Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Porsche 917 Flat 16 1971 True Scale Miniature 1 18 Tsm111807 Miniature,.Volkswagen VW T1 Double Cabin Light Grey 1 18 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,.Matchbox SF Nr.75A Ferrari Berlinetta red silverner Grill top in Box,.CORGI TOYS LINCOLN CONTINENTAL JFK LIMOUSINE N MINT ORIG BOXED LEAFLET & TV,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Bentley Continental Azure 1996 Cabrio Dark Grey Minichamps 1 18 107139930 Model,.1 18 Autoart -lamborghini Gallardo Lp560-4 Trofeo whitepain White,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MATTEL HOT WHEELS - FERRARI - F1 F248 N 5 66 POLE POSITION - ALL TIME POLE 66 6,.New Minichamps 1 12 Valentino Rossi Figure motoGP Winner silverina GP 2015 Japan,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.IMBRIMA INBRIMA MATCHBOX No. 73 WEASEL B081,.AUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 911(997) GT3 RS 3.8 GREY 78142,.(B) matchbox lesney superfast FORD CORTINA GT - 25 ultra rare F box, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 152A - 1939 Vauxhall 10 H-Type - bluee,.MEBETOYS A30 ISO RIVOLTA S4 - METALLIC 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 166 Circuito de Petrópolis Henrique Casini,.AUTOART Lancia Delta S4 1985 (grey) AA-74772,.
IMBRIMA INBRIMA MATCHBOX No. 56 HI-TAILER B224,.Dinky b, 1939 Oldsmobile Two Tone Sedan, Original, Lot Open Chassis,.MIN110770008 ALFA ROMEO F1 BRABHAM BT45B TEAM MARTINI RACING J. COINCÉ 1 18,.AUTOart 77451 Car 1 18 Nissan Fairlady Z (S30) Wangan Midnight Devil&Z Finished,.Top Speed Models – 1 18 Scale – McLaren 570S Spider in Antares bluee Scale Model,.
Schuco Volkswagen T1b KASTENWAGEN Ferrari Transporter FRANCORCHAMPS 1 18 New,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.NEW HOT WHEELS CONNECT CARS 50 STATES LOT OF 25 1 64 Rare,.Ilario Bugatti T57 P. Nee Cabriolet 1934 orange 1 43 Chro50,.Mercedes 180 Saloon - Tekno 723 Denmark 30136,OLD MINIALUXE CITROEN DS 19 red orange TOIT IVOIRE REF 16 1 43 1959 IN BOX,.Hot Wheels 71 Datsun blueebird 510 Wagon Super Tressure Hunt Sth Rare Internation,.
Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155066200 - 1987 Porsche 959 - Red,.Lansdowne 1 43 Scale LDM29X - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - WMTC Turquoise,.DINKY TOYS 131 CADILLAC ELDORADO TOURER CONgreenIBLE - SALMON - VG IN BOX,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Britains 1512 RAMC Army Ambulance,.
Dinky Toys 804 Mercedes Tous Terrains near mint in box with all accecoires,. We agree in part.
Porsche 911 (997) GT3 Rs 4.0 2011 Green, Model Car 1 18 Autoart,.2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Crisom Red 1 18 Paragon Models 97004,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Corvette L-88 - Daytona Yellow - Carousel 1 - 1 18 - Collector - Sold out ,.Matchbox RW 16A Trailer hellbrown perfekt in MOKO Box,.Jaguar Xj 4.2C 1974 BoS Models 1 18 BOS299 Miniature,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; F43M016 FERRARI 500 TR N.287 COPPA SANT'AMBROEUS 59 MONZA '59 A. M. Peduzzi,.1 43 BBR FERRARI ENZO FIORANO TEST CAR LIMITED 100 PCS BG305B,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Corgi Toys No. 238, Jaguar Mark X, - Superb V N Mint.,; Lamborghini Huracan Lp580-2 Rwd Spider 2016 Cepheus bluee LOOKSMART 1 43 LS464E M,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
DINKY TOYS MODEL No.193 RAMBLER CROSS COUNTRY STATION WAGON VN MIB,.1 50 golden Oldies Scania 140 4x2 Kipp-SZ blue red G0004741,Porsche 993 RWB black matt Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.BOS161 by BOS MODELS FIAT 2300S COUPE 1962 1 18,.
AUTOart 1 18 Lotus 72E 1973 Ronnie Peterson Diecast Model 87329,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lamborghini Aventador Lp700-4 Roadster 2013 Arancio Argos Looksmart 1 43 LS413D,.1 18 AUTOART 71262 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 Z06 TORCH RED NEW,.WSI 01-1745 Mercedes Benz Actros Big Space With reefer trailer Staf,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 2016 Bentley Continental GT Congreenible LHD Sunburst gold 1 18 Diecast Model Car,; Drake ZT09166 Maxitrans Freighter B Double Trailer Set Toll 1 50,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minichamps 155728504 Collectible Miniature Car - gold White,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Bmw M1 White 1979 MINICHAMPS 1 12 125792901 Model,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
AUTOart 81360 Lamborghini Gallardo GT3 FL2,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Panhard Dynamic Berline 1936 BoS Models 1 18 BOS194 Model,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Collection of 36 matchbox cars Road blaster ,Laser series,all mint-good VGC.80's,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.EXACT DETAIL 224 CAMARO SEA TERROR 1968 1 18 Modellino,.TOPSPEED 1 18 McLaren 675LT Spider Mantis Green Resin Model TS0069,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.TFC Models Oldsmobile Cutlass Indy Indianapolis Pace Car 1 43 MIB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Fiat 806 Grand Prix P.bordino 1927 Winner Monza Milano GP Plastic Kit 1 12,.
Matchbox Lesney Moko no. 65 Jaguar 3.4 Litre Boxed,.Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 212 British GP Peter Hirt,.WP 114 1986 Chevrolet Corvette ROADSTER PACE CAR YELLOW 1 43 NEW DIE-CAST RARE,.Porsche 550 a Spyder White Model Car 1 18 Schuco,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Steyr XXX green 1929 1 43 - 43011 fahr(T)raum,.
1 43 1936 Renault VIVA GRAND SPORT ACX2 Cabriolet Racing car,.Porsche 911 R in 1 18 Scale by Spark,.Mercedes Benz 280C Strich 8 Coupe' 1967 Green 1 18 Model 4586 SUN STAR,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Honda Accord 10th Sedan Diecast Metal Car Model Toys Kids Boy Gift White,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Mclaren F1 GTR 1997 Presentation Car 1 43 F S,.Autoart LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 green MANTIS 4-LAYER GREEN MET. 1 18 New ,.MIN110160006 by MINICHAMPS MERCEDES GP F1 W07 N. ROSBERG 2016 1 18,.Corvette Set 1997 - 98 -99 - Franklin Mint - New,.Ferrari 488 Challenge Finali Mondiali 2016 red Corsa 322 BBR 1 43 BBRC197BPRE,.
Ignition model 1 43 Toyota Sprinter Trueno AE86 2Door GTV Red IG0482, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.74555 AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador LP750-4 SV (Pearl White),.1971 Pontiac GTO Congreenible GREEN 1 18 GMP 1801223,. The PartridgeMG Model Plus 1 43 1967 Ferrari 330 P4 Brands Hatch,.Schuco Pro.R 08967 - 1 43 Mercedes-Benz O6600 H Bus - Esso Renndienst - Neu,.Old Cars 1 43 Scania Car Transporter Benetton Formura from Japan,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOart Alfa Romeo 4C 2013 1 18 70187, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Hot Wheels Elite FERRARI 575MM MARANELLO Red,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Corgi 007 James Bond Villain collection Set. Numbered Limited Edition Rare,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 180039034 Mercedes Benz 300 SL Roadster 1957 - White,PartridgeAUTOart 75393 1 18 LOTUS 3-ELEVEN 2016 YELLOW,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC14GR - 1972 Jaguar XJ12 - Grey,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Kyosho GT Spirit 1 18 Khyzyl Saleem Huratach Concept KJ027, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, ERTL 1-18 '66 Chevy Nova ULTRA RARE CHROME CHASE CAR,; 1 43 BBR FERRARI 250 SWB MET LIGHT blueE CAR RED LEATHER BASE LE 20 PCS MR,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, HOT WHEELS 2018 50th Anniversary Favorites 55 Chevy Bel Air Gassers Lot Of 20., (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, WSI 1 50 Scania R6 Topline 4x2 curtain side trailer Bundschuh Tirol 01-1731, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFERRARI 599XX HOMESTEAD MIAMI 2010 CAR BBR LIM. BBRC42A 1 43,.
ERTL 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG 1 18 MAC TOOLS JOHN FORCE SUPER DETAILED ,.RARE Corgi Toys no.356 VW U.S.Army Personnel Carrier origional mint & boxed, Clarke's negligent act.1939 Mercedes-Benz T80 Recordwagen silver 1 18 BoS-Models 202,.Spark Model Mercedes W06 Lewis Hamilto 1 18 18S179,.MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX Rare 1957 RW32A Red JAGUAR XK140 Coupe GPW NearMint +PVCBox,.
Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM64A - 1951 Bentley MkVI Ivo Peters Midnight bluee,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 142 - Standard Flying 12 Deluxe - Fawn,RARE Paz 651A Russian Bus Limited DIP MODELS 165103 1 43 USSR,. In Noska,Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 728511 - Ford Capri RS 2600 - 24H SPA 1972,.VW T1b Transporter Persil 1 18 Schuco neu & OVP 366,.Elite Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano Pininfarina 1 18 Model,.Porsche Modellauto 911 (991 II) Turbo S Racingyellow 1 18 Limited Edition, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Schuco Volkswagen VW Kafer Jolly Green 1 18 450008000,.ACME 1941 S & S 1941 Gasser Red color 1 18 LE 828pcs NewSUPER NICE ,.Supercar Collectibles 1965 Plymouth AWB The Virginian Pee Wee Wallace 1 18 ERTL,.1 18 Exact Detail Wcc212 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1968 Lmtd.1of1500 - Rarity,. Id., p 923.
BOS096 by BOS MODELS IMPERIAL COURONNE SOUTHAMPTON 4-DOOR 1957 1 18,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Red Line 1 43 2 x Ferrari F360 Race of Champions 2004 Loeb & Alesi winners RL041,Mercedes S-Class S650 Cabriolet Maybach 2016 Designo NOREV 1 18 B66962451 Model,.Dinky Toys 918 Guy Van EVER READY EXCELLENT BOXED,.Contact Models 1 43 Scale Resin C0061m6 - 1960 Jaguar E2A Le Mans,.ARE318-24 LANCIA STRATOS TURBO TDF 73 SCHNAUZE KURZ KIT VON MONTAGE 1 24,.Brand Ferrari F40 Competizione 1990 Car Train,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM84 - 1937 MG VA Saloon - bluee,.CORGI TOYS MODEL No.207 STANDARD VANGUARD III SALOON VN MIB,. The parties Autobus de Colección - Routemaster OB Sunstar . escala 1 24 (V1832),.
AUTOart 1 18 Toyota TS040 HYBRID Le Mans 24-hour race 2014 FIA World Enduran,.Mercedes AMG GT S Matt Grey 1 18 AUTOart,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Rare Die Mold Ferrari Mondial Cabriolet 1 43 Heco Models Car Td,; GLEAMING ORIGINAL DINKY TOYS 23 SERIES RACING CARS VINTAGE ANTIQUE DIECAST LOT, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Mclaren Mp4-12C 2011 Matt Grey Minichamps 1 18 110133024 Model,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Matchbox RW 17A Removal Van hellgreen top in MOKO Box,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Corgi Toys 438 Land-Rover perfect mint in perfect mint box the Beste on Ebay,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 150 089021 Ford Escort Cosworth 1992 Red,.1 18 AUTOart LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO GT3 FL2 2013 orange -Aktion Vitrine kostenlos ,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Western Models 1 43 Scale WMS46 - Ford Galaxie Skyliner Congreenible - Red,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MERCEDES BENZ GLK WHITE 1 18 MINICHAMPS CAR COLLECTION SUPERBE,.LS COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - JAGUAR XJ6 - 1982 - LS025F,.CMC 1 18 Mercedes Benz W165 1939 Tripoli Grand Prix Rudolf Caracciola M-074,.BMW E36 1 18 - M3 GT - Otto Mobile OT098 @ E30 E46 E92 - NEW,.Porsche Master Traktor - red - Schuco 1 18 - 450008600,. The ScottsdaleELITE BATMAN VS SUPERMAN MOVIE BATMOBILE DAWN OF JUSTICE 1 18 HOTWHEELS CMC89,GTA Pathfinder. Morris Minor MM Lowlight Congreenible.Top Down. New Mint Boxed.,.Kyosho Bmw 6Er 1 18 Scale Car,. Id.,FERRARI 500 -1 20 built - Revival,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM14 - 1963 Singer Gazelle - Green,; CMR 1 18 Scale - CMR044 Porsche 917 LH Le Mans 1971 Siffert Bell,CORGI TOY 479 COMMER MOBILE CAMERA VAN.100% ORIGINAL.MIB.Original Box + Leaflet.,.Metosul Morris Mini Cooper made in Portugal 1 43 scale NM+ scarce red-brown,. The ScottsdalePLANEX COLLECTION Spark 1 43 Mini Moke gold Leaf Lotus 47 Resin Model New F S JP,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, TOGI ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPRINT 1954 - RED 1 23 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 100 110832 BUGATTI VEYRON GRAND SPORT 2010 RED RED,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - P9892 Ferrari 360 Challenge Stradale bluee,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Goods Road Signature 1 18 Scale 1962 Volkswagen Vogdlkswagen Microbus Flower,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Team Lotus Helicopter C.Chapman Team Essex 1981 1 43 Spark S1773 Modellino,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Fiat Dino Coupe' 1 18 Model BOS MODEL, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, PORSCHE 911 934 RSR Kremer Plainbody Street white weiss SCHUCO 1 18 RAR, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Koenig Competition Evolution in 1 18 Scale by Gt Spirit GT069 NEW,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge Lamborghini HURACAN Liberty Walk black Mat AUTOart 1 18 Model Car 79121 ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mercury Parklane Congreenible, red white, 1 43, Neo,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 43 Diecast Scale Model Premium ClassiXXs MB Renntransporter Porsche-Gulf 12203,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Red Line 1 43 Scale Resin - RL022 Ferrari 312 PB Le Mans 1973,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT2 RS+GT3 RS Nürburgring Rekord Set 2018,Bentley S1 Continental Mulliner Sports Saloon 1956 BoS Models 1 18 BOS230 Model,.BMW V12 LMR WIN SEBRING 1999 KRISTENSEN LEHTO MULLER BBR BG168 1 43 100 PCS,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 736523 - Porsche 917 10 Rinzler Motoracing Can Am 1973,. The HuygheErtl 1 18 Scale diecast AWSS118 06 1959 Cadillac ECTO-1 Ghostbusters + Slimer,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 18 Kyosho Range Rover Evoque Corris Grey 09549CGR,.
Ertl MotionDragginSnakeCobra 1 18 Classic CAR 4500units onlyone NEW F S,.Hot Wheels Redline Car Purple Classic '36 Ford Coupe - New - 1969,.
Aston Martin Rapide S Año Fabricación 2015 silver 1 18 Autoart,.DV7207 MINICHAMPS 1 43 PORSCHE 917 20 LE MANS 1971 PINK PIG JOEST 430716923,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Brooklin CSV13 - 1934 Miller – La Salle Arte sizedo Entrenador Funeral,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMercedes-Benz Strich 8 Saloon 1968 Dunkelolive 1 18,.Kia Kx3 2015 White 1 18 Model PAUDI MODEL,.
For example, in Partridge,Ferrari 512 BB LM, No.29, Scuderia Ferrari, Mugello, 1 43, Best,. In Jorgensen, supra,LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale Model Car LS038A - 1997 Honda Prelude - Red,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.SMTS 1 43 scale - CL52 - Aston Martin V8 Volante POW - Red,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 828601 Ford Capri 3.0S Gilden Kolsch 1982,. That is the same situation in this case.CORGI 210S CITROEN DS19 - NR MINT in original BOX,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.CORGI 804 NODDY CAR EARLY ISSUE Original Model Made In Britain Very Rare,. Detroit Edison, supra.
MERCEDES Unimog 416 DoKa green 1975 1 18 Premium ClassiXXs PCL30090,.New 1 43 Car Model Looksmart Pagani Huayra BC Matt White Carbonium LS457B,.AUTOART AUTOART Nissan Skyline G T-R (KPGC-10) AA-87176,.
MERCEDES CLASSE S AMG Line 2018 blue nuit V222 1 18 S-Class,.