Schuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3e

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Schuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3e
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ferrari California T Spider Closed Roof 84Th Geneve Auto 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC140B,.Ferrari Enzo red (Redline 1 43 RL012),.Japanese famous car collection vol.15 Mazda Carol 360 1962 Magazine,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 5283 1958 Ford Fairlane Colonial White S Stone bluee,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.LOT DE 14 VOITURES DINKY TOYS JEEP AUSTIN SEVEN COUNTRYMAN UNIC ESTEREL C1617,.1 18 Otto mobile OT030 Alpine A610 turbo yellow - RARITÄT §,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.GENUINE LAND ROVER DEFENDER MOVIE EDITION NEW 1 18 SCALE MODEL - 51LDDC948GYW,.Brand Chrysler Town Country Minicar,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Porsche Cayenne (92A), metallic light green, 1 18, GT Spirit,.MINICHAMPS 2011 Lamborghini Gallardo LP 600 Adac GT Master 18Brand New ,.Volkswagen T6 Multivan Edition 30 Minibus 2017 White NZG 1 18 LX95420040 Model, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC6 - 1958-61 Jaguar Mark IX - Dark bluee,.NOREV MERCEDES BENZ W124 300CE Cabriolet E Klasse Red Dealer 1 18 LE 500 Rare ,.VW Fridolin PTT yellow grey Modellauto 1 18 Schuco,.1 87 Brekina Somo Büssing 8000 Hz Kirn Beers, New,.

FORD MUSTANG PACE CAR 1965 Cabriolet INDIANAPOLIS 1 18 MIRA 6129 voiture miniatu,.Minichamps 1 18 CADILLAC LeMans DREAM CAR - 1953,.CALSONIC SKYLINE GT-R JGTC SUGO --RESIN-- HPI 43,.Gt Autos Bmw 5 Series 1 18 Scale Car,.1 43 IG-Model - TOYOTA CgoldNA EXiV 1995 JTCC ESSO TONEN M. KRUMM,.

Gemballa Gemballa Mig U1 2010 (Base Ferrari Enzo) Yellow TOPMARQUES 1 18 TOP064A,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Plymouth Hemi Cuda 1971 pink Shannon Gone in 60 Seconds Modellauto 1 18 Highway,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT194 Renault 11 Turbo Gr.A Tour De Corse 1986,.Skoda Yeti Fl Outdoor 2013 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,Samurai 1 18 Subaru BRZ Yellow Edition Completed,.1 18 FEERARI F50 ELITE,.

1 18 Premium Classixxs VW T3a Westfalia Joker High Roof Brown Limited,.Mercedes-Benz L319 Porsche racing service built in 1955 red 1 18 Norev,.Kings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari D50 British GP Winner Juan Manuel Fangio,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Porsche 911 997 GT3 RSR Toy Fair 2009 Nürnberg Minichamps 1 43,.

New Apex Replicas Holden Hurricane 1969 Concept Car orange 1 18 AC8001,. We agree in part.

1 43 BBR Ferrari 458 GT3 Limited,.AutoArt 1 18 Mercedes AMG G 63 Gloss White 76321 NEW in Box G63 Auto Art Benz,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Schuco Schuco Edition BMW 327 Coupe Metall Replica,.79133 AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador S Pearl Green,.2017 Bentley Bentayga 1 18 Scale Model BL1611, NEW,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 Kyosho 08163a - Ferrari 365 Gtb 4 Competizione Paul Newman Rarity ,.Remember Model 1964 Ferrari 250 GTO Tour de France Dubois de Mantaigu,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Antigua miniatura 1 43 Scale Carr PR022 Citroën BX Policía Nacional.,; ACME – 1 18 Scale – gold So-Cal Speed Shop Belly Tanker Diecast Scale Replica,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

MINICHAMPS 2016 Porsche 911 991 GT3 R 24h Nurburgring 18New ItemHOT CAR ,.GT SPIRIT 1 18 SCALE MERCEDES-AMG GT-R FAB DESIGN AREION WHITE,Minichamps 1 43 Scale WAP 020 103 14 - Porsche Carrera 2 Car Set,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Vintage Hot Wheels Engine Car 1983 Red Carry Case Rare Collectors Box 20 Racers,.

Auto World 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1113 06 1970 Plymouth Superbird Barn Find,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.CALLAWAY C12 Chevrolet Corvette cabriolet j 1 18 AUTOart 71013 voiture miniature,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Deutz-Fahr M36.10 TL Combine Harvester+Roller 1 32 Siku,.TEKNO 70560 Scania R HL Kofferhängerzug 1 50,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mint Mist Maisto 1 18 Diecast Car Ford Gt90,; TOGI ALFA ROMEO SPIDER - RED 1 23 - EXCELLENT CONDITION,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo 1 18 74692,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Schuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3eSchuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3eSchuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3eSchuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3eSchuco Pic. Pic. Pic. POP ART Das Spiel - 450513600 c33a3e

Acura MDX 4x4 4WD 2014 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

AUTOart 1 18 Lotus Exige S yellow finished product,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

2000 Polaris XC 500SP Die Cast Collectors 45th Anniversary Ed 1 16,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

SA003-68 - FrontiArt SophiArt Fenyr Supersport (W Motors) - Yellow - 1 18,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 Lausanne Grand Prix Franco Cortese,.1 43 1957 Chrysler Dart Diablo Exner Ghia Concept red Matrix,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Maisto M82133 1 6 Scale Rc Ferrari 488Gtb with Working Headlights And An Abso...,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 PredOTYPE METAL 43 - 1045 - BMW 326 SALOON - MAROON,.

Nissan GT R R-35 LB Edition Resin Model Car 742,.Wiking Fendt Vario 1050 with Twin Wheels agriatechnica 2017 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,.Minichamps 1 18 1966 Opel Rekord C Coupe, grey,.Scale model 1 18 1960 Plymouth Fury Closed Congreenible,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Tamiya Nsx White Diecast Car No. No.,.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK81X - 1936 Pierce Arrow Gangster Car BCC 2000 1 Of 250,.1 87 Brekina 64200 Sylter Inselbahn LT4 hellelfenbein Gleichstrom,.Samurai 1 18 Lexus RX 200t F Sports White New,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari Portofino Cabriolet Closed 2018 red Corsa Red LOOKSMART 1 43 LS480G Mo,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.PORSCHE 911 R 2016 & 911 Record Car Monza 1967 Modellino Auto Set Minichamps,.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-EL (C211) White Resin Model IG0326,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 796484 - Porsche 934 Anny Charlotte Verney LM '79,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model 155 708501 - 1970 Ford Capri RS 2600 - bluee,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432454782 BMW 3.0 CSL Hommage R,.

1958 FERRARI 250 HEAD RED Danbury Mint 1 24, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Dinky Toys no. 263 Superior Criterion Ambulance with Dealer-Tag Boxed,.1 18 BMW M6 Grand Coupe (bluee) GT Spirit GT184,. The PartridgeVW T1b Transporter Persil 1 18 Schuco neu & OVP 366,.NEO MERCEDES-BENZ LPKO 311 PULLMAN TLF 16 FIRE DEPARTMENT 1 43,.American Classics 1 43 Scale Model Car AA19 - 1959 Dodge Royal - Grey Maroon,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, HOT WHEELS HUGE LOT 22 RED LINES AND 5 REAL RIDERS NEW IN BOX AND MORE, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1956 VOLKSWAGEN POLICE VAN GREEN 1 12 LTD TO 599PC WORLDWIDE BY SUNSTAR 5082,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 43 Moskvitch -izh 1500 kombi A12 red USSR CCCP 1987 diecast model,.Autoart 1 18 Lotus 99T Japan F1 GP 1987 - Ayrton Senna - No Lotus markings,PartridgeVINTAGE FRICTION CAR, RARE CAR ,RARE COLOR VERY NICE,.Hot Wheels 020803700 Ferrari Schumacher,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, TEKNO 58986 DAF 105XF SSC Volumen-Kombi 1 50, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi 269 James Bond 007 Lotus Esprit, Near Mint in Original Box,; CULT SCALE MODELS - ASTON MARTIN DB5 SHOOTING BRAKE DARK GREEN 1 18 SCALE,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BMW 318 Ci E46 1999-2005 1 18 KYOSHO 80439411583, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Audi R8 Lms Plain Body Version 2016 White AUTOART 1 18 AA81602, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1961 Pontiac Catalina blueE 1 18 Auto World 1080,.

Norev BMW M3 F80 Competition 2016 White Special Ed. Model Car 1 18 Genuine New,.Corgi 150 Vanwall Racing Car. Green. Rare variation. In bluee Box. 1950's, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 AUTOART FORD GT 2004 (RED WITH WHITE STRIPES) - red,.IMBRIMA INBRIMA MATCHBOX ROVER POLICE 3500 B019,.1 18 SCALE PORSCHE MUSEUM 1948 PORSCHE 356 NR1,.

BBR - 1 43 - FERRARI GTC4 LUSSO T - 2016 - BBRC191D,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, TOYOTA Gt86 CTOYOTA Gt86 Cunny Tuning Version 2012 Grey AUTOART 1 18 AA78759 Mod,Mercedes 300B Pininfarina 1955 BoS Models 1 18 BOS124,. In Noska,AUTOART CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT (RED WHITE STRIPES) 1 18New Item ,.Tekno LKW Scania R Topl EuroCombi-KHZ Eurolink,.1972 ISO Grifo 7 Litre IR8 Red color by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale. New ,.Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 Mountain Grey GT SPIRIT 1 18 B66960467 Mo, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 18 Minichamps PORSCHE 904 GTS 1964 bluee - RARITÄT §,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM64A - 1951 Bentley MkVI Ivo Peters Midnight bluee,.Porsche 936 76 Martini Racing 1976 Nurburgring 300KM Diecast Model,.Magirus Deutz Typ D Tlf 16 Fire Brigade Ruhr 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 GT Spirit BMW M1 Coupe in Frozen Grey red Leather Base GT709,Mini Clubmann Break red - 1974 1 18 Cult Models,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08736GP BMW M3 Coupe Moto GP 2008 Safety Car,.Wynn's Special Friction Proofing Oil 3 race car gift set limited edit. 1 43 COA,.Dinky MISSILE ERECTOR VEHICLE & CORPORAL MISSILE WITH PLATFORM - 666,.Minichamps BMW 635 CSi 24h Spa Brun Motorsport Grohs Brun Boutsen 1 18New ,.Ferrari Fxx Yellow 1 18 Mattel Elite,.SCHUCO 00337 PORSCHE 934 RSR diecast model car white Ltd Edition of 1000 1 18th,. The parties Minichamps 110014004 1 18 AUDI Q7 2015 orange,.

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.7 (white bluee) 1972,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067122 Porsche 911 Turbo S 2016 Red,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Bespoke Model 1 43 Ferrari 512S Montjuich,; BMW M6 - coupé - Kyosho 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 375 Grand Prix d'Albi Winner Louis Rosier,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Corgi 1970's Whizzwheels Toyota 2000 GT No 375 N MINT Ex Shop,.1 18 Mini Cooper Sport 1997 - Red ,.Minichamps 1986 Rover Vitesse 3.5 V8 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Scale New Release ,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - W1118 Ferrari FF Metallic bluee,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.JAGUAR XJS XJ-S V12 Brno CZ 1983 Walkinshaw Nichol TWR Motul Tecnomodel 1 18,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - Standox Suzuka Sun Ferrari Marranello,.1 50 WSI DAF XF SSC 2x 20 ft. Container SZ Hamburg Süd Oehlrich 01-2429,.AutoArt 1 18 Scale Diecast Model 89147 - BMW M3 DTM 1991 TIC TAC Berg,.GT SPIRIT 736 Audi ABT RS6 + resin model road car Misano red 1 18th scale,. The Scottsdale1 18 Autoart Lexus LC 500 metallic red dark pink interior 78873,Hot Wheels 248 F1 5M. Schumacher 1 18 Scale Car,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM27X - 1937 Jensen Dual Cowl Phaeton - LCC Special,. Id.,Mclaren 675Lt Spider Mantis Green Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0069 Mo,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1970 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER FAST AND FURIOUS 7 MOVIE 2015 1 18 MODEL BY GMP 18807,; AUTOart 74651 LAMBORGHINI COUNTACH WALTER WOLF EDITION 1 18 MODEL CAR RED,1 18 GT Spirit GT098 Bentley EXP 10 Speed Concept 6. British Racing Green,.Setra S215 Hd Autobus Kassbohrer 1981 White Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45370 Model,. The ScottsdaleSiku V344 Rennfeuerwehr Fire Hunter Lamborghini 400GT Espada V317 Boxed,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 RSR Carrera Brumos 24h Daytona Win Gregg 1975 Spark Resin 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (KPGC10) 1 18 87176,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1969 PORSCHE 911 S MONTE CARLO RALLY WINNER WALDEGAARD 1 18 BY SPARK 18S080,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 TURBO RED 430069000,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mercedes-Benz CW 311 1 18 White BoS-Models,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Aston Martin V8 Vantage 1985 Suffolk red Autoart 1 18 diecast model 70222, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, LOT OF 3 1955 Chevy Bel Air Nomad Yellow Motormax 1 24 Scale Diecast Cars, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, KYOSHO 1 18 08111W MORGAN 4 4 SERIES II WHITE,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car - 1969 Triumph TR6 - Red,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Ferrari 250 GTO Targa Florio 1964,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBrand Mclaren F1 Gtr Long Tail Specification Masanori Sekiya 1 18 Scale Car,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Lamborghini Huracan LP620-2 Super Trofeo Coupe orange 2015 81558 1 18 AutoArt ..,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Skoda Octavia III 2014 gold Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,Lion Car 33-35 Daf Articulated lorry 99.9% mint in box a real fresh beauty,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 89834 Mercedes Benz CLK GTR FIA 1998,.AUTOART 1970 FIAT ABARTH TCR 1000 MATT GREY RED STRIPES 1 18New Release,. The HuygheCorci Vintage VW Dicast Toys Beetle Bus Ghia Single Can Antique,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheF43M222 FERRARI 750 MM POMONA 1957,.

Corgi Toys 328 Hillman Imp 1966 Monte Carlo Rally white int. MIB OVP,.DANBURY MINT 1955 CHEVROLET BEL-AIR SPORT COUPE - 1 16 SCALE MODEL- ORIGINAL BOX,.

2018 Bentley Continental GT in Sequin bluee in 1 43 Scale by Looksmart,.Autoart MERCEDES-BENZ CL63 AMG - WHITE (WITH LEATHER SEATS) - 76167,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Schuco 450900900 VW Beetle Kombi Model Car, bluee, 1 43 Scale,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeKyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast Nissan Fairlady Z432-R orange,.Bentley Continental Gt 2008 Minichamps 1 18 100139620 Model Diecast,.

For example, in Partridge,Alfa Romeo 4C Spider (yellow predo tipo) yellow Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,. In Jorgensen, supra,Outline Decal.1950s.MATCHBOX.Lesney.MOKO.17 a Green Bedford Removals.METAL Wheel,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 gold 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,F1 McLAREN HONDA MP4 5 MP4 -5B MP4 5 B 1990 Ayrton Senna N Minichamps 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps 2015 Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS bluee 1 18 Scale LE of 222 New ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS in Red in 1 18 Scale by AUTOart 78165,. Detroit Edison, supra.

R C G-DRIVE ECO plus Jeep Wrangler bluee Japan NEW,.VINTAGE MATCHBOX LESNEY SUPERFAST NO.20 RARE blueE DAKAR RALLY POLICE PATROL MIB,.Matchbox Lesney Kingsize K-11 Fordson Tractor & Farm Trailer RED Hubs MIB RARE,.

Corgi Toys 302 - MG A - Red - In Plain Stamped Box (Scarce ) - A+ A,.