..,. In Jorgensen, supra,VW Volkswagen Beetle Congreenible Schult, metallic red, 1 43, Neo,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Dinky Toys F n° 32AB Panhard semi-remorque SNCF en boîte,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Corgi Toys No. 479 Commer Mobile Camera Van MIB Complete,. That is the same situation in this case.TRUE SCALE MINIATURES TSM15AC12 1 8 PORSCHE 550 SPYDER ENGINE TYPE 547 ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 12 Mini Morris Minor 1000 Saloon año 1965 Sun Star 4786 black,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Spark Model 1 43 Maybach Landaulet 2007 White Art.S1029,.AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 metallic orange finished product,.ACME 1972 PONTIAC LEMANS GTO WHITE W STRIPES 1 18New Item ,.
Saurer 6 DM 4x4 Swiss Army Fire Brigade - Green (Tek Hoby 1 50 TH5077),.