Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 530 131805 Vodafone McLaren Mercedes MP4-28,.1 43 RL61 Hurst Floor Shift Special BY SMTS,.Burago 1 18 Scale Metal Model 18-16601 - Ferrari F40 - red Red,.Vintage - Fiat 600 D - 1 43 Politoys -m511 Perfect,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Bburago Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1954 1 18 Special Paint Air Brush (JS),.1969 1 24 Franklin Mint Camaro Z 28 bluee White limited edition 556 2500,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 35 HYUNDAI STAREX C.M.TOYS DIECAST VINTAGE MADE IN KOREA RARE SELTEN ,.Infiniti EX25 2013 White 1 18 Model PAUDI MODEL,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.DINKY TOYS 665 HONEST JOHN MISSILE LAUNCHER 1 43 ORIGINAL OVP,.Ferrari GTC4 Lusso Nuovo grey Ferro 1 43 - BBRC185A BBR,.Vintage - MINX HILLMAN 1600 - 1 42 Triang Spot-On 287 MINT BOXED, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RS 4.0 Meerblue 100pcs Limited,.Lamborghini Huracan Super Trofeo 2015 Bianco Isis 1 18 Model 81557 AUTOART,.1 43 GAZ 22 Volga Volkspolizei Neo Scale Models 300 pcs Wolga 21,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT247 Citroen CX25 TRD Turbo 2 1991 Metallic Grey,.
Mini Champs 1 43 Scale Sahara Force India Formula 1 Team Mercedes VJM 09 Japan,.Jaguar D Type LeMans - Solido 100 France 1 43 in Box 36194,.AUTOART NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R R32 GROUP A 1990 CALSONIC 18 New ,.1 50 CORGI BRITISH MILITARY COMET A34 TANK WW2 Legends Fall of Germany CC60606,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 RWB Type 2.8 RSR Kaki Green GT120 Red Leather Base,.
Vintage - MORRIS 1100 - 1 42 Spot-On 262 Mint condition,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.ELEGANCE RESIN MODEL 1 43 120 - 1950 CADILLAC SERIES 62 CONgreenIBLE - blueE,.Diecast Masters 1 50 Caterpillar Cat 24 Motor Grader Next Gen Model,.Looksmart A5-5761 Audi prologue allroad concept Shanghai 1 43 Werbeschachtel,Sun Star H2904 2904 1 24 London Transport Routemaster Bus Greenline 715 Hertford,.1 18 Autoart Mercedes-Benz C-Class Limousine Elegance 2007 White,.
1 10 ERTL Harley-Davidson sixteen Motorcycle Die Cast Model,.Maserati Quattroporte Granlusso My17 2017 Champagne Met BBR 1 43 BBRC192B,.Opel Manta 400 Gruppe B Rally Safari 1985 Aaltonen Drews Nr 245 1 18 Otto Mode..,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
ERTL 1 18 Diecast Model Car Fast & Furious Tokyo Drift - 2003 Nissan 350Z Green,.
Almost Real Bill of Materials Bentley Team Absolute in GT3 Asia 43,. We agree in part.
Porsche 935 Kremer Racing TSM141807 1 18 LeMans 1979,.Tekno Denmark 831 Morris Marina 1100 perfect mint in box what a beauty,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.( GOR ) 1 18 AUTOart Ford Lincoln Navigator NEU OVP,.1 18 Honda FIT Sport 2018 Diecast Metal Car Model Toys Girl Boy Gift Kids Green,.VINTAGE CORGI NODDY AND FRIENDS 804 1st,VERSION OF THE RED AND YELLOW CAR BOXED,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; French Dinky Toys 24E Renault Dauphine,.PORSCHE Cayenne Turbo 1 18 AutoArt,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 43 AUTOart mclaren F1 Die Cast Model All Doors Open,; TEKNO HOLLAND SCANIA 143M 420 - VAN RIJN TRANSPORT - 1 50 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Minichamps McLaren F1 GTR Winner 24h du Mans 1995 1 18 530133559 20,.Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1011 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Maroon White,Xx Conrad 2100 Crane Service Liebherr Ltm 1070 Mobile Crane 1 50 New Xx,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Rare Die Model Renault 19 Phase 1 5 Portes 1 43 Heco 3 Master Vehicle Mk,.
Sun Star H2908 2908 1 24 Routemaster Bus London Transport LeylandEngine Uxbridge,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Hi Story 1 24 Mugen MUGEN S660 2015 carnival yellow II finished product,.Alfa Romeo Duetto Giro D'Italia van Mebetoys A-65 1 43 30241,.Corgi 1 50 Scale 18006 Scammell Contractor Nicholas Boagies & Load NI.Carriers,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, AUTOART 72642 FIAT ABARTH 1000 TCR, MATT GREY blueE STRIPES 1 18TH SCALE,; SPA18S321 by SPARKMODEL TOYOTA TS050 HYBRID LE MANS 17 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, FRENCH Dinky Toys 554 Opel Rekord 2 tone MIB FRANCE MADE UK DINKY MINT IN BOX,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
AUTOart - 1 18 - LOTUS 3-ELEVEN - 75392,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Kings Models 1 43 1961 Ferrari 555 Queensland Centenary Road Race Des Kelly,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
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This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Dinky toys reserve wagon poubelle benne a ordure n978 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.AUTOart 1 18 Alfa Romeo 4C Spider yellow finished product,.1 18 Autoart 80177 Nissan Skyline Jgtc 2001 Xanavi Hiredo GTR bluee Rarity,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SMTS 1 43 Scale CL7 - Rolls Royce Corniche F.H.C. Two Tone Green RARE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 78611 Subaru Impreza WRX Type R Yellow Classic,.
Autoart 1 18 Scale diecast 86971 Porsche 908 02 Watkins Glen 1969 Redman Siffert,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB101C - 1967 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE - LIGHT blueE - ROOF OPEN,.Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 Red MINICHAMPS 1 18 107032521 M,.Looksmart Models 1 43 Scale Model Car LS01 - 1972 Alfa Romeo Giulia Super 1.6,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BMW V12 LMR WIN SEBRING 1999 KRISTENSEN LEHTO MULLER BBR BG168 1 43 100 PCS,.
Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - T6931 Ferrari 250 California SWB L.M 1969,.Bentley Continental GT 2008 white 1 18 MINICHAMPS,.Revell Audi TT Rare 1 18 Scale Diecast Metal Pale Yellow Collectible Model Car,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi Chevy Kennel Club, Mint Condition in Mint Box and 4 x Original Dogs,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-97086 BMW i8 Java Green,.GMP – 1 18 Scale Ford “Raw Steel” 1934 Blown Altered Coupe Diecast Scale Model,.GT Spirit 1 18 Audi RS5 GT062 DIE CAST MODEL,.De Lorean Dmc-12 1981 AUTOART 1 18 AA79917 Model,.2018 HOT WHEELS 11a MEXICO CONVENTION 1 OF 1 ´55 CHEVY BEL AIR GASSER CHARITY,.
Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin R5219A - 1952 MG-TD Bertone Congreenible - Green, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MATCHBOX YESTERYEAR Y37A CHUBBS RARE MISSPELLED BASE GARRTT vs. GARRETT MINT,.FAST & FURIOUS 7 Plymouth Barracuda Highway 61 Maßstab1 18 OVP NLIMITED,. The PartridgeLamborghini Aventador S Roadster Arancio Argos 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,.LOTTO PRIME 5 USCITE AUTOBUS DAL MONDO SCALA 1 43 HACHETTE NUOVI,.Miniminiera MW001 DIORAMA INCIDENTE 1 43 JEREZ DE LA Modellino,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, DINKY SUPERTOYS MODEL No.936 LEYLAND 8-WHEEL CHASSIS ON ROAD TEST LOAD, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Spot On Triang No 120 Fiat Multipla Boxed Excellent Rare Grey,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CORGI TOYS No 358 OLDSMOBILE H.Q. STAFF CAR (STUNNING) (MINT BOXED),.Lamborghini Huracan Lp 580-2 Spyder Bianco Canopus 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,Partridge1 18 Audi R8 n°4 Nurburgring 2014 1 18 • Spark 18SG009,.Ferrari F40 Pocher 1 8,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1953 CADILLAC ELDORADO WHITE DANBURY MINT DIECAST 1 16 MINT WITH WOODEN DISPLAY, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Mclaren Mp4 5 Prost Scale Car,; 1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 2.8 RSR white red Limited 504 pcs.,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Spark Model S18173 MERCEDES W06 L.HAMILTON 2015 N.44 WINNER AUSTRALIAN GP 1 18 M, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 410066122 Porsche Cayman GT4 built in 2016 in acid green 1 43 NEW, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNOREV CITROEN 2 CV COFFRET GARAGE 50 ANS (rare) 03,.
WSI01-1195 - SCANIA R09 4x2 avec remorque frigorifique 3 Essieux VAN DE PLASSE ,.Century Dragon 1 18 Scale CDLR-1002 - 2011 Range Rover Evoque - Red, Clarke's negligent act.Matchbox RW 59A Singer Van hellgreen greye Plastikräder in MOKO Box,.1 18 Highway 61 1968 Barracuda Mighty Miss Mopar,.1 18 AUTOart Chevrolet Corvette C5R 25HR Lemans GTS France 2002,.
ARE318-24 LANCIA STRATOS TURBO TDF 73 SCHNAUZE KURZ KIT VON MONTAGE 1 24,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, FIAT 128 SCALA 1 43 ARENA MODELS AREK 314 MONZA 73 TEAM TRIVELLATO N° 105,MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS SONDERMODELL POR000031,. In Noska,Corgi Toys - Army Field Kitche N. 359.,.ERTL 1 16 SCALE JOHN DEERE 8400R TRACTOR MODEL BN 45567,.Ferrari 195 Inter Ghia Red 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.DCP Knight Transport Peterbilt 379 w 53' Refrigerated Van Trailer 1 64, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 43 1941-1943 MERCEDES BENZ L.1500A Kubelwagen Top down up Military Handmade,.GAIETY TOYS MORGAN 3 WHEELER CHROME RACING CAR CASTLE ART PRODUCTS RARE A058,.SCHUCO 40 jaar Piccolo Art.-nr. 50123700,.VW Beetle Motorhome Yellow - white 1 18 450011300,. Id., p 923.
NASCAR Richard Petty 50th Anniversary (Limited Edition)1 24 Scale Diecast in Box,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, VW Volkswagen Bus T3 Westfalia Camper Camping Hochdach Joker Premium Cl 1 18,Brand Sauber Mercedes C9 1989 Mans 3 Cars Set Mini Car,.1 18 1974 Holden HQ Monaro GTS 350 Sedan (Purr Pull with White Stripes) Auto Art,.DAF XF SSC AVEC REMORQUE GRAND VOLUME WSI 1 50 REF 01-2532,.2018 Dodge Challenger SRT Demon Destroyer Grey GT Spirit 1 18 Resin PRE-ORDER LE,.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 red Corsa 322 Red BBR 1 43 BBRC187C1 Mini,.LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale resin - LS008A TVR Sagaris 2005 Metallic Green,.Auto Art Porsche 911 GT3 1 18,. The parties Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 127 - Saab 9000 CD - Metallic Charcoal,.
BOS029 by BOS MODELS Mercedes-Benz C220 t-modell 1 18,.18118 AUTOart 1 18 RedBull x 2014 Fan Car RedBull color,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, DINKY TOYS RENAULT 4L REF 518,; Wills Finecast 1 43 Scale Built Kit UK30718 - Frazer Nash, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
1956 Desoto Firedome 4-door Seville in 1 18 Scale by BoS Models,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kyosho Original 1 18 Nissan Skyline Impul R32 Gt-R Calsonic Diecast Kyos08361C,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Porsche 911 Turbo S 3.6 Minichamps 1 43 Very rare (30 years 911),.Autoart 80337 Citroen Ksala 2003 Wrc 18,.1 18 AUTOart 74771 LANCIA DELTA S4 red - red - zum SONDERPREIS ,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,PORSCHE 911 GT2 RS (991) 2017 1 18 SPARK (LAVA orange),
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 39518 Porsche 911 RS Porsche cup VIP 1995 car,.TEKNO 58986 DAF 105XF SSC Volumen-Kombi 1 50,.Autoart LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 green MANTIS 4-LAYER GREEN MET. 1 18 New ,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - Dodge Viper GTS Inter Modell Bau' 96 Ltd 1000 Pcs,.NZG758 52 - MAN TGX 6x4 avec porte engins NOOTEBOOM PENDEL X 3 essieux - 1 50,. The ScottsdaleWestern Models 1 43 Scale WP101 - Triumph Stag Congreenilble Yellow,Lamborghini Aventador Lp700-4 Pink 2011,.Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 27 - 1939 Ford Panel Van K&R Toy & Auction Show 1 Of 300,. Id., BBRC197DCF - BBR Ferrari 488 Challenge 2016 - Matt-black - Carbon-Dach - 1 43,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 18 diecast - 155736502 - Porsche 917 10 Bosch-Kausen Team 1973,; Schuco VW Bus T1b Martini blue-black 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-98221R Bentley Continental GT Congreenible 16 Burgundy,.Mercedes MB 2628 WAWE 9000, Wasserwerfer Polizei Berlin, einmalig in 1 43,. The ScottsdaleCorgi Toys No. 233, Heinkel I, Economy, - Superb,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, ORIGINAL DINKY NO.144 VOLKSWAGEN 1500 1963-67 N.MINT MODEL V.GOOD BOX,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1973 Porsche 911 Rs 2.7 White Red Font 1 18 Autoart 78052,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1) BY SMTS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, New 1 43 Car Model Ignition Model Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-EL (C211) White 0323,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniv. Usa red Corsa BBR 1 43 BBRC182F Mo,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Dodge Dart Hemi Max Hurley 1968 orange Metallic Model Car 1 18 Acme, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, SA002-91 - FrontiArt SophiArt BMW M4 - Matt light grey - 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, (V) MAKS Hong Kong Plastic friction drive MORRIS 1100,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDinky Toys 410 Bedford End Tipper Original MIB ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM105E - 1939 Embiricos Bentley Road Car - bluee,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePorsche 908 2 Le Mans 1971 Weigel-Haldi S1981 Spark 1 43 New in a box RARE ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 43 1934 CHRYSLER AIRFLOW 4 DOOR SEDAN Brooklin Models BRK.7,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,B TEKNO DENMARK 813 FERRARI RACING CAR FRENCH FLAG NEAR MINT BOXED,NZG 1 32 Genie SX -180 Aerial work platform alloy model,.1 43 AMR Factory Built Jaguar XJ12L Dark bluee Vintage Mint,.Lamborghini Huracan LP 610-4 Look Smart 1 43 LS426E,. The HuygheSchuco 09015 - OPEL Blitz Renntransporter PORSCHE Stuttgart 1 43 Neuheit ,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 24 Scale Franklin Mint 2003 Die-Cast Collectors Club 1934 Chrysler Airflow LE,.
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Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMinichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 836608 Porsche 956K Joest Racing Nurburgring 1983,.1966 Ford Mk II No.98 Winner Daytona 24H by Spark,.
For example, in Partridge,Spark 1 18 Porsche LMP1 Le Mans Winner 2017 - Bernhard Bamber Hartley,. In Jorgensen, supra,Skoda Octavia III 2014 gold Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.AUTOART 1 18 LOTUS 3-ELEVEN GREEN YELLOW PVC,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1972 BMW Turbo en orange Metálico Resina Modelo en 1 18 Escala de Schuco,. That is the same situation in this case.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.153 blueEBIRD RECORD CAR METAL WHEELS VN MIB,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 AUTOart Lexus LC 500 2017 redmetallic carbon,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Four Wheels FWAM-9 10, 1957 Aston Martin DB2-4 Mk 3 DHC, Boxed,.Fiat IVECO Euredech bilico Unitron Nordic cup 92-1 43 Louis Surber Promozionale,.Jaguar F-type R Autoart 1 18,.
CORGI TOYS 315 FORD CONSUL CLASSIC UK GREAT BRITAIN DIECAST CAR EXC+ 1 43,.