Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Autoart DELOREAN DMC-12 METALLIC RED 1981 Composite model in 1 18 Scale New ,.VERY RARE 1 18 KYOSHO LAMBORGHINI JOTA SVR No. 08311PM PURPLE PINK METALLIC NIB,.1 18 Autoart Maserati Quattroporte GTS Alpi white weiss Nr. 75808 in OVP,.Spark Nissan GT-R LM LMP1 Le Mans 2015 in 1 18 Scale. New Release,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Dinky Toys Field Marshall Tractor (No 301),.Corgi Toys Gift Set no. 2 GS2 Land Rover with Rices Pony Trailer and Pony Boxed,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Schuco 3062 Zollhaus 99% mint in a super original box OVP SELTEN,.VERY RARE DAF CF 4X2 3 AXLE EURO 6 orange BOX TRAILER 1 87 WSI (DEALER MODEL),. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Norev 1 43 - Coffret Citroen DS 19 Décapotable et DS 23 Pallas - 50 ans,.Opel Record C BoS Models 1 18 BOS232,.1 18 NOREV PORSCHE 911 997 2 TURBO DARK blueE MINT+ BOXED 1 18 LIMITED EDITION, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1954 Mercedes-Benz 180D Universal W120 blue 1 18 BoS-Models 077,.Audi Q7 4M 2. Generation Weiss Ab 2015 1 18 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder oh..,.Somerville Models BHM 1 43 Scale 149 - 1949 Vauxhall Velox L Type - Grey,.HPI 1 43 Porsche 956 LH Le Mans Special Set 8037 Finished product Minicar JAPAN,.
GM Firebird I 1953 1 18 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,.1 18 Autoart - 81541 Mclaren P1 GTR (Gloss White Red Stripes) 2015,.Autoart 1 18 Scale - 71160 Chevrolet Corvette 1969 Daytona Yellow,.2016 Bentley Continental GT Coupe Burgundy 1 18 Paragon Models 98221,.Bespoke Model 1 43 1978 Ferrari 365 GT4 BB Daytona,.
MILESTONE MINIATURES 1 43 GC12 - RILEY PATHFINDER 1954 - POLICE CAR,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.VW Volkswagen T1 Van van Wiking Germany 1 40 16096,.Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 6610 Krupp Sf 960 with Tipping Trailer 1 50,.St Metal Toy Japan 6 Morris Mini Cooper in Sales Display Each Approx. 13cm (F12),Looksmart LS480SE FERRARI PORTOFINO OPEN ROOF red CORSA 1 43 Modellino,.AUT74604 - LAMBORGHINI Huracan LP610-4 yellow Ech 1 18 - 1 18,.
WS Rare predotype résine metal BUGATTI Atalante Cabriolet 1 43 Heco modeles,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818F - Triumph Herald - Falken 1 Of 50,.1 18 AUTOART 70977 BUGATTI EB110 GT DARK RED NEW,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
AUTOart Lotus 3-Eleven green yellow 1 18 75392,.
MILESTONE MINIATURES 1 43 GC18B - 1950 FORD ZEPHYR HOOD UP - DARK blueE,. We agree in part.
Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 Czech GP Brno Franco Cortese,.1 18 BMW E92 335i CONgreenIBLE blueE WORKING ROOF 2007 KYOSHO,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.TOGI 8 65 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA GT - blueE METALLIC + RED INTERIOR 1 23 - GOOD IN BOX,.08704BL KYOSHO BMW M6 Congreenible ( bluee ) - Rarität - 1 18,.RAE MODELS 1 43 - KED035 - AC 2 LITRE - RED,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 GT Spirit GT169 Ferrari (Enzo) Gemballa MIG-U1. White,.FERRARI 212 BREAK blue KIT PROVENCE MOULAGE 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vintage Topper Johnny Lightning PredOTYPE EMPLOYEE al unser indy UNSPUN RAW,; LAMBORGHINI HURACAN SUPER TROFEO EVO 2018 grey TITANS Looksmart LS483,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
BMW 3er E 92 M3 GTS Coupe Alpine Weiss 25 Jahre M Power 2005-2013 1 18 Kyosho ..,.REPLICAR KIT MOUNTED MASERATI 430 BITURBO QUATTROPORTE 1.43 NB,Signed MR.NORMS 1964Dodge 330 HEMI GRAND SPAULDING1 18 Highway 61 Supercar Colle,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM3 - 1952 Bristol 401 1 Of 600 Red,.
Road King Scania LBT 141 1976 ASG White bluee 1 18 180013,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Looksmart LS156 1 43 2005 Lamborghini Gallardo Hamann Handmade Resin Model Car,.Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 73 Mercury Commuter SQUARE 5 Spokes RARE,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 131 - Austin 10 Cambridge - Maroon,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 181707 - Bbr - Kimi Räikkönen Ferrari SF70H 7 Australia Gp Formula 1 2017 1 18,; Mclaren Mercedes Mp 4 13 Hakkinen 1 18 Mini Champs,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, SIMCA CHAMBORD and Caravan Norev 1 18 SEE INFO TOP ,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1 43 Minimarque (England) Ford Fairlane Congreenible 1957,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Tekno LKW Scania R Topl. Aerop. Ga-KSZ Thorager,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
RAE MODELS 1 43 SCALE GS003 - JAGUAR XK120 - WHITE - RACING,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine black 1 18 Sun Star 4231,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.TOYOTA Gt86 CTOYOTA Gt86 Cunny Tuning Version 2012 Grey AUTOART 1 18 AA78759 Mod,.Drake ZT09156 1 50 Doolan - Maxitrans Freighter Skel B Double Combination,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Honda Prelude Si Ba 5 1987 Polar White Hobby Japan 1 18 Hj1804Bw New,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.AUTOART AA81527 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN GT3 2015 BIANCO ISIS WHITE 1 18,.
Norev 1 18 Scale 183457 - 1976 Mercedes Benz 450 SEL 6.9 - Met Grey bluee,.1 18 Scale CMF Ferrari 857 S Andy Warhol 1955 Limited Edition 100 Pcs.,.Sun Star H2912 2912 1 24 London Transport Routemaster Bus Greenline 715Guildford,.BBR FERRARI 575 SUPERAMERICA ROOF CLOSED RUBINO MICALIZZATO 324 BBR166D 1 43,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1961-1968 Fiat 2300 S Coupe Light bluee Met. by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 New ,.
Bmw 1800 Ti 1965 Red 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.FORD Escort RS Cosworth 4X4 Rallye Monte Carlo 1994 Delecour RAR OTTO 1 18,.CORGI 256 VOLKSWAGEN 1200 RALLY,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Verem Militaire Army - Gaso Line 1 50 - Char Tank Bergepanzer IV,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MINICHAMPS - 1 18 - BUGATTI TYPE 57C CORSICA ROADSTER - 1938 - 107110430,.BBR Models 1 43 Nr. 143A Maserati 4200 Spyder 2001 OVP,.First Gear 50-3301 1 50 Komatsu WA900-3 Wheel Loader,.1 43 AMR Vaillante Le Mans 1961 r. 000463,.DINKY TOYS RENAULT 16 1 43 MECCANO FRENCH DINKY,.
AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Huracan GT3 Pearl Yellow 81528.0, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.YONEZAWA japan TIN TOYS BLECH 413-A VINTAGE CAR LIMOUSINE S-1925 - GOOD IN BOX,.ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . LAMBORGHINI P140 V10 1995 .,. The PartridgeGT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT216 Jaguar XJS V12 Lynx Eventer Metallic Green,.DURHAM DC-10 CHEVROLET CONgreenIBLE DELUXE COUPE 1941 TgoldNTO TOY SHOW MINT BOXED,.Herpa, 071291 MAN TGS L Rundmulden-Sattelzug Geiger ,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes Benz Polizei Wagon 6 Batt Op Remote Control Mint in Box (1960s) ITB WH, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Almost Real 1 43 Bentley Gt3 No.7,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Hot Wheels RLC Datsun 240Z LOW NUMBERS Pair and of 6500 MINT HWC,.KYOSHO MINI-Z RACER RC ALFA ROMEO 156 GTA - blueE 1 28 EXCELLENT IN UNOPENED BOX,PartridgeBlago 1 18 BURAGO Ferrari SF 70 H K. Raikkonen minicar 906,.1 50 Caterpillar Cat 3049 Material Handler By Diecast Masters 85919 Vehicle Toy,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps Talbo Lago T 150-C-Ss Coupe, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Tekno LKW Scania R Tank-SZ Van Ouden,; 2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine whiteo 1 18 Sun Star 4232,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BMW M4 GTS 2016 White 1 18 - 110025221 MINICHAMPS, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, NEVS-SAAB 9-3 SS Turbo Edition M2015 scale 1 43 Collectible, Rare Ltd Edt., (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeJADA VOLKSWAGEN DRAG BUS HAWAIIAN PUNCH PredOTYPE FROM ROY NAKAMURA COLLECTION,.
WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord P1 2 Doors 1958 Police 1 18 Minichamps-Auto Art,.BoS Models Cadillac Fleetwood 75 Limousine 1 18 Scale, Clarke's negligent act.AUTOART 81342 1 18 MCLAREN 12C GT3 RED BULL S.LOEB A.PARENTE SUPERCAR,.1968 Mustang Reunion Car WHITE LIGHTNING Chase 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 21957,.AUTOart 89279 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R R32 model Bathhurst Winner 1992 Richards 1 18,.
CHARLESTON 2CV Red Metallic Pedal Car,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky Toys 24K 24 K Simca Chambord very very near mint in box all original,Ferrari 812 Superfast 2017 red Corsa Red BBR 1 43 BBRC198RCC1 Model,. In Noska,NOS Vintage Majorette 206 Citroen DS21 Ambulance 1 65 in paper box - France,.Schuco PRO.R 09056 VW T1b Renntransporter Continental Motors USA 1 43 NEU,.Schuco VW Käfer 1600i Última Edición snap orange 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,.1 18 Autoart - Mercedes Benz AMG GT - S (Designo Diamond White Bright), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Porsche 911 Pocher 1 8,.Annecy Miniatures Cavallino Models Kit Monté 1 43 - Ferrari 250 GTO 1964 red,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 127 - Saab 9000 CD - Green,.NZG MODELLE 504 FAUN V12 - v. SEUMEREN blueE 1 50 PROMO - VERY GOOD CONDITION,. Id., p 923.
Schuco 450767900 Tractor Set John Deere 3120 - Limited Edition 500 - 1 3 2,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, VW Volkswagen Bus T3 Westfalia Camper Camping Hochdach Joker Premium Cl 1 18,Bizarre 1 43 Toyota Celica Twin Cam Turbo Safari Rally Winner 1986 BZ216,.Brand Mcw44508 Neo Honda Prelude Mkiv,.Rare Model Resin Predotype Renault R25 1 43 Heco Models Miniature,.6 x Aston Martin One-77 Supercar Limited H0-01 1 87 Modellauto Car Fronti-Art,.Kyosho Aston Martin Db 9 143 Scale Car,.73059 AUTOART 1 18 SALEEN Ford MUSTANG S281 EXTREME RED,.Brand Mercedes Amg Petronas 1 18 Scale Car,. The parties Diapet (Japan) Yellow Porsche 935 Martini 1977 1 40 Diecast NIB,.
GMP 1 18 Graveyard Carz 1970 Plymouth Road Runner GMP-18897,.Minichamps Toyota Racing 2009 Kobayashi Kamui,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Mini Champs 1 43 Super Aguri Honda SA07 2007 Takuma Sato,; Top Marques 1 43 Scale - 1929 Morris Minor Fabric Saloon - Maroon, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
SDCC Comic Con Exclusive Hot Wheels . Knight Rider Mattel KITT set of 2 1 64,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, UT Models 20511 1 18 BMW E46 3-SERIES 328I 1998 RED,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)GTS027KJ GTspirit 1 18 Kizil Serum Uratakku Red,.Panasonic Toyota F1 Tf104 Working On A Complete Pit,.(Go) 1 18 TSM Model 1976 Porsche 936 76 Nürnburgring 300 KMNIP,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,RENAULT TRM 2000 DRAP PORTE BARRIERE GENDARMERIE FRANÇAISE PERFEX 707 1 43,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1965 Ford Taunus 20M P5 Light bluee by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale. New ,.Mercedes-Benz W460 G-Class Cabrio (red) 1979,.1 43 SRC15 1967 HONDA RA273 SURTEES MONACO WITH REMOVEABLE NOSE BY SMTS,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 149 - Vauxhall L-Type Velox - bluee Grey,.G TEKNO DENMARK 410 VW VOLKSWAGEN TRANSPORTER VAN TAXA TAXI VN MINT CONDITION,. The ScottsdaleBMW M1 h LE MANS 1986 WITM 18 MINICHAMPS 180862911 NEU,Chevrolet Corvette 1954 red Autoart 1 18 Aa71082 Miniature,.Dinky 1960's Humber Hawk No 165 N MINT Superb,. Id.,Minichamps 122 098046 Aprilia 250ccm Team Nastro Azzurro Assen GP 1998 V Rossi,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky Toys Vintage Model Lorry 419 - Leyland Cement Wagon - Yellow,; 1 43 AB Models Maserati MC12 Monza 2005 Team Vitaphone FIA GT ABB23,Unbranded 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 16718H - MG Sports Car - Green,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK188A - 1954 Mercury Monterey Super Station Wagon Green,. The ScottsdaleDV7995 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TGX TOIT MOYEN TAUTLINER SMILE TRANSPORTS 114940 RARE,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Shelby Boss 302 Trans Am Mustang 1969 bluee, Model Car 1 18 Acme,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Dinky 109 Secret Service Gabriel Model T Ford In Original Box - Near Mint Model,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 Turbo-Targa greenmetallic 1 43. no BBR,MR,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Mercedes Maybach S 650 Cabriolet año 2018 color Designo Circón red Norev,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, RENAULT Alpine A310 V6 Gr.5 Rallye Var Frequelin 1976 elf Gitanes Otto 1 18,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Norev 1 43 Scale PC01 - RF Presidential Cars - Simca Chambord Citroen - France, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Brekina 1 87 Sonderset VCHV Hattem 1986 NL Niederlande very rare rar OVP, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Dinky 287 297 Police set,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCorgi Toys 358 Oldsmobile HQ Staff car very near mint in near mint box SUPERB,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minichamps 410066122 Porsche Cayman GT4 built in 2016 in acid green 1 43 NEW,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheClassiXXs 1 18 Scale VW Volkswagen T3 Westfalia Joker Green Resin cast model van,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps 1974 BMW BMW 3.0 CSL Norisring Trophae Schommers 18New ,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,March Honda F2 812, No.37, Canon, Formula 2, JAF Suzuka GP F2, 1 43, Minichamps,1 18 AUTOart Nissan Skyline Hardtop 2000 GT-R (KPGC10) red - RARITÄT§,.LESNEY MATCHBOX NO. 1D DIESEL ROAD ROLLER - MINT BOXED - 400 BOOK VALUE ,.SPA18S143 by SPARKMODEL TOYOTA TS040 HYBRID 18,. The HuygheMinichamps Ford Capri Turbo Gr. 5 D & W Klaus Niedzwiedz Drm 1982 18,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAMR Kit Monté 1 43 - Ferrari 512 BB Bellancauto Le Mans 1980 N°79,.
TEKNO 64995 SCANIA R TRACTOR SOLO 6X2 BART FRANSEN MINT IN BOX,.1982 Matchbox Superfast Super Set Off Road Riders Lesney Brand New Gift set USA,.
Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport 2017 Red & White Stripes AUTOART 1 18 AA71274,.Bentley Continental Gt 2008 Minichamps 1 18 100139620 Model Diecast,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 AUTOart 80504 Chevrolet Corvette C6R 24hrs Lemans Winner 2005 Lmtd.Edt.,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeParagon 1 18 Scale Audi PA-88110 R8 LMS Land-Motorsport 2016 1st ADAC GT Masters,.Range Rover (1970) 1 18 Almost Real ALM810103,.
For example, in Partridge,ISCALE 1 18 MERCEDES BENZ blueE WONDER FORMULA 1 RACING CAR TRANSPORTER 1954,. In Jorgensen, supra,Kyosho1 18 Lamborgini Urraco Rally Die Cast Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 REVELL NSU TT CUP Racing S.Spiess - RARITÄT neu §,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Ferrari 458 Italia GT2 Hot Wheels Elite,. That is the same situation in this case.Rai S 1 43 Land Cruiser 2013 Police Headquarters Security Division Commander,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1970 Dodge Charger R-T SE yellow-brown 1 18 Auto World AMM1036,. Detroit Edison, supra.
CMR 1 18 Scale Resin - 094 Ferrari 250 GT Drogo Plain Body Red,.Acme 1 18 Scale A1801806 1968 Shelby GT350 Special WT 6066 Yel diecast model Car,.Model Icons 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2010002 Jaguar Mark 2 Racing Green,.
FERRARI 360 MODENA N-GT SPA 2004 BBR GAZOLINE 1 43EME LIMITED EDITION SUPERBE,.