Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 2013 Porsche 918 Spyder Salzburg in 1 18 by Minichamps Diecast Model,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.30b ROLLS ROYCE SALOON FAWN VERSION ,.1 18 Schuco VW T1 b Samba black white 450028700,.OTTO 1 12 Scale Resin M3 E46 PHOENIX,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT142 Peugeot 405 Pikes Peak 1988 A Vatanen,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 110 062220 - 2013 Porsche Cayman - yellow,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 500 F2 Caen Grand Prix Louis Rosier,.Meccano DINKY UK SUPERTOYS original 918 GUY OTTER EVER READY BATTERIES 2nd 1956,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Almost Mini-Champs 1 43 Tribute To Danahue 2 Cars Set,.V LEGO 8155 FERRARI RACERS F1 FORMULA 1 PIT PITLANE PIT STOP SET MIB SEALED,.Raro Modelo Matrix Ferrari F 308 GTS 1 43 Heco Modelos Coche F308 Sn, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Bestway Solar 58290e Cover 458 x 458 x 1 cm, bluee,.Red Bull Renault RB9 S.Vettel 1 18 Minichamps Champion 2013,.1 18 KYOSHO MERCEDES CLK CABRIO SONDERMODELL LEDER ECHTES DACH NEU OVP,.ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43. ALFA ROMEO PredEO CABRIOLET 1991,.
DINKY SUPERTOYS MODEL No.918 GUY 'EVER READY' VAN,.Porsche 918 Spyder, metallic dark green, 1 43, Spark,.FERRARI 365 GTB4 n°39 24H du MANS 1973 1 18,.Matchbox 2 B Lesney Muir Hill Site Dumper miss production N MIB OVP 1409-26-11,.Mebetoys A 47, Lamborghini P 250 Urraco, Mint in Box, Mattel ab695,.
Spark Model S18056 PORSCHE 917 PORSCHE AUDI N.0 5th LAGUNA SECA 1969 J.SIFFERT 1,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Liberty Walk Lamborghini Aventador in 1 18 Scale by Kyosho,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC20 - 1969 Jaguar 420G - Brown Beige,.DINKY SUPERTOYS 958 GUY SNOW PLOUGH WITH WINDOWS + ORIGINAL BOX,MATCHBOX LESNEY MODEL No.72a FORDSON MAJOR TRACTOR MIB,.1 18 MGB GT by Universal Hobbies.,.
Schuco 1 43 VW T1 Lufthansa Crew Bus + 2 Figurines SHU03186,.Vintage - ROVER 2000 Trans-O-lite - 1 43 Corgi Toys 238 - Mint in Box,.1 43 RUSSIAN CITY BUS ZIL-158 1957 Handmade,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
DV7993 ELIGOR 1 43 RENAULT PREMIUM CITERNE NORBERT DENTRESSANGLE 111130 RARE,.
IMBRIMA INBRIMA MATCHBOX FIELD GUN B927,. We agree in part.
1 18 UH 1971 PORSCHE 917K MARTINI RACING TEAM 24H LE MANS RACE WINNER,.1 18 Autoworld Ertl American Muscle 1966 Chevrolet Biscayne Coupe Aztec,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Autoart Impreza Wrc 200 Subaru Age,.2017 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Coupe by GT Spirit USA Dealer Exclusive in 1 18 Scale,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 155 742681 - BMW 3.0 CSL - 4H Monza 1974,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; New AUTOart 1 18 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 1973 orange 78057,.Range Rover (1970) 1 18 Almost Real ALM810103,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Classics - Ford XY Falcon Phase III GT-HO - Vermillion Fire,; Bburago Mercedes-Benz SSKL 1931 1 18 Special Paint Air Brush (JS),; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Shelby Cobra 427 S C White - Kyosho 1 18 - Collector - Sold out ,.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 375 French GP Test Luigi Villoresi,Biante AutoArt 1 18 Scale Holden 1971 LC Torana Colin Bond D -,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Highway 61 Chevy Fleetside,.
CALSONIC SKYLINE GT-R JGTC MINE --RESIN-- HPI 43,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Renault R10 1 18 Otto,.1 18 Bugatti Veyron Edition Centenaire 2009 1 18 • Minichamps 100110851,.LS COLLECTIBLES Jeep Grand Wagoneer 1 18 bluee No AUTOart,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, LOOKSMART 1 43 LAMBORGHINI LP770-4 AVENTADOR SVJ 2018 MATT RED ART. LS489D,; Nissan GT-R (R35), No.24, Advan, Super GT500, Fuji, 1 43, Ebbro,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Rare Morestone Ice Cream Seller on Tricycle. Vg Condition C.1950. Original Paint,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Ignition Model 1 43 Toyota Supra (JZA80) RZ White Finished Item,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
LANCIA MAGIA INTEGRALE IAD 1992 ALEZAN C53,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 150 137010 - Morris Minor Traveller - White,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1 43 RL30A LOTUS 49 Jim Clark Dutch GP 1967 BY SMTS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.CMR Ferrari 1970 512 S h Le Mans Long Tail 1 18 Rare Find ,.WSI 1 50 Scania R TL Ristimaa Tiger 05-0007 Top Rarität,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Kyosho 1 18 Lamborghini Jota SVR,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Brooklin 1 43 Scale IPV46 - 1939 Railton Cobham Saloon Police Car - Flying Squad,.
GTS766 GT SPIRIT 1 18 Genbara Mig U1 Mat Red model cars,.1 18 Autoart 79108 Liberty Walk LB-Works Lamborghini Aventador red,.MARQUE ONE MODELS 1 43 - 11 - 1949 CHRYSLER TOWN & COUNTRY,.Spark Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs Cup Rsr 4 Set,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.AUTOart 70273 Aston Martin Vanquish S Baujahr 2017 Kopi Bronze 1 18 NEU,.
1JADA BIG TIME MUSCLE 1965 SHELBY CORBA 427 S C FACTORY SEALED UNOPENED MINTBOX,.TRON P215 LANCIA FLAMINIA BERLINA SALOON 1958 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 33,.Norev 1 18 Scale 183457 - 1976 Mercedes Benz 450 SEL 6.9 - Met Grey bluee,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Faller 161622 Car System Basis-Set Komponenten,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Dinky Toys 177 Opel Kapitan,.Lamborghini Murcielago LP640, metallic green, 1 43, Minichamps,.DV6977 ELIGOR 1 43 SCANIA SERIE R TRANSPORTS PORTMANN 114523 HORS COMMERCE,.1 43 FIRE LADDER MERCEDES BENZ L.319 1950's Handmade,.Porsche 997 GT3 Cup, No.24, Porsche Carrera Cup, 1 43, Spark,.
AUTOart 1 18 Alfa Romeo 4C alpha Red finished product, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.PORSCHE 956 L Le Mans 1986 Spirit of America Joest Follmer Minichamps R 1 18,.Kit PORSCHE 917K MARTINI 1° 24h Le Mans 1971 TOTALMENTE APRIBILE PROFIL24 P43005,. The PartridgeMinichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 155 788601 - 1978 Ford Capri 3.0 - Yellow,.DINKY 741 728 ORIGINAL MINT IN BOXES SPITFIRE & RAF DOMINIE SELLING TOGETHER,.Dinky Bristol 450 Coupe, Exceptional in Superb Original Box,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Tekno LKW MB Actros 11 Streamspace Tank-SZ Franz Fischer, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ferrari F40 Pocher 1 8,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.FERRARI 575 GTC N°17 500km DONINGTON 2004 1 18 Team JMB,.1979 Opel Admiral B Green Metallic by BoS Models LE of 500 1 18 Scale New,PartridgeFerrari LaFerrari Special Edition BBRC3774PRE 1 43 20 Pcs only,.Minichamps McLaren F1 GTR LE MANS 1998 O Rourke Sugden Auberlen 18 New,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 500 F2 Belgian Grand Prix Charles de Tornaco, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BMW M4 CABRIO orange 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY PARAGON 97111,; 1 18 GMP ACME A1806401 - 1968 Dodge Dart Max Hurley Lmtd.Edition 1 von 582,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 CL63 Aston Martin DB Mk3 Fixed Head Coupe BY SMTS, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 43 Haisutori Hi-Story Inter-Allied Suzuki Suzuki Hasura Hustler X T From Japan, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMercedes LP608 Portauto Martini 1 18 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,.
Schuco 1 18 VW Käfer Motorhome, blue 450011400,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz O 3500 1 43 Achener Strassenbahn (JS), Clarke's negligent act.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 796484 - Porsche 934 Anny Charlotte Verney LM '79,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin body - GT121 Bentley Continental GT3-R White,.Stadt im Modell 4004A U-Bahn DT4.5 208 Hamburger Hochbahn DC Gleichstrom,.
HYUNDAI H-100 1 37 DIECAST MODEL VINTAGE BUS DEALER WERBE MODELL RARE SELTEN ,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Me-Mod 1 43 Chevrolet Opala SS 4100 Resin Handmade Model Car,Model-777 Ford F-350 King Ranch - red - 2016 - 1 18,. In Noska,NZG Nürnberg 932 60 Mercedes Benz Actros SLT Gigaspace yellow,.Peugeot 404 Diesel Record Car 1 18 Spark S18037 Miniature,.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - P9902 Ferrari 360 Spider Red,.Autoart 78045 - 1 18 Porsche Carrera Gt - White - Neu, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.153 blueEBIRD RECORD CAR METAL WHEELS VN MIB,.BMW 3.0 CS Alpina B2 Inka orange 1 18,.DINKY 172 STUDEBAKER LAND CRUISER - EXCELLENT in original BOX,.1 18 Cult Aston Martin DB5 Shooting Brake Harold Radford 1964 Green,. Id., p 923.
Plan X Kit Monté 1 43 - Ferrari 512 S Modulo 1970,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 43 Aston Martin V12 Vanquish 2002 Tuning R20 Wheels Very Nice car model 1 of 1,Porsche 911 993 Rwb 1996 blue AUTOART 1 18 AA78152 Model,.CMR 1 18 Scale - CMR045 Porsche 917 LH Le Mans 1971 Rodriguez, Oliver,.Racing 43 1 43 - Ferrari FXX Racing No.23,.PEUGEOT 207 S2000 MARCHETTIRALLY CASENTINO 2016 SPECIAL MODEL 1 43 SCALE,.Danbury Mint 1969 Dodge Super Bee w Original Box Cgoldnet Copper color,.Hot Wheels Honda CIVIC EF Super Treasure Hunt,.TEKNO 68975 Scania R TL mit Meiller Kipper 1 50,. The parties Mclaren 650S Gt3 2017 White AUTOART 1 18 AA81640 Miniature,.
Matchbox Superking K-17A Low Loader & Bulldozer red yellowgreen Taylor Woodrow ,.1 43 Classic IKARUS-280 Articulated bus model yellow painting,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Looksmart LS468E LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR S 2016 red MARS 1 43 Modellino,; Rai S 2005 Police Headquarters Detective Department Identification Dog, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Héco Modèles Résine 1 43 - Lamborghini Diablo Roadster Salon Paris 1992 yellow,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - V7437 Ferrari 348 TB red red,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Autoart A1 Gp 2007 Promo Car 1 18 Minicar,.Alfa Romeo 1300 Junior Zagato 1971 Yellow Tecnomodel 1 18 TM18-21D Model,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM18 - 1952 Jowett Jupiter 1 Of 600 Cream,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1957 Ferrari 750 Monza SCCA Palm Springs Bob Drake,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 375 MM Porto GP Casimiro de Oliveira,.Raro modellino MITSUBISHI COLT 800 DIAPET 1 43 model car made japan YONEZAWA,.2017 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S KOPI BRONZE 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 70273,.Red Line Ferrari F2008 Firano Test 1 43,.Conquest Models 1 43 Scale Nr.1 - 1954 Oldsmobile Starfire 98 FAULTY,. The ScottsdaleLamborghini Diablo Gt Titanium Metallic 1 18 Model GT SPIRIT,Schuco 1 18 450037700 VW T1b Bus VW Bus- mit der ganzen Familie unterwegs.... ,.Action Juan Montoya Cart Racing Serie 1 18 Scale Car,. Id.,Porsche 993 RWB red Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LookSmart LSBT012B 1 43 Bentley Continental Supersports 2017,; LookSmart LS464C 1 43 Lamborghini Huracan LP580-2 Spyder,Shelby GT500 1969, bluee gold, ERTL American Muscle 33962, 1 18, Rare Model,.1 18 Mclaren MP4-12C, metallic orange MINICHAMPS 110133020,. The ScottsdaleIgnition model 1 43 OMRON Porsche 962C WEC IN JAPAN IG0523 finished pr,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Kyosho 1 18 Diecast Model Car 08593GP - BMW M5 Safety Car Moto GP 2005,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MG Model Plus 1 43 1971 Ferrari 512S Buenos Aires,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Autoart 1 18 Toyota Supra 38 Scale Car,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Very Rare Paul's Model Art 1 24 1931 Mercedes-Benz SSKL Mille Miglia Winner,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Rai S Toyota Crown 2011 Metropolitan Police Department Regional Division Car,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ford Club Coupe 1950 Motor City USA 1 43 Limit MC11, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Kings Models 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Dalmiro Castex GP Gabriele Besana, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11XP73 Bentley Arnage Metallic Green,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRLM24RL002 FERRARI F2005 M. SCHUMACHER 1 24,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, GMP 1 18 1970 Road Runner, Official Movie Merchandise, “Fast & Furious”,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheLimited To 1000 1 43 Look Smart Ferrari F 2004 Es Special Order,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes O 3500 Bus Brown Cream 1 43 Minichamps-302 317 321,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 gold 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,Mercedes Cw 311 White 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.Look smart lamborghini miura roadster Bruxelles 1968 1 43 ls269A..,.Matchbox SF Nr.14A Iso Grifo babyblue japan Version dot-dash Räder blacke Box,. The HuygheLesney Matchbox No 41 Jaguar Racing Car Wire Wheels VNMIB D BOX,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePorsche 911 3.0 Rs 1974 White 1 18 Gt Spirit Gt223 New,.
BBR 1 43 Ferrari 458 Italia GT2 Testcar,.1 18 Bentley Continental GT Coupe año 2016 Paragon 98221 Burgundy,.
KYOSHO 20TH ANNIVERSARY 1 43 LAMBORGHINI IOTA JOTA 1970 RED,.Mercedes 1422 Metz DLK23-12 Fire Brigade 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Spark Model S18MC17 MERCEDES GT3 N.48 WINNER FIA GT WORLD CUP MACAU 2017 E.MORTA,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeUSA Models USA-8 1940 Ford 4-Door Sedan 1 43 Die Cast Car,.NOREV CITROEN 2 CV COFFRET GARAGE 50 ANS (rare) 03,.
For example, in Partridge,SUNSTAR 2905 RM 686- WLT 686 VERNON'S POOLS, 1 24, 99% MIB ,. In Jorgensen, supra,French Dinky Toys 557 AMI 6 Citroen Green White Original EX++ Rare ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.DANBURY MINT 1968 PLYMOUTH HEMI ROADRUNNER 1 24 DIECAST MODEL W BOX PAPERS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1965 Tonka 840 Car Carrier With Box & 2 Mustangs,. That is the same situation in this case.FORD EDSEL MODEL 40 SPECIAL ROADSTER EARLY VERSION 1934 - 1 18 Minichamps,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.VROOM 128 CITROEN DS PredOTYPE S 1965 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT 13,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Skoda Yeti Fl Outdoor 2013 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,.CONRAD MERCEDES -SENN BRUNNEN CH- MOSER 5 ACHS KIPPER 1 50 OVP,.Gasoline 1 43 2004 Ferrari 575 GTC Spa,.
1 18 Ertl 1957 Chevy Coupe American Graffiti - Cult,.