Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BBR FERRARI FXX blacke 1 43 2006 avec boite vitrine,.EBBRO 1 18 CALSONIC IMPUL GT-R SUPER GT500 2015 Rd.1 Okayama No.12,.AUTOART LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP570-4 SUPERLEGGERA ARANCIO BOREALIS orange 1 18,.MEMO Tôle - Voiture de Course N°8 bluee,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.SIKU V253 MERCEDES 600 PULLMANN W100 OPALgreenMET. OVP,.Mclaren 570S Volcano Yellow Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0046 Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.STRENCO HANOMAG KURIER VAN - RED + GREY L11.0cm VERY RARE - VERY GOOD CONDITION,.1 18 GT Spirit ZM077 Porsche 911 Classic (930) RWB RAUH WELT. White,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Matchbox Albuquerque MCCH Gathering Ford Superduty Dinner model crystal case,.1986 ROVER VITESSE 3.5 V8 RED 1 18 MODEL CAR BY MINICHAMPS 107138401,.Kyosho Lamborg Hini Veneno 1 18 Scale Car, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Alfa Romeo Alfasud Sprint red modelcar LM096 Laudoracing 1 18,.AUTOART 74606 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 MATT GREY 1 18 SCALE,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE LEXUS LC500 RED KYOSHO KSR18024R 1 18 SCALE RESIN CAR,.Dinky Toys 274, A.A. Mini Van, Mint in Box ab1642,.
Mercedes O 317 Essex Motor Sport Porsche racing 1 43 Premium CLassiXXs,.Rare matrice moule résine FERRARI 166 MM 1 43 Challange Heco modeles voiture SR,.HOT WHEELS Limited Edition Rat Fink Big Daddy redh Ed 1 18 (mn10),.Ignition model 1 43 Datsun blueebird Coupe KP 510 bluee Resin Model IG0262 Japan,.FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE KOMATSU WA900-3 WHEEL LOADER MODEL BN 50-3301,.
Hot Wheels REDLINE 1970 GREEN NITTY GRITTY KITTY UNREAL NEAR MINT CONDITION,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale W1180 Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Passo Corto SWB Blk,.Alfa Romeo TZ2, No.61, Sebring, 1 43, Beste,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E60 530i 231HP 2003 Grey met 1 18 Revell-Auto Atr M3 M5,Hot Wheels Predotype Plymouth Superbird Barbie Flesh Employee Pre-pro daytona,.Lamborghini Urus red Anteros 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,.
1 18 AUTOart Chevrolet Corvette C5-R 2003 24HR LeMans,.MODELLINO BMW M1 RED LOBSTER WINNER GTO CLASS LA TIME GP 1981 IN METALLO MINICHA,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.110 ASTON MARTIN DB5 (EXPORT BOX) VN MIB,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
MINICHAMPS Volkswagen 1200 Cabriolet MC-107054131,.
NOREV 1994 Mercedes Benz S500 W140 Azurite bluee Dealer Edition 1 18New Item ,. We agree in part.
Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC20 - Jaguar 420G Saloon - Red Cream,.BROOKLIN BRK 4x 1937 CHEVROLET POLICE CAR SFBBC 1991 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Setra Kaessbohrer S 215 Hd White Green 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Road King Scania LBT 141 1976 ASG White bluee 1 18 180013,.Hot Wheels Racing John Morton's Datsun blueebird 510,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; K127 Danbury Mint 1949 Mercury Woody Surf Wagon 1 24 bluee w Accessories, Cert,.1 43 1970 Cadillac Superior High Top Ambulance white brown Matrix,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, MINICHAMPS Maserati Biturbo Coupe 1982 MC-107123501,; Bbr Models 1 43 Ferrari Sf70-H Monaco Gp 2017 Sebastian Vettel Winner New,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-98331 Jaguar Lightweight E-Type Atkins 1963,.Boxed Corgi Toys 468 London Transport Routemaster Bus; Outspan Livery,KK Road Kings 1.18 scale Scania 6 x 2 Tractor Unit ASC Livery Ltd Edition MIB,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 133020 Mclaren MP4-12C 2011 orange Metallic,.
Kings Models 1 43 1955 Ferrari 375 Indy Pikes Peak Dan Morgan,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTOart Porsche RWB 993 (blue gun metall Felgen) 1 18 - 78152,.MINI RACING 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL MODEL No 85 PORSCHE 956 L FULL LIVERY LE MANS,.Tekno LKW MB Actros 11 Streamspace Kühl-KSZ Simon Loos,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Matchbox Dodge Daytona Gewinnspiel Giftset USA 1983,; BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari Portofino Spider red Portofino Modellino,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels Ferrari Enzo 2004 1 18 Showcase Limited Edition H2759 Beauty Race Car,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
TEKNO- MERCEDES ACTROS VAN DE STEEG - TEKNO- NEW,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
1 43 1935 Mercedes Benz 500K Autobahn-Kurier IXO MUSEUM MUS 021,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
IScale Mercedes-Benz GLC C253 Coupe 2016 bluee Model Car 1 18 Genuine New,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 Red MINICHAMPS 1 18 107032521 M,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.FRANKLIN MINT 1911 Rolls Royce white Maßstab 1 24,.Hot wheels rlc Spectraflame Datsun 240z,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.GT Spirit Shelby Ford Mustang Super Snake 2017 Deep Impact bluee Resin Model 1 18,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Hot Wheels Redline Chrome Boss Hoss Beautiful Car Hong Kong,.
TEKNO DANEMARK 828 - VOLKSWAGEN 1500 in Mint cond,.NEW Tamiya 1 10 Electric RC Car Series No.370 Dark Impact Offroad 58370 Japan,.Porsche 911 Carrera Rsr 2.7 1972 White & bluee 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.IMC 32-0001 Senn AG DAF Euro 6 Space Cab 4x2 +3achs goldhofer NEU in OVP 1 50,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.2016 Red Bull Daniel Ricciardo Monaco GP by Spark,.
AUTOart Nissan Gt-r Fia Gt1 World championship 2010 Team Sumo 1 18 Car Diecast,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM13AA - 1965 Humber Sceptre Mk2 - Metallic Green,.1 18 Autoart - 81541 Mclaren P1 GTR (Gloss White Red Stripes) 2015,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, FERRARI PORTOFINO SALONE FRANCOFORTE 2017 ALLUMINIO OPACO Looksmart LS480B,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ferrari 488 Gte black Opaco Ruote gold Lim.Ed. 24 Pcs BBR 1 43 BBRC179MB Model,.Hot Wheels Wonder Woman Invisible Jet SDCC 2010 - Mint ,.Mercedes-Benz G500 4x4² • 2016 • NEU • AUTOart • 1 18,.SPARK PORSCHE 911 GT3 R NURBURGRING 24HR 2011 (997) TEAM MANTHEY HARIBO 18,.Dodge Challenger Trans AM Street 1970 Plum Crazy 1 18 - A1806010 ACME,.
Kyosho 1 18 Bmw 330I, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 18 Biante - Holden HQ Sandman Panel Van - Chrome Yellow,.Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-88019 AMG GT3 Zakspeed th 24hr Nurburgring,. The Partridge2017 Ferrari 812 Superfast in red Settantanni in 1 43 Scale by BBR,.OLD RARE CORGI TOYS NSU SPORT PRINZ COUPE RED pink METAL1963 REF 316 IN BOX has,.Brand Datsun blueebird Sss P510 Red 1 43 Scale Car,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Cummins Foton ISF 3.8 Engine Replica Static Display Desktop Model, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Minichamps 107148231 1953 Cadillac Lemans Dream Car Red Lmtd Edition,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.AUTOart 1 18 Porsche RWB 993 Green Gun Metal Wheel Composite Model 78151,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK213 - 1962 Corvair Greenbrier Sport Wagon - Red,PartridgeKyosho Audi R8 DTM Safety Car 2008 1 18 Kyosho Diecast Model,.2001 Lamborghini Diablo 6.0 VT yellow 1 18 AUTOart 74526,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Conquest Models 1 43 Scale Nr.1 - 1954 Oldsmobile Starfire 98 FAULTY, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Faller 161632 H0 Car LKW System Mercedes T2 Vario Polizei,; 1 32 Wiking Claas Mähdrescher Commandor 116 CS 0778 34,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Acura MDX 4x4 4WD 2014 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 AUTOart 74772 LANCIA DELTA S4 metal grey - zum SONDERPREIS, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeDinky Toys 182 Porsche 356A Coupe excellent plus all original condition,.
AUTOart 1 18 Liberty Walk LB-WORKS Lamborghini Aventador Red finished product,.Kyosho Mini Champs 1 12 Honda Rc 212 V Motogp 2012, Clarke's negligent act.FIAT 131 Abarth Rallye 1000 Lakes Finnland Alen Bravo DIRTY Top Marques 1 18,.1 12 GT Spirit Porsche 911 Typ 993 RWB Limited Edition Nr. 167 in OVP,.MERCEDES 600 ClASS S PULLMAN voiture miniature 1 18 collection sunstar 4111,.
AUTOart PORSCHE 911 997 GT2 RS black 1 18 - 77962,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Tk.Company Ig0791 1 43 Nismo R34 Gt-R Z-Tune Bayside bluee,Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1039 1970 Ford Torino Cobra gold,. In Noska,1 43 Minichamps 439069022 + 439161092 Krupp Titan + Hänger DB C4035 TOP Rarität,.No Brand Dodge Viper Gts-R 1 18 Mini Car,.IG1262 ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Y32 Gran Turismo Ultima White,.MÄRKLIN MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL GULLWING 1 18 OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.USA Models USA-8 1940 Ford Army Staff Car 1 43 Die Cast car,.GMP 1 18 scale 1320 Kings 1969 Chevrolet Camaro Fully detailed interior,.Siku Plastik V 22 Ford Kombi Modell 53 Factory Error V-Serie 2,.Auto Art 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo Police Car Italian,. Id., p 923.
Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes 560 SEL 1986 bordeaux métallisé,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, WIT'S 1 43 MITSUBISHI Lancer Evolution Vl 6 GSR 1999 Scotian White,AutoArt Subaru Impreza S5 WRC '99 1 18 Burns Reid Rally Monte-Carlo (JvdM),.La Salle Series 50 Coupe, dark red, 1 43, Neo,.RENAULT KERAX CCFS 9000 SIDES SECURITY CIVIL CORSE REF 115938 ELIGOR 1 43,.Gift Issue Mazda 323, 100.000 ste Aug 1978,.1 43 KrAZ-255B Kung Spintires Handmade Conversion ,.Ferrari Laferrari Red Corsa 322 BBR 1 43 BBRC137RCW Model,.CORGI TOYS AUSTIN A60 FAHRSCHULWAGEN 1 43 ORIGINAL OVP LEAFLET,. The parties Corgi Toys No. 478, Hydraulic Tower Wagon on Foeward Control Jeep, - Superb Mint,.
Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - V7437 Ferrari 348 TB red red,.. KENNA MODELS ROVER P5B COUPE WHITE MAROON MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN 11 600,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1983 Land Rover Defender 110 Green-White 1 18 Dorlop 1810,; MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB101C - 1967 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE - LIGHT blueE - ROOF OPEN, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
SMTS 1 43 Scale Built Kit Model Car CL31 - Jaguar XJ6 Series 1 - Green,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Maisto Ford Mustang Gt 2010 1 18 Scale Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Tekno LKW Scania R Abrollmulden-Hz Verbist,.911 997 GT3 RS 4.0 2011 bluee, 1 18 AUTOart 78145,.Cadillac Serie 62 Club 1941 BOS MODEL 1 18 BOS291 Miniature,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Tekno LKW Scania R Topl. Abrollmulden-HZ Gerber Buiter,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1) BY SMTS,.Minichamps 1 18 diecast - 155736502 - Porsche 917 10 Bosch-Kausen Team 1973,.Provence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Ferrari BB 512 LM 1980 bluee,.Minichamps 2015 Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS Yellow in 1 18 Scale LE of 222 New,.Hpi-Racing 8829 Calsonic Skyline Gt-R 1,. The ScottsdaleIgnition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Cima (Y31) Pearl White Resin Model IG1089,TOYOTA CELICA GT-S 2000 yellow Yellow LHD au 1 18 AUTOart 78723 voiture miniature,.Autoart 79916 DeLorean DMC 12 1 18 Model Car Satin Finish,. Id.,1969 Camion Mercedes LPS 1632 Dos Ejes bluee-Red 1 18 Road Kings 180022,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 yellow 1 43 FrontiArt F003-08 1 43,; Hot Wheels 2010 Blown Delivery RLC Exclusive Members Only VHTF 4000,Minichamps MCLAREN TAG MP4 3B TEST CAR 1987 Senna in 1 18 Scale New Release ,.1953 Opel Olympia Rekord Turquoise White by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 Scale New,. The ScottsdaleLansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM14 - 1963 Singer Gazelle - Green,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, FORD MOTOR COMPANY PRECISION 100 1913 MODEL T SPEEDSTER NEW ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mini Champs Dtm No 1,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, V 1 55 POLISTIL RJ104 RJ 104 PORTAUTO CAR TRANSPORTER LIGIER GITANES MINT BOXED,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Pedal car Made by Dexton,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Red Line Ferrari F2008 Firano Test 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, WIKING 113 VW KAFER GREY-WHITE 1 40 RARE SELTEN IN NEAR MINT CONDITION IN BOX, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DCP Western Distributing Kenworth W900 w Refrigerated Trailer 1 64, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067022 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 orange,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAcme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801210 1972 Pontiac Le Mans GTO Red,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minichamps 155161116 Collectible Miniature Car - Yellow bluee,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSPA18DA68 by SPARKMODEL porsche 907 winner Daytona 24H 1968 1 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Mint Jingshang Samurai 1 18 Nissan Cima Hybrid White,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Fiat 242 Assistenza Lancia 1985 1 18 Model LAUDO RACING,Club Bialbero RG 354 DIORAMA PRESENTAZIONE GIULIETTA,.RARE Mercedes G Class W461 Zeppelin DRK Ambulance Vector Models Hand Made 1 43,.Matchbox 1971 Pontiac Firebird 2012 MC Gathering USA No Bonnet Logo,. The HuygheDV8029 ELIGOR 1 43 SEMI RENAULT PREMIUM 420 DCI FRIGO TRANSPORTS FRIGETRANS RARE,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDeLorean DMC-12 (satin finish) 1981 1 18 AUTOart 79916,.
Woytnik Metall Modell Hansa-Lloyd 2t Elektrowagen Paketzustelldienst Reichspost,.Ferrari 1 18 458 Italia Hot Wheels Elite,.
Schuco Pro.R 09006 - Saurer 3C-H Omnibus Bachmann Baujahr 1951 white-green 1 43,.1 18 Kyosho BMW M3 Congreenible Not Autoart,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dodge Cgoldnet Club Coupe 1952 BoS Models 1 18 BOS274 Model,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeKenna Models 1 43 Scale KM10 - Austin Tourer - Light bluee,.Autoart 1 18 Toyota 2000 Gt White Composite Diecast Model 78753 ABS Sports Car,.
For example, in Partridge,WIKING Audi BMW und Andere PKW Konvolut 25 Stk 1 87,. In Jorgensen, supra,Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4 0674110746860 1 18 Scale Car,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Autoart 1 18 Scale - 71160 Chevrolet Corvette 1969 Daytona Yellow,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1968 Shelby GT500KR orange 1 18 GMP 1801807,. That is the same situation in this case.DINKY 358 U.S.S ENTERPRISE STAR TREK,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.NEW Hobby Japan MARK43 1 43 Honda Civic Type R (FK2),. Detroit Edison, supra.
TSM Acura NSX 2017 Red Resine Model Car 1 43 TSM164386 Genuine New Best Gift,.Porsche 991 R 2016 Yellow Green 1 18 Model S18259 SPARK MODEL,.Gasoline Models 1 43 2007 Ferrari F430 GT Sebring 12hrs Aguas Lopez Mediani,.
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